CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0225.v1
Online: 18 February 2022 (07:04:24 CET)
The typically qualitative treatment of evidence underlying different causal hypotheses that attempt to explain singular historic events is criticized. Instead of using ad hoc qualitative arguments, it is here advocated to use Bayes theorem to assess how well evidence either support or weaken a specific causal hypothesis. It is argued that such a practice will enable scientists who study singular historic events to discuss, compare and aggregate different beliefs in a meaningful way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0735.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: urban commerce; cultural landscape; historic city; cultural heritage; management
Online: 17 December 2018 (04:58:43 CET)
By analyzing the urban landscape, this investigation focuses on commercial typologies in historical urban areas and its relationship with the urban landscape and its heritage values. Trade plays an essential role in historical urban areas, both in the past and in the present, since it is part of the urban landscape—creating it and modifying it, but also preserving it. Historical protected urban areas contain diverse elements reflecting the impacts of commercial activities that have existed in cities throughout history. At present, the urban landscape of commercial activity is made up of a multiplicity of typologies and formats which interact with the historical landscape and its values, using them to strengthen its strategies of attraction, differentiation, and sales. Shop owners contribute to the preservation of historic urban areas by maintaining the commercial functions within them. Therefore, we affirm that the role of commercial activity in the preservation of urban protected areas is essential. However, further research is needed because this aspect has not been addressed in depth by the scientific community specializing in the management of cultural heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0098.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: Historic urban landscapes; Weberian administration; tactical urban planning; buffer zones.
Online: 5 July 2018 (15:10:03 CEST)
In this article, a critical reflection is made that involves questioning the notion of historic urban landscapes profiled in the Memorandum of Vienna (UNESCO, 2005) and the Paris Recommendation (UNESCO, 2011) as a conceptual paradigm on which to base urban conservation in the 21st century. Its limited methodological development and the assumption of change as an inherent part of the urban condition constitutes the source of many of the problems and difficulties posed by management and protection of contemporary cities, since there is no consensus as to what the acceptable limits of change should be in historic urban landscapes - difficulties that become ever more apparent, given the background of Weberian administrative doctrines present in current governance models. Likewise, the concept of Buffer Zones as a landscape management tool is analyzed, with the aim of establishing new methodological proposals that enable spatial organization to be regulated by defining areas of harmonization that are made up of flexible and multifunctional spaces for cooperation where territorial scale comes into contact with modernization of the historical fabric.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0519.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: prehistory; history; archeobiology; paleovirology; EVEs; ancient DNA; paleogenomics; pathology collections; historic publications
Online: 30 August 2022 (10:29:39 CEST)
Since life on earth developed, parasitic microbes have thrived. Increases in host numbers, or the conquest of a new species, provides an opportunity for such a pathogen to enjoy, before host defense systems kick in, a similar upsurge in reproduction. Outbreaks ‒ caused by ‘endemic’ pathogens ‒ and epidemics ‒ caused by ‘novel’ pathogens ‒ have thus been creating chaos and destruction since prehistorical times. To study such (pre)historic epidemics, recent advances in the ancient DNA field, applied to both archeological and historical remains, have helped tremendously to elucidate the evolutionary trajectory of pathogens. These studies offered new and unexpected insights in the evolution of, for instance, smallpox virus, hepatitis B virus and the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis. Furthermore, burial patterns and historical publications can help in tracking down ancient pathogens. Another source of information is our genome, where selective sweeps in immune-related genes relate to past pathogen attacks, while multiple viruses have left their genomes behind for us to study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0078.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: continental climate; exceptional floods; historic discharge; hydro-technical works; material damage; Siret catchment basin; NE Romania
Online: 9 January 2018 (08:38:52 CET)
The Siret River crosses NE Romania from the north to the south and it discharges into the Danube, near the city of Galati. During the period, 17th June - 10th July 2010, significant amounts of precipitations in the mountainous basin of Siret were recorded. The floods comprised two periods with four bimodal cycles and they were counted among the strongest on the Romanian territory. The exceptional floods occurred in the rivers of Siret, Suceava, Moldova, Bistrita, Trotus and so on. The most important compound flood wave was determined by the precipitations which fell within the period, 29th June to 1st July 2010, when significant amounts of rain were recorded, sometimes, exceeding 80 mm. The high discharges on the Bistrita River – downstream from the Bicaz Reservoir – were controlled by complex hydro technical works. The maximum discharge for the year 2010 summer floods was recorded at Dragesti hydrometric station: 2,884 m3/s (historic discharge) compared to the preceding historic discharge of the year 2008 (2,850 m3/s). The effects of floods were strongest in the counties of Suceava, Neamt, and Bacau. The floods on the main course of the Siret River were analyzed in correlation with the tributaries within the mountainous sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0187.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: historic pigments; colorants; nitrocellulose; X-ray radiography; X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy; infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy
Online: 13 May 2022 (09:44:35 CEST)
This study applied multiple scientific approaches to establish the significance of an old work of art, Red Guitar, by examining its historical origin and the color materials used in its creation. Furthremore, the study provides thus far unknown pieces of Olga Picasso's family history to be added to her biography. Scientific approaches included digital X-ray radiography, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and elemental thermal conductivity analysis. This combination of techniques provided broad confirmation about the time when the painting was created. The work includes colors (white, black, blue, yellow, green, red, and brown/red) and prevalent use of lead-and iron-based historic pigments Chrome Yellow, Yellow Ochre and Red Ochre. It also documents the use of unconventional materials, the colorant Pigment red 4 and nitrocellulose. This investigation led to the conclusion that the art, Red Guitar, is genuine and in accord with Picasso’s work during the first two decades of the 20th century.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: geographic information fusion; data quality; data consistency checking; historic GIS; railway network; patrimonial data; crowdsourcing open data; volunteer geographic information VGI; wikipedia geo-spatial information extraction.
Online: 17 August 2020 (14:51:04 CEST)
Transportation of goods is as old as human civilizations : past networks and their evolution shed light on long term trends. Transportation impact on climate change is measured as major, as well as the impact on spreading a pandemic. These two reasons motivate the importance of providing relevant and reliable historical geographic datasets of these networks. This paper focuses on reconstructing the railway network in France at its maximal extent, a century ago. The active stations and lines are well documented by the French SNCF, in open public data. However, that information ignores past stations (ante 1980), which represent probably more than what is recorded in public data. Additional open data, individual or collaborative (eg. Wikipedia) are particularly valuable, but they are not always geo-coded, and two more sources are necessary to completing that geo-coding: ancient maps and aerial photography. Therefore, remote sensing and volunteer geographic information are the two pillars of past railway reconstruction. The methods developed are adapted to the extraction of information from these sources: automated parsing of Wikipedia Infoboxes, data extraction from simple tables, even from simple text. That series of sparse procedures can be merged into a comprehensive computer-assisted process. Beyond this, a huge effort in quality control is necessary when merging these data: automated wherever possible, or finally visually controlled by observation of remote sensing information. The main output is a reliable dataset, under ODbl, of more than 9100 stations, which can be combined with the information about the 35000 communes of France, for a large variety of studies. This work demonstrates two thesis: (a) it is possible to reconstruct transport network data from the past, and generic computer assisted methods can be developed; (b) the value of remote sensing and volunteered geo info is considerable (what archeologists already know).