ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0716.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Grain yield; N fertilizer; Nitrate leaching; Protein percentage; Wheat
Online: 9 June 2023 (12:16:08 CEST)
The use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers can have detrimental effects on the environment due to nitrate leaching. This study aims to examine the impact of N fertilizer source and application timing on wheat yield and nitrate leaching in various soil textures. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was employed to conduct the experiment. The treatments consisted of two N fertilizer sources: ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea (NN), applied at three different times throughout the year, with a control treatment. The three application timings were total application before sowing (T1), total application in spring (T2), and half the amount before sowing and the other half in spring (T3). The experiment was conducted in three different soil textures (sandy loam, silty clay loam, and silty clay), with three replications over three growing seasons: 2018-19 (Y1), 2019-20 (Y2), and 2020-21 (Y3). The results indicated significant effects of different soil textures on grain yield. Specifically, the silty clay loam soil differed significantly from the sandy loam and silty clay soils in terms of grain yield. The interaction effects between the N fertilizer source and application timing were also found to be significant for all soil textures (p<0.01). In sandy loam and silty clay soils, the grain yield increased when using the T3 application timing compared to the silty clay loam soil. Notably, the silty clay loam soil with the T2 application timing exhibited the highest grain yield, with a yield of 6863.6 kg ha-1. Furthermore, the study revealed that N fertilizers and their application timing significantly influenced the protein content in the silty clay and sandy loam soils. The protein percentages were 10.76 and 10.93 for the silty clay and sandy loam soils, respectively, following the T2 treatment. Additionally, ammonium nitrate (AN) demonstrated a noticeable effect on the percentage of grain protein compared to urea (NN). In conclusion, the application timing of N fertilizers had an impact on grain yield and protein content in different soil textures. Moreover, nitrate concentration increased throughout the experiment, with the highest soil nitrate concentration observed in both fertilizer treatments, particularly in the sandy loam soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1530.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hygrothermal traits; moisture percentage; wall lining systems; moisture meter; building envelope
Online: 26 September 2023 (02:57:35 CEST)
There is a substantial lack of data relating to the hygrothermal traits of existing buildings and building materials. Moisture analysis in building envelopes is 1D (one-dimensional), and 2D and 3D effects and feedback can be neglected. Many European standards treat a moisture percentage in building envelopes as surface and interstitial moisture condensation, such as BS EN ISO 10211, BS EN ISO 13788, BS EN ISO 15148, and BS EN 15026. In this manuscript, there was a tendency to capture a relative quantity of superficial moisture, by metering spots on the inner and outer surface of wall lining systems with a moisture meter. The metering specimens were the buildings with different envelopes: a wooden hut-house, a masonry building and a building partially sheeted in stone. The referent heights on wall linings, for taking the moisture data were specified as 50 cm for a wooden and masonry building and 80 cm for a stone-sheeted building, from the ground. The obtained numeric results were palpable with no regard to the current state of the weather outside. The listed conclusions highlight the significance of a well-tailored building envelope, and its dependence on weather, junctions, gaskets, appropriate materials, etc.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: X-ray; Gel dosimeters; EGS5; Monte Carlo simulations; percentage depth dose; polydiacetylene
Online: 27 July 2021 (09:23:39 CEST)
Accurate treatment planning in radiotherapy essentially decreases secondary damage to healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. Due to plans to use a direct, highly collimated, narrow beam with high intensity to treat small area tumors, researchers have studied microbeam radiation therapy extensively. Using a synchrotron beam as the radiation source may help to limit secondary damage, but treatment planning using computerized simulations and dosimetry is still necessary to achieve optimal results. For this purpose, PDA-gel dosimeters were developed and their sensitivity around a 150 keV induced synchrotron X-ray radiation beam was examined via Monte Carlo simulations using the EGS5 code system. The microbeam development is now at the animal study stage. In this study, we simulate the irradiation of a rat's brain. The simulation results obtained spectra for two types of PDA-gel dosimeters that were compared with the spectrum obtained in a modelized brain tumor of a rat. Additionally, percentage depth dose curves were calculated for the brain tissue and the two gels. Correction equations for the dosimeters were obtained from the dose-difference plots. For further references, these equations can be used to calculate the actual dose in a brain tumor in a rat. The Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that PDA-gel dosimeters can be used as a reference technique in planning treatment using synchrotron irradiations and in other medical treatment planning methods.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0302.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve; polynomial specification; elasticity formula; quadratic function; percentage change
Online: 25 November 2019 (02:57:12 CET)
The polynomial functional specification is widely used in environmental and ecological economics. When different powers of the same variable enter to the specification the elasticity of explained variable with respect to that variable should be obtained using the elasticity formula. Since, in this case the elasticity itself is a function, one need to calculate it at a certain point, to have a general idea about the response of explained variable to the change in explanatory variable. The mainly used point is mean of the variables entering to the elasticity formula. Sometimes, the minimum and maximum points also used for comparison purposes. One should careful in interpreting the response of explanatory variable to the change in the variable entering to the specification with its different powers. This study revisits some methodological points regarding the calculation and interpretation of responses in the above-mentioned cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0665.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Delft3D; Object Mobility Model; Munitions Mobility and Burial; Object Shields Parameter; Sediment Shields Parameter; Equilibrium Burial Percentage; Sediment Supporting Point
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:24:25 CEST)
Coupled Delft3D-object model has been developed to predict object’s mobility and burial on sandy seafloor. The Delft3D model is used to predict seabed environment such as currents, waves (peak period, significant wave height, wave direction), water level, sediment transport, and seabed change, which are taken as the forcing term to the object model consisting of three components: (a) object‘s physical parameters such as diameter, length, mass, and rolling moment, (b) dynamics of rolling cylinder around its major axis, and (c) empirical sediment scour model with re-exposure parameterization. The model is compared with the observational data collected from a field experiment from 21 April to 23 May 2013 off the coast of Panama City, Florida funded by the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The experimental data contain both objects’ mobility using sector scanning and pencil beam sonars and simultaneous environmental time series data of the boundary layer hydrodynamics and sediment transport conditions. Comparison between modeled and observed data clearly show the model capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sentinel-2; UAV; machine learning; forest canopy; canopy gaps; canopy openings percentage; satellite indices; Elastic Net; beech-fir forests
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:23:12 CET)
The presented study demonstrates the bi-sensor approach suitable for rapid and precise up-to-date mapping of forest canopy gaps for the larger spatial extent. The approach makes use of UAV RGB images on smaller areas for highly precise forest canopy mask creation. Sentinel-2 was used as a scaling platform for transferring information from UAV to a wider spatial extent. The various approaches of the improvement of the predictive performance were examined: (I) the highest R2 of the single satellite index was up to 0.57, (II) the highest R2 using multiple features obtained from the single date, S-2 image was 0.624 and, (III) the highest R2 on the multi-temporal set of S-2 images, was 0.697. Satellite indices such as ARVI, IPVI, NDI45, PSSRa, MCARI, CI, RI, and NDTI were the dominant predictors in most of the ML algorithms. The more complex ML algorithms such as SVM, Random Forest, GBM, XGBoost, and Catboost that provided the best performance on the training set exhibited weaker generalization capabilities. Therefore, a simpler and more robust Elastic Net algorithm was chosen for the final map creation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0368.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Aridity Index (AI); Percentage of Normal Index (PNI); Standardized Precipitation -Evopotranspiration Index (SPEI); Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); Drought; Factor Analysis; Reliability Analysis
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:09:28 CET)
The climate covers a series of events that deeply affect human life. It is possible to understand these events through spatial and statistical analyzes. Today, climate change, which is one of the most important of these events and the impact factors of consequences of this change, become a current issue. Drought is cited as one of the consequences of climate change and it is important to examine it with various methods as it can give negative results to both the economy and the nature. In this study, the drought status of the regions where these stations are located and the effects of drought on climate change were statistically calculated and evaluated using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Percentage of Normal Index (PNI), Aridity Index (AI) and Standardized Precipitation -Evopotranspiration Index (SPEI). The precipitation data from 1981 to 2010 were obtained from Cihanbeyli, Karapınar, Çumra, Seydişehir, Kulu, Ereğli, Niğde, Karaman, Beyşehir and Aksaray meteorology stations affiliated to Turkish State Meteorological Service. At the same time, factor analysis and validity-reliability analysis were conducted to test the computability of the indices used in the study as a single index and to determine the reliability of the operations. While using exploratory factor analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test and Barlett test for factor analysis; Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used for reliability analysis. In our study, K-Means Cluster Analysis method was performed to determine the cutoff values of indices. According to the result of cluster analysis for the new (common) index, new clusters were created and ANOVA test was conducted to determine whether there was a difference between clusters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0929.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: body fat percentage; machine learning; regression models; feature engineering; outlier detection; data preprocessing; health and fitness; predictive modeling
Online: 16 October 2023 (07:55:25 CEST)
Accurate estimation of body fat percentage is essential for various health and fitness applications. Traditional methods for measuring body fat, such as underwater weighing, can be costly and inconvenient. In this study, we apply machine learning techniques to predict body fat percentage using easily accessible body measurements and data. The results highlight the effectiveness of regression models in estimating body fat, with Linear Regression, Ridge Regression, and Bayesian Ridge models achieving R-squared scores of approximately 74%, 73%, and 73%, respectively. These models provide a practical and cost-effective solution for individuals and professionals seeking reliable body fat estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0930.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Arctic; coastal lagoons; Lagoon on the Cape Zeleny; stratification; algal communities; phytoplankton carbon biomass; integrated phytoplankton biomass; ertical distribution; chemocline; seasonal succession; similarity percentage analysis; environmental parameters
Online: 11 August 2023 (10:34:44 CEST)
In a saline semi-isolated Lagoon on the Cape Zeleny (White Sea), the annual dynamics of the vertical hydrological structure, and the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton were traced, including species composition, and vertical distribution, abundance, nutrition type,and biomass.293 species and supraspecific taxa of algae and cyanobacteria were found. Most of the identified species are marine, and 38 species are freshwater. Taxonomic composition changed in the Lagoon during the year. Dinoflagellates dominated in winter and early June; unidentified cocci and flagellates in July; diatoms, dinoflagellates and unidentified cells in August; dinoflagellates in September; and unidentified cocci and flagellates in October–November. The abundance of algae also changed in the Lagoon during the year. The integrated biomass in the water column varied from 0.01 g C/m2 in January to 0.78 g C/m2 in early September. According to the abiotic parameters, the water column of the Lagoon is subdivided into several zones with different conditions and corresponding phytoplankton communities. Similarity between the communities of different horizons was 32-46% in summer and 7% in winter. The chemocline layer was the most populous. Almost the entire year it contained a maximum of phytoplankton biomass, 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in the overlying horizons. Comparison phytoplankton in the lagoon and in the nearby sea area was carried out. Despite the connection between the Lagoon and the sea phytoplankton structure in the surface water layer in the Lagoon and in the sea differs significantly in composition, quantitative parameters, and seasonal dynamics. The similarity of the communities in the sea and the Lagoon never exceeded 50%. In terms of biomass, the Lagoon lags behind the sea until mid-summer, but, starting from August, it outnumbers it, and the phytoplankton development in the Lagoon lasts longer, until late autumn. The phytoplankton structure and dynamics in the Lagoon and the sea by 24.5% was related to the daylight, water salinity, oxygen content and pH, but did not depend on water T, underwater illuminance, and depth. Oxygen content and pH are defined by PhP activity. Salinity serves as a vector of the vertical sequence of ecological niches. The daylight length seems to be the crucial factor of the seasonal PhP dynamics in the semi-isolated coastal stratified lakes and lagoons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Multidimensional Analysis; HCA; Hierarchical cluster analysis; regression analysis; mild; moderate; severe; Age; Score index of the chest X-ray; percentage and quantity of neutrophils; Albumin; C reactive protein; ratio of Lymphocytes
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:50:36 CEST)
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to determine (a) the overall preclinical character; (b) the cumulative cutoff values and the risk ratio, and (c) the factors associated with severity by a unidimensional and multidimensional analysis on 2173 Sars-Cov2 patients. METHODS: The machine learning study population consisted of 2173 patients (1587 mild and non symptoms patients, 377 moderate patients, 209 severe patients). The status of the patients was recorded from September 2021 to March 2022. RESULTS: The Covid19 Severity directly links with a significant correlation to Age, Score index of the chest X-ray, percentage and quantity of neutrophils, Albumin, C reactive protein, and ratio of Lymphocytes. Their important cut off values (from regression analysis) respectively are: 77.56 years old (the mild-moderate group), 5.53 (the mild-moderate group) and 10.51 (the moderate-severe group), 84.80% (the mild-moderate group) and 87.74%(the moderate-severe group), 11.77G/L (the moderate-severe group), 29.73g/L (the moderate-severe group), 7.46mg/dL (the mild-moderate group), 6.32% (the moderate-severe group). Their significant (p<0.0001) R score correlation with the severity of Covid19, are: 0.44, 0.52 and 0.52, 0.33 and 0.44, 0.42, -0.43, 0.40, -0.41. Their significant risk ratio (p<0.00001) from the meta-analysis, respectively are: 4.19 [3.58-4.95], 3.29 [2.76-3.92] and 3.03 [2.4023;3.8314], 3.18 [2.73-3.70] and 3.32 [2.6480;4.1529], 3.15 [2.6153;3.8025], 3.4[2.91-3.97], 0.46 [0.3650;0.5752] (p<0.00001), 0.34 [0.2743;0.4210]. The pair ALT – Leucocytes and Transferrin – Anion Chloride get the most important correlation shift. ALT – Leucocytes show the important negative link (R=-1, p<0.00001) in the mild group to the significant positive correlation in the moderate group (R=1, p<0.00001). Transferrin–anion Chloride has an important positive association (R=1, p<0.00001) in the mild group with a significant negative correlation in the moderate group (R=-0.59, p<0.00001). The network map and HCA show that in the mild-moderate group, the closest neighbors with the Covid19 severity are ferritins, Age. Then there is C-reactive protein, SI of X-ray, Albumin, and Lactate dehydrogenase, which are the next close neighbors of these three factors. In the moderate-severe group, the closest neighbors with the Covid19 severity are Ferritin, Fibrinogen, Albumin, the quantity of Lymphocytes, SI of X-ray, white blood cells count, Lactate dehydrogenase, and quantity of neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: Complete multidimensional study in 2173 Covid19 patients in Vietnam shows the whole picture of all the preclinical factors, which may become the clinical reference marker for surveillance and diagnostic management