ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0298.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Mortierella; phytohormones; winter wheat seedlings; psychrotrophs
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:10:24 CEST)
The endogenous pool of phytoregulators in plant tissues supplied with microbial secondary metabolites may be crucial for the development of winter wheat seedlings during cool springs. Phytohormones may be synthesized by psychrotrophic microorganisms in lower temperatures occurring in temperate climate. Two fungal isolates from the Spitzbergen soils after the microscopic observations and ITS region molecular characterization were identified as Mortierella antarctica (MA DEM 7) and Mortierella verticillata (MV DEM32). To study the synthesis of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellic acid (GA) Mortierella strains were grown on media supplemented with precursors of phytohormones (tryptophan or methionine) at 9, 15 and 20 °C for 9 days. The highest amount of IAA synthesis was observed in MV DEM 32 9-day culture at 15 °C with 1.5 mM of tryptophan. At the same temperature the significant promoting effect (about 40% root and shoot fresh weight) of this strain on seedlings was observed. However, only MA DEM 7 had the ACC-deaminase activity with the highest efficiency in 9 °C and at this temperature synthesized IAA without tryptophan also at the same conditions the strain confirmed the strong promoting effect (about 40% root and 24% shoot fresh weight) on seedlings. Both strains synthesized GA in all tested terms and temperatures. Tested Mortierella strains had some important traits to consider them as microbial biofertilizers component improving plant growth in difficult temperate climate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Microalgae; Bio acids; Phytohormones; Medium Culture; Stress
Online: 3 February 2023 (08:45:13 CET)
Natural astaxanthin is a precious substance obtained from some organisms such as microalgae. This plant has many benefits for humans, so research into its cost-effective and economical production has recently increased. For this purpose, some methods such as the use of different culture media, gene engineering, different stresses, nanoparticles, bio acids, and phytohormones are important. Accordingly, this review study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of the factors mentioned above for the high production of astaxanthin in microalgae, especially Haematococcus pluvialis (H.p).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0315.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Transcription Factors; Evolutionary progression; Pearl millet; Phytohormones; Abiotic stress
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:50:48 CEST)
Transcription factors (TFs) are the regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches in controlling stress responsive gene expression. Among them MYB transcription factor family is one of the largest TF family in plants, playing a significant role in plant growth, development, phytohormone signaling and stress-responsive processes. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) is one of the most important C4 crop plant of the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa and South-east Asia for sustaining food and fodder productions. To explore the evolutionary mechanism and functional diversity of the MYB family in pearl millet, we conducted a comprehensive genome-wide survey and identified 279 MYB TFs (PgMYB) in pearl millet and distributed unevenly across seven chromosomes of pearl millet. Phylogenetic analysis of identified PgMYBs classified them into 18 subgroups and members of the same group showed a similar gene structure and conserved motif/s pattern. Further, duplication events were identified in pearl millet that indicated towards evolutionary progression and expansion of the MYB family. Transcriptome data and relative expression analysis by qRT-PCR identified differentially expressed candidate PgMYBs (PgMYB2, PgMYB9, PgMYB88 and PgMYB151) under dehydration, salinity, heat and phytohormones (ABA, SA and MeJA) treatment. Taken together, this study provides valuable information for a prospective functional characterization of MYB family members of pearl millet and genetic improvement of crop plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0359.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; Melatonin; Water stress; Drought; Waterlogging; Antioxidants; Stress signalling, phytohormones
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:19:52 CEST)
Water stress (drought and waterlogging) is drastic abiotic stress to plant growth and development. Melatonin, bioactive plant hormone, has been widely tested in drought situations in diverse plant species, while a few studies on the role of melatonin in waterlogging stress conditions have been published. In the current review, we analyze the bio-stimulatory functions of melatonin on plants under both drought and waterlogging stress. Melatonin controls the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and positively changes the molecular defense to improve plant tolerance against drought and waterlogging stress. Moreover, the crosstalk of melatonin and other phytohormones is a key element on plant survival under drought stress, while this relationship needs further investigation under waterlogging stress. In this review, we draw the complete story of water stress on both sides: drought and waterlogging through discussing the previous critical studies under both conditions. Moreover, we suggest several research directions, especially for waterlogging, which remains a big vague piece of melatonin and water stress puzzle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0060.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cotton; Fiber initiation; Genomics; Epigenomics; Phytohormones; Transcription factors; MicroRNAs; Gene expression regulation
Online: 2 November 2020 (15:50:39 CET)
The epidermal cells on the surface of the cotton ovules undergo differentiation to produce fibers, which are single-celled hair-like protrusions resembling the plant trichomes. The initiation of these unicellular fibers from the cotton ovule surface is a complex and tightly regulated process. The initiation step is the cell fate-determining stage, which leads to the commitment of cells that eventually developed into fibers, thus becomes the most crucial phase in fiber development. The in-depth knowledge of molecular regulation is a prerequisite to get a clear view of the fiber initiation process's genetic and epigenetic control. The identification and functional validation of cotton fiber initiation-related genes, few fibreless mutants, transcription factors, microRNAs, epigenetic regulators, as well as the elucidation of the role of phytohormones as signaling molecules, has played a significant role in understanding the cotton fiber initiation process at the molecular level. This review focuses on the comprehensive information regarding the genetic and epigenetic regulation of cotton fiber initiation. Thus, the review will provide readers insight into mechanistic details that operate during cotton fiber initiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0527.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; nodulation; in vitro nodule development; phytohormones; ABA; JA; auxins; cytokinins; GA; BR
Online: 27 September 2018 (03:59:07 CEST)
Legumes develop root nodules that harbour endosymbiotic bacteria, rhizobia. These rhizobia convert nitrogen to ammonia by biological nitrogen fixation. A thorough understanding of the biological nitrogen fixation in legumes and its regulation is key to develop sustainable agriculture. It is well known that plant hormones affect nodule formation; however, most studies are limited to model legumes due to their suitability for in vitro, plate-based assays. Specifically, it is almost impossible to measure the effects of exogenous hormones or other additives during nodule development in crop legumes such as soybean as they have huge root system in soil. To circumvent this issue, the present research develops suitable media and growth conditions for efficient nodule development under in vitro, soil free conditions in an important legume crop, soybean. Moreover, we also evaluate the effects of all major phytohormones during soybean nodulation under identical conditions. This versatile, inexpensive, scalable and simple protocol provides several advantages over previously established methods. It is extremely time-and resource-efficient, does not require special training or equipment, and produces highly reproducible results. The approach is expandable to other large legumes as well as for other exogenous additives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: drought stress; drought models; drought tolerance; oxidative stress; phytohormones; polyethylene glycol (PEG); stress markers
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:19:35 CET)
Drought is one of the major stress factors affecting growth and development of plants. In this context, drought-related losses of crop plant productivity impede sustainable agriculture all over the world. In general, plants responses to water deficit by multiple physiological and metabolic adaptations at the molecular, cellular and organism levels. To understand the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance, adequate stress models and arrays of reliable stress markers are required. Therefore, in this review we comprehensively address currently available models of drought stress, based on culturing plants in soil, hydroponic or agar culture. These experimental setups give access to different aspects of plant response to drought, like decrease of tissue water potential, reduction of stomata conductance and photosynthesis efficiency, accumulation of low-molecular weight solutes (metabolic adjustment) and drought protective proteins. Till now, this pattern of markers was successfully extended to the methods of enzyme chemistry, molecular biology and omics techniques. Thus, conventional tests can be efficiently complemented by determination of phytohormone and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as comprehensive profiling of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0321.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: sulfate deficiency; LSU; response to low sulfur; abiotic stress; sulfur nutrition; ethylene; auxin; phytohormones; transcription factors
Online: 19 December 2022 (04:10:22 CET)
LSUs (RESPONSE TO LOW SULFUR) are plant-specific proteins of unknown function that were initially identified during transcriptomic studies of the sulfur deficiency response in Arabidopsis. Recent functional studies have shown that LSUs are important hubs of protein interaction networks with potential roles in plant stress responses. In particular, LSU proteins have been reported to interact with members of the brassinosteroid, jasmonate signaling, and ethylene biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that LSUs may be involved in response to plant stress through modulation of phytohormones. Furthermore, in silico analysis of the promoter regions of LSU genes in Arabidopsis has revealed the presence of cis-regulatory elements that are potentially responsive to phytohormones such as ABA, auxin, and jasmonic acid, suggesting crosstalk between LSU proteins and phytohormones. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the LSU gene family in plants and its potential role in phytohormone responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0432.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Seed coat; pericarps; floral bracts; glumes; dead organs enclosing embryos; seed germination; seedling establishment; hydrolytic enzymes; ROS detoxifying enzymes; cell wall modification enzymes; nutrients; phytohormones; nucleases; chitinases; Brassicaceae; Poaceae
Online: 26 July 2018 (09:53:41 CEST)
Plants have evolved a variety of dispersal units whereby the embryo is enclosed by various dead protective layers derived from maternal organs of the reproductive system including seed coats (integuments), pericarps (ovary wall, e.g., indehiscent dry fruits) as well as floral bracts (e.g. glumes) in grasses. Commonly, dead organs enclosing embryos (DOEEs) are assumed to provide a physical shield for embryo protection and means for dispersal in the ecosystem. In this review article, we will highlight recent studies showing that DOEEs of various species across families also have the capability for long-term storage of various substances including active proteins (hydrolases, ROS detoxifying enzymes), nutrients and metabolites that have the potential to support the embryo during storage in the soil and assist in germination and seedling establishment. We discuss a possible role for DOEEs as natural coatings capable of ‘engineering’ the seed microenvironment for the benefit of the embryo, the seedling and the growing plant.