ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0032.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Non-ionizing Radiation; Millimeter waves; Novel biomedical applications; Yeast; Non-invasive devices
Online: 16 April 2021 (14:52:04 CEST)
Nonionizing millimeter-waves (MMW) interact with cells in a variety of ways. Here the inhibited cell division effect was investigated using 85-105 GHz MMW irradiation within the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) non-thermal 20 mW/cm2 safety standards. Irradiation using a power density of about 1.0 mW/cm2 , SAR over 5-6 hours on 50 cells/μl samples of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model organism resulted in 62% growth rate reduction compared to the control (sham). The effect was specific for 85-105 GHz range, and was energy and cell density dependent. Irradiation of wild type and Δrad52 (DNA damage repair gene) deleted cells presented no differences of colony growth profiles indicating non-thermal MMW treatment does not cause permanent genetic alterations. Dose versus response relations studied using a standard horn antenna (~1.0 mW/cm2) and compared to that of a compact waveguide (17.17 mW/cm2) for increased power delivery resulted in complete termination of cell division via non-thermal processes supported by temperature rise measurements. We have shown that non-thermal MMW radiation has potential for future use in treatment of yeast related diseases and other targeted biomedical outcomes.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: non-ionizing radiation; millimeter waves; novel biomedical applications; yeast; non-invasive devices
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:08:47 CEST)
Nonionizing millimeter-waves (MMW) are reported to interact with cells in a variety of ways. Possible mechanisms of the inhibited cell division effect were investigated using 85-105 GHz MMW irradiation within the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) non-thermal 20 mW/cm2 safety standards. ~1.0 mW/cm2 exposure over 5-6 hours treatment on 50 cells/μl samples of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model organism, resulted in 62% growth rate reduction compared to control (sham). The effect was specific for 85-105 GHz range and energy dose and cell density dependent. Irradiation of wild type and Δrad52 (DNA damage repair gene) deletion cells presented no differences of colony growth profiles indicating non-thermal MMW treatment does not cause genetic alterations. Dose versus response relations studied using a standard horn antenna (~1.0 mW/cm2) and compared to that of a compact waveguide (17.17 mW/cm2) for increased power delivery resulted in complete termination of cell division via non-thermal processes supported by temperature rise measurements. Combinations of MMW mediated Structure Resonant Energy Transfer (SRET), membrane modulations eliciting signaling effects, and energetic resonance with biomolecules were indicated to be responsible for the observations reported. Our results provide novel mechanistic insights enabling innovative applications of nonionizing radiation procedures for eliciting targeted biomedical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0149.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Mussel; vitality; motility; millimeter waves; SAR
Online: 28 February 2022 (09:55:17 CET)
Recently, a rising use of wireless internet technologies has been demonstrated. The devices 18 which use these technologies emit in new spectral regions an electromagnetic radiation (EMFs) 19 which could interact with the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate in 20 vitro influence of electromagnetic fields at 27 GHz on sperm quality in Mytilus galloprovincialis. 21 Sperm samples, were collected from sexually mature males of M. galloprovincialis and placed in sea- 22 water. Once evaluated the number and quality of spermatozoa, sperm cells were exposed to elec- 23 tromagnetic fields radiated by a pyramidal horn antenna. The effect of exposure was evaluated after 24 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 minutes with light microscope and using Eosin test. Ten replications were per- 25 formed for each time series, and statistical analysis was carried out byt-test. A significative decrease 26 in sperm motility was observed after 10 minutes of exposure and after 30 minutes most of sperms 27 were immobile and not vital. This study provides useful data on potential ecological impact of the 28 5G high-band on animal fertility, whose effect is currently under investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: millimeter-wave; radiometer; sequential lobing
Online: 23 November 2017 (11:29:03 CET)
The paper investigates the theory of operation of a passive millimeter-wave seeker sensor using fast electronic sequential-lobing technique and the experimental validation obtained through laboratory trials. The paper analyzes in detail the theoretical performance of a difference channel sensor and a pseudo-monopulse sensor deriving agile formulas for the estimation of target angular tracking accuracy and the subsequent experimental validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0963.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: SRR; millimeter wave; 5G; Wide-band Antenna
Online: 11 August 2023 (19:09:00 CEST)
This paper proposes a compact wideband split ring resonator (SRR) based C-shaped antenna for 5G new radio (NR) band n258 millimeter wave (mm-Wave). The proposed antenna covers a wideband frequency range from 24.1 GHz to 28.3 GHz with a reflection coefficient below -10 dB. Stubs are used at each C-shaped element for impedance matching of the antenna. The proposed antenna comprises SRRs with stubs to increase the bandwidth and gain simultaneously for better performance in mm-Wave applications. A simple SRR structure is modeled to function as a reactive impedance surface with inductive property for frequencies less than 30.2 GHz. The proposed antenna realizes an impedance bandwidth of 16.1% and covers a wideband of 4.2 GHz (24.1 GHz -28.3 GHz). The use of stubs and SRR has improved the performance of the proposed antenna at mm-Wave frequencies. Specifically, the deployment of the SRR is able to produce an improved gain for the overall direction of the antenna. The simulation and measured results agree well and maintain a 7.49 dBi gain with a bandwidth of 4.2 GHz. An average efficiency of 90% can be attained in the operating range of the antenna. The designed antenna is applicable for 5G NR Band n258.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: millimeter waves; zebrafish; DanioScope; biomarkers of exposure; SAR.
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:22:42 CET)
5G technology is evolving to satisfy several service requirements favoring high data-rate connections and lower latency times than current ones (< 1ms). 5G systems use different frequency bands of the radio wave spectrum, taking advantage of higher frequencies than previous mobile radio generations. In order to guarantee a capillary coverage of the territory for high reliability applications, it will be necessary to install a large number of repeaters because higher frequencies waves have a lower capacity to propagate in free space. Following the introduction of this new technology, there has been a growing concern about possible harmful effects on human health. The aim of this study is investigating possible short term effects induced by 5G-millimeter waves on embryonic development of Danio rerio. We have exposed fertilized eggs to 27 GHz frequency, 9.7 mW/cm2 incident power density, 23 dbm and have measured several endpoints every 24 hours. The exposure to electromagnetic fields at 27 GHz (5G) caused no significant impacts on mortality nor on morphology because the exposed larvae showed a normal detachment of the tail, presence of heart-beat and well-organised somites. A weak positivity on exposed larvae has been highlighted by immunohistochemical analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0712.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Millimeter-wave Imaging; Transceiver; Circuit; Biomedical imaging; ultra-wideband; CMOS
Online: 12 September 2023 (03:21:10 CEST)
In this work, we present a transceiver front-end in SiGe BiCMOS technology that can provide an ultra-wide bandwidth of 100 GHz at millimeter-wave frequencies. The front-end employs a novel configuration for low-loss distribution of broadband generated pulses as well as coherent spatial combining of received pulses. This leads to the realization of a fully integrated ultra-high-resolution imaging chip for biomedical applications. We realized an ultra-wide imaging bandwidth of 100 GHz by the integration of two adjacent, disjointed frequency sub-bands of 10–50 GHz and 50–110 GHz respectively. The transceiver front-end is capable of both transmit (TX) and receive (RX) operations. This is a key building-block for a scalable system in which a unit cell is repeated in the X and Y directions resulting in less power and area consumption. The imaging elements were designed and fabricated in Global Foundry 130-nm SiGe 8XP BiCMOS process technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0670.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: low-cost instrumentation; characterization setup; multidimensional characterization; metasurfaces; millimeter-wave
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:58:20 CEST)
3D printing is commonly used to create complex objects at a low cost. It has also been applied in the fabrication of metamaterials and metasurfaces, which alter the propagation path of electromagnetic waves. These structures have diverse applications, including enhancing beam direction, improving antenna gain and signal-to-noise ratio, and creating filters and reflectors. Metasurfaces are cheap to fabricate and their use is expected to boost antenna efficiency in 5G telecommunications and beyond. However, accurately characterizing their profile remains a significant challenge. This paper presents a low-cost fully automated 4-axis instrument for microwave metasurface charac-terization, overcoming limitations of manual methods and offering an efficient and accurate approach. This research represents a significant advancement in microwave metasurface characterization, enabling sophisticated techniques to advance wireless communication technolo-gies, as it is the case of the future 5G and millimeter-wave communication systems. The equipment has an approximate cost of $1550 USD and was able to characterize a metalens with a focal distance of 20 cm designed for signals at 30 GHz. It was possible to create 2D and 3D profiles of the intensity distribution focused by the metalens and extract parameters such as the gain (8.05 dB), 3dB depth of focus (11 cm) and full width at half maximum (2.17 cm). The comparison of the measurements with the diffraction calculations of the metalens showed a very good agreement between the in-tensity distributions and the parameters of the metalens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0010.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: millimeter-wavelength cloud radar; attenuation correction; dual-radar; data fusion
Online: 1 November 2016 (10:05:18 CET)
In order to correct attenuated millimeter-wavelength (Ka-band) radar data and address the problem of instability, an attenuation correction methodology (attenuation correction with variation trend constraint; VTC) was developed. Using synchronous observation conditions and multi-band radars, the VTC method adopts the variation trends of reflectivity in X-band radar data captured with wavelet transform as a constraint to adjust reflectivity factors of millimeter-wavelength radar. The correction was evaluated by comparing reflectivities obtained by millimeter-wavelength cloud radar and X-band weather radar. Experiments showed that attenuation was a major contributory factor in the different reflectivities of the two radars when relatively intense echoes exist, and the attenuation correction developed in this study significantly improved data quality for millimeter-wavelength radar. Reflectivity differences between the two radars were reduced and reflectivity correlations were enhanced. Errors caused by attenuation were eliminated, while variation details in the reflectivity factors were retained. The VTC method is superior to the bin-by-bin method in terms of correction amplitude and can be used for attenuation correction of shorter wavelength radar assisted by longer wavelength radar data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1724.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: radio astronomy; radio telescopes; telecommunications; millimeter and submillimeter waves; atmospheric opacity
Online: 26 September 2023 (07:07:08 CEST)
Radio astronomical observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths are a very important tool of astrophysical research. However, there is a huge area in the northern Eurasia, including the whole Russian territory, which lacks sufficiently large radio telescopes effectively operating at these wavelengths. In this review we describe our long-term efforts to find suitable sites for such radio telescopes in this area, that is, sites with good atmospheric transparency at millimeter and submillimeter waves. We describe methods and instruments used for measurements and evaluations of the atmospheric opacity. They include special radiometric systems, which are used for estimations of the atmospheric opacity from the sky brightness measurements. Evaluation of the precipitable water vapor from such measurements by the artificial neural network is discussed. Alternative approaches use global atmospheric models and signals of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems. To date, a long-term radiometric monitoring has been performed at several candidate sites and atmospheric conditions for many sites have been evaluated using global atmospheric models. Several sites with the best atmospheric transparency at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths have been selected. They can be effectively used for astronomical observations at least in the major atmospheric transparency windows at 1.3 mm and 0.85 mm. These results can be also used for space communications and radar systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: vertical air velocity; millimeter-wave cloud radar; convective cloud; Tibetan Plateau
Online: 21 July 2017 (04:58:56 CEST)
In the summertime, convections occur frequently over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) because of the large dynamic and thermal effects of the landmass. Measurements of vertical air velocity in convective cloud are useful for advancing our understanding of the dynamic and microphysical mechanisms of clouds and can be used to improve the parameterization of current numerical models. This paper presents a technique for retrieving high-resolution vertical air velocity from convective cloud over the TP, by using Doppler spectra from a vertically pointing Ka-band cloud radar. The method is based on the development of a “small-particle-traced” idea and the necessary data processing and uses three modes of radar. Spectral broadening corrections, uncertainty estimations, and result merging are used to ensure accurate results. Qualitative analysis of two typical convective cases shows that the retrievals are reliable and agree with the expectant results inferred from other radar measurements. A quantitative retrieval of vertical air motion from a ground-based optical disdrometer is used to preliminarily validate our radar-derived results. The comparison illustrates that while the data trends from the two methods of retrieval are similar, with the updrafts and downdrafts coinciding, cloud radar has a much higher resolution and can reveal the small-scale variation of vertical air motion.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0295.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Metasurface; Materials characterization; Sensing; Microwave sensors; Powders; Materials science; Millimeter wave devices
Online: 16 December 2022 (05:45:54 CET)
A novel technique using a W-band metasurface for the purpose of transmissive fine powder layer sensing is presented. The proposed technique may allow for the detection, identification, and characterization of inhomogeneous ultrafine powder layers which are effectively hundreds of times thinner than the incident wavelengths used to sense them. Such a technique may be useful during personnel screening processes (i.e., at an airport) and in industrial manufacturing environments where early detection and quantization of harmful airborne particulates can be a matter of security or safety. To our knowledge, the requisite science involved in such a novel W-band metasurface sensing technique has not been fully explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0439.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: non-ionizing radiation; lung cancer; millimeter waves; cell morphology; 75-110 GHz
Online: 17 April 2020 (12:49:49 CEST)
Efficiently targeted cancer therapy without causing detrimental side effects is necessary for alleviating patient care and improving survival rates. This paper presents observations of morphological changes in H1299 human lung cancer cells following W-band MMW irradiation (75 – 105 GHz) at a non-thermal power density of 0.2 mW/cm2, investigated over 14 days of subsequent physiological incubation following exposure. Microscopic analyses of physical parameters measured indicate MMW irradiation induces significant morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis and senescence. The Immediate short-term responses translate into long-term effects, retained over the duration of the experiment(s); reminiscent of the phenomenon of Accelerated Cellular Senescence (ACS) achieving terminal tumorigenic cell growth. Further, results were observed to be treatment-specific in energy (dose) dependent manner and were achieved without the use of chemotherapeutic agents, ionizing radiation or thermal ablation employed in conventional methods; thereby overcoming associated side effects. Adaptation of the experimental parameters of this study for clinical oncology concomitant with current developmental trends of non-invasive medical endoscopy alleviates MMW therapy as an effective treatment procedure for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2133.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: metasurface; metasurface sensing; electrophoresis; nanoparticles; sensing; microwave sensors; materials science; millimeter wave devices
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:23:02 CEST)
A novel electrophoretic technique to improve the sensing capabilities of charged particles in solution is presented. The proposed technique may improve the ability of metasurfaces to sense charged particles in solution by forcing them to preferentially sediment within metasurface regions of greatest sensitivity. Such a technique may be useful in various sensing applications, such as in biological, polymer, or environmental sciences, where low concentration particles in solution are of interest. The electrophoretic technique was simulated and experimentally tested using latex nanoparticles in solution. The results suggest that, using this technique, one may theoretically increase the particle density within the metasurface regions of greatest sensitivity by nearly 1900% in comparison to random sedimentation due to evaporation. Such an increase in particle density within the regions of greatest sensitivity may facilitate more precise material property measurements and enhance identification and detection capabilities of metasurfaces to low concentration particles in solution. It was experimentally verified that the electrophoretic technique enabled the preferential gathering of latex nanoparticles within the most sensitive metasurface regions, resulting in 900% - 1700% enhancements in metasurface sensing capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0514.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: millimeter bands; fifth Generation; Handover; Deep Reinforcement Learning; and Jump Markov Linear System
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:50:19 CET)
The fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks use millimeter Waves (mmWaves) to offer giga bit data rates. However, unlike microwaves, mmWave links are prone to user and topographic dynamics. They easily get blocked and end up forming irregular cell patterns for 5G. This in turn cause too early, too late, or wrong handoffs (HOs). To mitigate HO challenges, sustain connectivity and avert unnecessary HO, we propose a HO scheme based on Jump Markov Linear System (JMLS) and Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL). JMLS is widely known to account for abrupt changes in system dynamics. DRL likewise emerges as an artificial intelligence technique for learning highly dimensional and time-varying behaviors. We combine the two techniques to account for time-varying, abrupt, and irregular changes in mmWave link behaviour by predicting likely deterioration patterns of target links. The prediction is optimized by meta training techniques that also reduces training sample size. Thus, the JMLS-DRL platform formulates intelligent and versatile HO policies for 5G. Results show our proposed prediction scheme about target link behavior post HO to be highly reliable. The scheme also averts unnecessary HOs thus ably supports longer dew time.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: millimeter wave imaging; orthogonal coded multiplexing; compressed sensing; real-time imaging; dynamic range
Online: 10 November 2019 (09:40:50 CET)
Millimeter wave wide-band imaging is widely studied for a variety of applications. However real-time millimeter wave wide-band imaging at frequencies above 30GHz for moving targets in a large field of view has not been realized commercially. A 2D sparse array with transmitter multiplexing is a promising solution to this problem. In this article, a method combining compressed sensing and orthogonal coded multiplexing was proposed, and the imaging performance was analyzed for different reconstruction algorithms and observation matrices by imaging simulation for a continuous object. Also the influence on the dynamic range of the original signal introduced by orthogonal coded multiplexing was studied. This work demonstrated that the proposed method was effective in reconstructing the image with a real-time capability. It is shown that different algorithms and matrices resulted in distinct performances, while the evaluation parameter selection also played a role. This work provided useful instructions for both the hardware and software design of a real-time 3D millimeter wave imaging system in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0263.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Multi-tier hybrid caching networks; stochastic geometry; millimeter wave; average successful delivery probability; performance analysis
Online: 15 June 2018 (15:24:27 CEST)
In the fifth generation communication system, millimeter wave (mmWave) networks will coexist with traditional micro wave (μWave) networks, which allows for higher data transmission rate and better user experience. In this paper, we give a comprehensive framework of mathematical models and analytical methods for multi-tier mmWave and μWave hybrid caching networks based on stochastic geometry. We propose an association strategy by assuming average biased-received power association and Rayleigh fading. Accordingly, by using a D-ball approximating blockage model of mmWave networks, expressions of the cell association probability and the coverage probability of the hybrid networks are derived. Also, we use the average successful delivery probability as the performance metric to analyze the existing caching placement strategies. Simulation results validate the accuracy of our analytical conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: radar 3D imaging; synthetic aperture radar; millimeter wave radar; remote sensing; compressed sensing; inverse Radon transform; portable
Online: 15 March 2017 (08:44:25 CET)
In this paper, a new millimeter wave 3D imaging radar is proposed. The user just needs to move the radar along a circular track, a high resolution 3D imaging can be generated. The proposed radar uses the movement of itself to synthesize a large aperture in both the azimuth and elevation directions. It can utilize inverse Radon transform to resolve 3D imaging. To improve the sensing result, compressed sensing approach is further investigated. The simulation and experimental result further illustrated the design. Because a single transceiver circuit is needed, a light, affordable and high resolution 3D mmWave imaging radar is illustrated in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1772.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: baseband channel; GeoSurf constellation; interference; linear distortions; millimeter wavelengths; passband channel; rain attenuation; synthetic storm technique; time delay; ultra–wideband channels
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:22:47 CEST)
Keywords: Baseband, GeoSurf Constellation, Interference, Linear Distortions, Passband, Time Delay, Rain attenuation, Synthetic Storm Technique, ultra–wideband.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0149.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: planetary nebulae; AGB & post-AGB stars; binarity; accretion disks; jets; mass-loss; circumstellar matter; (sub)millimeter interferometry; ultraviolet radiation; X-rays
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:58:51 CEST)
It is widely believed that the dramatic transformation of the spherical outflows of AGB stars into the extreme aspherical geometries seen during the planetary nebula (PN) phase is linked to binarity and driven by the associated production of fast jets and central disks/torii. The key to understanding the engines that produce these jets and the jet-shaping mechanisms lies in the study of objects in transition between the AGB and PN phases. I discuss the results of our recent studies with high-angular-resolution (with ALMA & HST) and at high-energies (with GALEX, XMM-Newton & Chandra) of several such objects, which reveal new details of close binary interactions and high-speed outflows. These include two PPNe (the Boomerang Nebula and IRAS16342-3814), and the late carbon star, V Hya. The Boomerang is notable for a massive, high-speed outflow that has cooled below the microwave background temperature, making it the coldest object in the Universe. IRAS16342 is the prime example of the class of water-fountain PPNe (very young PPNe with high-velocity H2O masers) and shows the signature of a precessing jet. V Hya ejects high-speed bullets every 8.5 years associated with the periastron passage of a companion in an eccentric orbit. I discuss our work on AGB stars with strongly-variable high-energy (FUV, X-ray) emission, suggesting that these objects are in the early stages of binary interactions that result in the formation of accretion disks and jets.