ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0547.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: military; IDF; female soldiers; religion and the military; religious considerations; religious women’s conscription
Online: 25 August 2020 (11:26:52 CEST)
Women serve in diverse roles in the 21st century militaries of the world. They are no longer banned exclusively from combat. The presence of women on the battlefield has raised religious arguments and considerations. What role do religious arguments play in the discussion regarding women’s military service? The current paper examines this question in the context of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF): a conscription-based military that conscripts both men and women, religious and secular, for both combat and non-combat postings. Using the case of the pilot program in the IDF attempting to integrate women in the Israeli tank corps, the paper argues that religious considerations serve the same purpose as functional considerations and can be amplified or lessened, as needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0101.v1
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:21:03 CEST)
Abstract: The present study seeks to investigate MNOs leadership style and how it influences their compassion competence and their personal level of compassion at work. This is a cross-sectional study carried out from December 2019 to May 2020 using the method of convenience sampling. The study involved 235 MNOs serving in Greek Military Hospitals. A single questionnaire containing Compassion at Work index, Compassion competence scale, and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X), and socio-demographic and professional data, was used for data collection. A total of 400 printed questionnaires were distributed with a response rate of 58.75%. Data analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS 22.0. The research showed that the transformational and transactional leadership styles coexist in the Nursing Corps of the Armed Forces with an average value of 2.72(SD=0.70)-2.95(SD=0.54) points and 2.47(SD=0.69)-2.74(SD=0.63) points respectively, while the passive style represented a very small percentage with an average subscale value of 0.88(SD=0.61)-0.94(SD=0.63) points. It was also found that both actual compassion at work and compassion ability had improved with the increase of transformational or transactional leadership style characteristics and amelioration of leadership outcome criteria. On the other side, a deterioration of these was observed with the increase of the passive leadership. Specifically, a higher score in the «Intellectual Stimulation» scale was associated with a higher level of compassion at work in the dimension «Experiencing the suffering of others» (p=0.010/SD=0.14), while higher values on the «Laissez-Faire Leadership» scale were associated with less compassion at work in the same dimension (p<0.001/SD=0.13). Also, a higher score on the «Contingent Reward» scale was associated with more compassion at work in the dimension «Takes appropriate action» (p=0.023/SD=0.16). Furthermore, higher values observed in the «Inspirational Motivation», «Individual Consideration» and «Extra Effort» scales were associated with a better communication ability (p=0.035/SD=0.09, p=0.022/SD=0.12, and p=0.042/SD=0.08 accordingly). Finally, a higher score on the «Effectiveness» scale was associated with higher sensitivity (p=0.049/SD=0.08). Teaching appropriate leadership behavior, promoting a culture of compassion, and continuing to train nurses to manage their emotions should be included in the infrastructure of nursing science.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0311.v1
Online: 14 August 2020 (08:15:09 CEST)
Prevalence of overweight and obesity are escalating globally among the general population. However, there are limited evidence on the trends and prevalence of overweight /obesity in the military setting. Increased rates of injuries, low work productivity, incurred higher healthcare costs and prematurely discharge from service are consequences of overweight/obesity among the military. Therefore, we aimed to systematically describe the trends and prevalence of overweight and obesity in the military population, by regions and military service branches. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were used. Inclusion criteria were military population (inclusive of all service branches) with BMI reported as the overweight/obesity indicator. Population related to military but not exclusively military personnel such as the retirees, the veterans and their dependents were excluded. From the 27 included studies, 13 were published between year 2010 to 2014 and half were conducted in the United States. Overall, studies showed increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight (30% to 50%) and obesity (2% to 30%); only one study showed a decreasing trend of 0.9% and 0.6% for the prevalence of overweight and obesity respectively. However, the rates of increment differed between countries, where Asian countries demonstrated lower overweight prevalence compared to the United States and the European countries. In conclusion, the military population is not protected from overweight and obesity. Interventions should be implemented to prevent overweight / obesity among the military personnel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: helmet; military; sport; innovation; secondary injury
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:19:59 CEST)
Neurotrauma continues to contribute to significant mortality and disability. The need for better protective equipment is apparent. This review focuses on improved helmet design and the necessi-ty for continued research. We start by highlighting current innovations in helmet design for sport and subsequent utilization in the lay community for construction. The current standards by sport and organization are summarized. We then address current standards within the military envi-ronment. The pathophysiology is discussed with emphasis on how helmets provide protection. As innovative designs emerge, protection against secondary injury becomes apparent. Much research is needed, but this focused paper is intended to serve as a catalyst for improvement in helmet de-sign and implementation to provide more efficient and reliable neuroprotection across broad arenas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0293.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Austere; Healthcare; Microbiological; Military; Safety; Water
Online: 29 April 2022 (08:23:45 CEST)
(1) Background: Emergencies confront civilian and military healthcare providers with medical and hygienic challenges due to the lack of potable water. This pilot study aimed to describe the application of two different methods for microbiological monitoring of water in a harsh environment in terms of performance, ease of use, availability, and the possibility of using the results to evaluate water quality. (2) Methods: Samples from raw water, Potable water, and water for consumers were taken from two different camps with the same raw water source. The samples were analyzed by using IDEXX industry-standard methods (Colilert and Enterolert enzymatic test kits) and a combination of membrane filtration and 3M-Petrifilm. (3) Results: The IDEXX method used at the Norwegian Camp are easier to utilize and has a broader range of analyzing kits for drinking water analysis. In addition, IDEXX is better adapted to the requirements of the national legislation. However, the combination of membrane filtration followed by incubation on 3M-Petrifilm ™, as used at the Swedish camp, is a better field alternative compared to traditional bacteriology, as it eliminates the need to produce and store agar plates. (4) Conclusions: This pilot study highlights the need for adapted technical equipment and tools for internal microbiological control of water production in a harsh field environment and may facilitate the use of a relatively simple method for water control and ensure the safety of deployed staff in both civilian and military settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0133.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: military; veterans; anger; aggression; PTSD; mental health
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:40:42 CEST)
Prevalence rates of anger and aggression are often higher in military personnel, so it is important to understand more about why this is and factors with which they are associated. Despite this, there is little evidence relating to anger and aggression in UK veterans who are seeking treatment for mental health difficulties such as PTSD. This study investigated the prevalence rates of anger and aggression in this population, as well as the associations between anger and aggression, and various sociodemographic, functioning and mental health variables. A cross-sectional design was used, with participants completing a battery of self-report questionnaires. Prevalence rates for significant anger and aggression were 74% and 28% respectively. Both women and those over 55 were less likely to report difficulties. Those with high levels of PTSD and other mental health difficulties were more likely to report anger and aggression. Other factors related to anger and aggression included childhood adversity; unemployment due to ill health; and a perceived lack of family support. Findings show that veterans who are seeking support for mental health are likely to experiencing significant difficulties with anger and aggression, especially if they have co-morbid mental health difficulties. The associations between anger and aggression and other variables has implications for the assessment and treatment of military veterans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0061.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: optimal control theory; military strategy; dynamic game theory
Online: 3 November 2022 (01:08:42 CET)
A proxy war, between a coalition of countries, BLUE and a country, RED, is considered. RED wants to increase the size of the RED territory. BLUE wants to involve more regions in trade and other types of cooperation. GREEN is a small and independent nation that wants to become a member of BLUE. RED attacks GREEN and tries to invade. BLUE decides to give optimal arms support to GREEN. This support can help GREEN in the war against RED and simultaneously reduce the military power of RED, which is valuable to BLUE, also outside this proxy war, since RED may confront BLUE also in other regions. The optimal control problem of dynamic arms support, from the BLUE perspective, is defined in general form. The objective function is a weighted sum of the present value of the free GREEN territory and the present value to BLUE of the net loss of military resources in the RED army. The net loss of RED at a particular point in time is a function of the location of the front line and the size of the mobile GREEN forces behind the RED line. First, it is assumed that the expected net loss is proportional to the force ratio behind the red front line. It is proved that the net loss function is a strictly concave quadratic function of x, the location of the front line. It is also proved that the unique maximum of the net loss function occurs at the same front location, also if the net loss function is proportional to the strength ratio behind the RED lines, raised to any strictly positive exponent. From the BLUE perspective, there is an optimal position of the front. This position is a function of the weights in the objective function and all other parameters. Optimal control theory is used to determine the optimal dynamic BLUE strategy, conditional on a RED strategy, which is observed by BLUE military intelligence. The optimal arms support strategy for BLUE is to initially send a large volume of arms support to GREEN, to rapidly move the front to the optimal position. Then, the support should be almost constant during most of the war, keeping the war front location stationary. In the final part of the conflict, when RED will have almost no military resources left and tries to retire from the GREEN territory, BLUE should strongly increase the arms support and make sure that GREEN rapidly can regain the complete territory and end the war
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: military installations project; risk factor; structural equation model
Online: 15 October 2018 (06:32:30 CEST)
Some of the recent large-scale national projects in South Korea are delayed or suspended due to belated responses to risk occurring on site. Currently, the Far East District (FED) project is being implemented to relocate the US Army bases from Yongsan to Pyeongtaek. Because of lack of experience and understanding about the characteristics of such a project, the deadline of taking over to the US Army Korea has been missed. This study identifies problems of each participant in the Yongsan Relocation Plan (YRP) of the US Army Korea with respect to construction project management and establishes a risk management strategy reflecting characteristics of FED project. To derive significant risk factors influencing YRP, various field data like weekly and monthly reports and other reports on construction condition are analyzed, and experts’ advices are collected and a survey is conducted. Mediators and latent variables are ultimately obtained. Furthermore, a structural equation model is used to both analyze and evaluate complex causal relations among many variables of YRP. The impact of risk factors on the schedule, quality and cost of the project is analyzed. In particular, the case of Site A is examined to see how the project is affected by those risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0264.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; job satisfaction; military context; proactive personality; resilience
Online: 23 September 2019 (07:40:31 CEST)
Although prior research has extensively examined the association of emotional intelligence (EI) with various job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction), the empirical and systematic investigation of this link within military institutions has captured considerably less research attention. The present research analyzed the relationship between EI, teamwork communication, and job satisfaction among Spanish military cadets. We tested the potential unique contribution of EI to job satisfaction over and above demographics (i.e., gender and age), proactive personality, and resilience. Moreover, we also examined whether EI indirectly affects job satisfaction via its relationship with teamwork communication. A sample of 363 cadet officers of the Spanish General Military Academy completed questionnaires assessing EI, teamwork communication, proactive personality, resilience, and job satisfaction. Our results revealed that EI exhibited incremental variance in predicting job satisfaction even after accounting for demographics, proactive personality, and resilience. Additionally, we found that the effect of EI on job satisfaction was partially driven by enhanced teamwork communication. This research provides empirical evidence suggesting a pathway (i.e., effective teamwork communication) through which EI helps military cadets to experience higher job satisfaction. Implications for future academic programs including EI and teamwork communication to promote positive job attitudes among military personnel are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: 3MDR; treatment-resistant PTSD; military; veterans; mental health; emotional regulation
Online: 26 October 2021 (09:51:46 CEST)
Multi-modal Motion-assisted Memory Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy (3MDR), an interactive, virtual-reality assisted, exposure-based intervention for PTSD, has shown promising results for treatment-resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) among military members (MMs) and Veterans in Randomized Controlled Trials. Previous research has suggested that emotional regulation (ER) and emotional dysregulation (ED) may be factors which are correlated with symptom severity and maintenance of TR-PTSD. This embedded mixed-methods pilot study (n=9) sought to explore the impact of 3MDR on ER and ED of MMs and Veterans. Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale (DERS-18) data was collected at baseline, prior to each session, and at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-intervention and analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Qualitative data collected from sessions, debriefs, and follow-up interviews were transcribed and descriptively analyzed. Results demonstrated statistically significant decreases in DERS-18 scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention at each timepoint. Qualitatively, participants perceived improvements in ER within specified DERS-18 domains. We describe how 3MDR’s unique and novel approach may address ED through cognitive-motor stimulation, narration, divergent thinking, reappraisal of aversive stimuli, dual-task processing, and reconsolidation of traumatic memories. Further investigation is underway to better understand the underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which 3MDR addresses ER and PTSD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0047.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Military technology; Robotic and Autonomous systems; Autonomous weapons systems
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:33:15 CEST)
Over the years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has seen a steady progress in development and evolution that can aid many sectors. Today, AI plays an essential role in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and it is making its way into the military sector as well. Many countries are actively looking into AI military technology. Some of these innovations include image recognition, text analysis, Self-driving vehicles (SDV), gaming, robotic process automation (RPA) & Robotic and Autonomous Systems (RAS), and Autonomous Weapons Systems (AWS). In this research, we discuss the advantages of each innovation mentioned and analyze the many different cybersecurity threats that awaken due to military artificial intelligence systems. We then discuss the open research areas to better improve the current state of military artificial intelligence applications in terms of ethics, system security, proper strategy plan, accepted responsibility matrix, and introduction of relevant laws.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0366.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Military Police; Efficiency; Police performance; Productivity; Decision making; Multicriteria; PROMETHEE II; MCDA
Online: 28 March 2022 (14:09:57 CEST)
Purpose: This research aims to model a police agency ordering problem based on criteria that measure the performance of operational and logistical variables, using a multicriteria method. Design/methodology/approach: The multicriteria method PROMETHEE II was used, which with the aid of the Visual PROMETHEE software, emulated the systematized data in the impact matrix and produced the final ordering of the most efficient police agencies in equalizing the operational, logistical, financial, and human resources applied in the combating crime and reducing criminal indices. Findings: The results confirmed that the resources made available to police agencies located in different municipalities in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro are better applied by managers compared to police units in the capital of Rio de Janeiro. Research limitations/implications: As implications of the research, it can be inferred that the use of multicriteria methods in modelling problems in public security can contribute to the rationalization of the use of available resources to fight crime in large cities. Research has shown that it is possible to use the multicriteria methodology in ordering police agencies that best equalize the available resources. Practical implications: The practical impact of this research lies in optimizing the resources available to law enforcement agencies in the fight against crime in general. Social implications: The results can influence the decision making of the local government in the allocation of resources, as well as offering sectors of the economy information relevant to local development. Originality/value: The results of the MCDA analysis can be used to help police agencies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to be more efficient. In addition, the application of MCDA can be a new approach to measuring the efficiency of police services.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0458.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: strategy; national security; competitive gaming; wargaming; military; defense force; arboviruses; crisis management
Online: 18 March 2021 (07:20:31 CET)
The emergence of existing and novel vector-borne disease pathogens is highly unpredictable because there are so many possible causal factors of sociological, ecological, biological, behavioral and political origin. Traditional data-driven forecasting tools have limited use in circumstances featuring low-probability crises for which trend data is unreliable and non-predictive. Commercial and security sectors have been quick to adopt various forms of wargames to address this gap and provide intelligent insights on possible outcomes in the short, mid and long term future. The lack of commitment and action against vector-borne diseases by governments and local authorities requires a new approach that presents risk in terms of potential actions, possible outcomes and resulting consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Postpartum depression, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, general help-seeking, mothers, military barracks
Online: 27 August 2018 (14:59:46 CEST)
Postpartum depression (PPD) has serious effects on maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of postpartum depression in mothers of under-twos in military barracks in Lagos. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a modified version of the General Help-Seeking questionnaire (GHSQ) were administered to 316 mothers of under-twos in 3 of 12 military barracks in Lagos, Nigeria to determine PPD and major depressive events (MDE). Risk of PPD was established at EPDS scores of >12. Good help-seeking practices were ascribed to scores of 20 or more on the GHSQ. Risk of PPD was found in 15.5% of respondents, and good help-seeking in 3.8% and 11.4% for personal/emotional and harming self/baby respectively. Bivariate analysis using Chi square showed statistically significant positive associations between lower scores for EPDS and higher educational levels of respondents, perception of partner support and being in lower wealth quintiles (p<0.05). Use of the EPDS was accepted among mothers of children aged under two years. Opportunities to educate pregnant women and new mothers about PPD using existing social networks, perinatal and infant screening programmes in the barracks can be leveraged upon to improve mental health delivery as part of maternity care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0507.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: autonomous weapons; meaningful human control; hors de combat status; killer robots; military ethics
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:17:19 CET)
Autonomous weapons systems (AWS), sometimes referred to as “killer robots”, are receiving evermore attention, both in public discourse as well as by scholars and policymakers. Much of this interest is connected with emerging ethical and legal problems linked to increasing autonomy in weapons systems, but there is a general underappreciation for the ways in which existing law might impact on these new technologies. In this paper, we argue that as AWS become more sophisticated and increasingly more capable than flesh-and-blood soldiers, it will increasingly be the case that such soldiers are “in the power” of those AWS which fight against them. This implies that such soldiers ought to be considered hors de combat, and not targeted. In arguing for this point, we draw out a broader conclusion regarding hors de combat status, namely that it must be viewed contextually, with close reference to the capabilities of combatants on both sides of any discreet engagement. Given this point, and the fact that AWS may come in many shapes and sizes, and can be made for many different missions, we argue that each particular AWS will likely need its own standard for when enemy soldiers are deemed hors de combat. We conclude by examining how these nuanced views of hors de combat status might impact on meaningful human control of AWS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0321.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: City of Proximity; Walkability; 15 Minute City; Urban Regeneration; Urban Enclaves; Green Military Barracks
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:04:56 CEST)
The concepts of accessibility and urban walkability are the cornerstones of urban policies for the contemporary city, called upon to adopt sustainable development models in line with the objectives of the 2030 Agenda and the ambitious objectives of the 'European Green Deal'. These concepts are closely linked to the paradigm of a sustainable city (livable, healthy and inclusive), founded on a system of quality public spaces and on a network of services and infrastructures, both tangible and intangible, capable of strengthening or building new relationships: social, economic and environmental. It is therefore necessary to recognize potential opportunities for connection and permeability in consolidated urban environments, very often fragmented and characterized by enclaves. Within this framework, the city of Cagliari represents an interesting case study as it is characterized by the presence of a series of military complexes, real 'enclaves' which condition the proximity connections and, more generally, the walkability. In this sense, building on previous research and analysis of policies and projects aimed at reintroducing, even partially, this military asset into civilian life (Green Barracks Project - GBP - 2019), this study proposes and applies a methodology to improve urban accessibility in a flexible network logic, where 'walkability' can become not only a moment of possible "choice" but the basis for planning oriented to the '15 min city' model or, more generally, to the renewed, inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable “City of proximity”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0556.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: National Security Strategy; Defense Policy; Arms Sales; Defense Cooperation Security Agency; Foreign Military Sales
Online: 23 March 2021 (09:11:17 CET)
The aim of the study is to characterize the U.S. and Lithuanian defense cooperation from 1990–2020 including arms procurements. Findings suggest close defense cooperation between countries at Presidential, Congressional, and Defense Ministry/Secretary levels. The most developed cooperation areas are joint participation in international operations, improvements of the Lithuanian Armed Forces’ capabilities, and an increase of the U.S. military presence in the Baltic region. An analysis of Lithuanian defense procurements between 1990–2020 indicates that the majority of defense armaments were acquired from the U.S. using the Foreign Military Sales venue while other options to obtain armaments were not used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: tactical cognitive radio sensor network; case-based reasoning; cognitive radio engine; channel occupancy probability; military tactical communications
Online: 15 October 2018 (09:42:58 CEST)
This paper proposes a cognitive radio engine platform for making exploitation of available frequency channels usable for a tactical wireless sensor network in presence of incumbent communication devices known as the primary user (PU) required to be protected from undesired harmful interference. In the field of tactical communication networks, it is desperate to find available frequencies for opportunistic and dynamic access to channels in which PU is in active. This paper introduces a cognitive engine plaform for determining available channels on the basis of case-based reasoning technique deployable as core functionality on cognitive radio engine to enable dynamic spectrum access (DSA) with high fidelity. Towards this, this paper introduces a plausible learning engine to characterize channel usage pattern to extract best channel candiates for the tactical cognitive radio node (TCRN). Performance of the proposed cognitive engine is verified by conducting simulation tests which confirm the reliability in functional aspect of the proposed cognitive engine covering the learning engine as well as the case-based reasoning engine with showing how well TCRN can avoid the collision against the PU operation considered as the etiquette secondary user (SU) should have.