ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0069.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Neuroimmunoendocrinology; Spleen; Parasite immunity; Sexual dimorphism; Neurotransmitters; Cytokines; Helminths; Cysticercosis; Taenia crassiceps; Immunity; Infection
Online: 2 June 2021 (11:41:26 CEST)
The interaction of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems is crucial in the maintenance of homeostasis in vertebrates, and vital in mammals. The spleen is a key organ that regulates the neuroimmunoendocrine system. The Taenia crassiceps mouse system is an excellent experimental model to study the complex host-parasite relationship, particularly sex-associated susceptibility to infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in neurotransmitters, cytokines, sex steroids, and sex-steroid receptors in the spleen of cysticercus-infected male and female mice, and the association of these different components with whole parasite counts. We found that parasite load was higher in female in comparison to male mice. The levels of the neurotransmitter epinephrine were significantly decreased in infected male animals. The expression of IL-2 and IL-4 in the spleen was markedly increased in infected mice; however, the expression of Interleukin (IL)-10 and Interferon (IFN)-γ decreased. We also observed sex-associated differences between non-infected and infected mice. Interestingly, the data show that estradiol levels increased in infected males but decreased in females. Our studies provide evidence that infection leads to changes on neuroimmunoendocrine molecules in the spleen during infection. These changes are dimorphic and impact the establishment, growth, and reproduction of T. crassiceps. Our findings support the key role of the neuroimmune network in determining sex-associated susceptibility to the helminth parasite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: graphene oxide; porous structure; gold nanoparticles; indium tin oxide, neurotransmitters, dopamine, composites, electrochemical detection
Online: 6 April 2017 (16:49:26 CEST)
The detection of dopamine in a highly sensitive and selective manner is crucial for the early diagnosis of a number of neurological diseases/disorders. Here, a report on a new platform for the electrochemical detection of dopamine with a considerable accuracy that comprises a 3D porous graphene oxide (pGO)/gold nanoparticle (GNP)/pGO composite-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) is presented. The pGO was first synthesized and purified by ultrasonication and centrifugation, and it was then further functionalized on the surface of a GNP-immobilized ITO electrode. Remarkably, owing to the synergistic effects of the pGO and GNPs, the 3D pGO-GNP-pGO-modified ITO electrode showed a superior dopamine-detection performance compared with the other pGO- or GNP-modified ITO electrodes. The linear range of the newly developed sensing platform is from 0.1 μM to 30 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.28 μM, which is more precise than the other previously reported GO-functionalized electrodes. Moreover, the 3D pGO-GNP-pGO-modified ITO electrodes maintained their detection capability even in the presence of several interfering molecules (e.g., ascorbic acid, glucose). The proposed platform of the 3D pGO-GNP-pGO-modified ITO electrode could therefore serve as a competent candidate for the development of a dopamine-sensing platform that is potentially applicable for the early diagnosis of various neurological diseases/disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0252.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Non-synaptic transmission, synapse, neurotransmitters, interoceptive nervous system, volume transmission, paracrine, myelin, blood-brain barrier, interoception, affect
Online: 24 January 2019 (10:09:50 CET)
Neuroscience has overwhelmingly and understandably focused on the synaptic modality of signal transmission. There is evidence, however, that from an evolutionary perspective, non-synaptic transmission (NST) preceded synaptic signaling. Moreover, in modern nervous systems, NST coexists and extensively interacts with synaptic transmission modifying neuronal dynamics. In fact, NST remains widespread in complex animals, especially within the interoceptive system where the dearth of insulating barriers such as myelin sheaths and the blood-brain barrier enhances the communication between neural and non-neural tissues mediated by NST. We suggest that this physiological arrangement makes a fundamental contribution to interoception¾the process of sensing visceral states¾which is an essential underpinning of the capacity to feel and the foundation of affective processing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: corticotropin releasing factor; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); maternal separation (MS); neurotransmitters; pain; psychosocial stress; visceral hyperalgesia; water avoidance stress (WAS); wrap restrain stress (WRS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (07:39:49 CET)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in humans. It is characterized by visceral pain and/or discomfort, hypersensitivity and abnormal motor responses along with change in gut habits. Although the etio-pathogenesis of IBS is only partially understood, a main role has been attributed to psychosocial stress of different origin. Animals models such as neonatal maternal separation, water avoidance stress and wrap restraint stress have been developed as psychosocial stressors in the attempt to reproduce the IBS symptomatology and identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for the disease. The study of these models has led to the production of drugs potentially useful for IBS treatment. This review intends to give an overview on the results obtained with the animal models; to emphasize the role of the enteric nervous system in IBS appearance and evolution and as a possible target of drug therapies.