ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0040.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescents; emotional sphere; ethnic-related peculiarities; North
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:33:20 CET)
The combined ecological, geophysical, climatic, and social factors of the Northeast of Russia influence the organism from the early childhood being too intense for the functional systems. The purpose of the research is to study the emotional characteristics of adolescents of different ethnic groups in the northeast of Russia. Presented in the paper are results of the study that covered 826 adolescents (445 females and 381 males) at the age of 15–17, different by ethnic origin. We used standard methods of psycho-diagnostics. Our study has showed that the formation of the adolescents’ emotional sphere in the North is undoubtedly influenced not only by the climatic and socio-economic environmental factors but also by ethnic features. There are intergroup differences in the aggressiveness profile of older adolescents living in the remote settlement vs. the regional center. It is shown that high school students in the remote settlement of Evensk, compared to their peers in Magadan, regardless of gender and ethnicity, are characterized by more pronounced hostile and auto-aggressive reactions. In adolescents of the Aboriginal population, as compared with their age mate Caucasians, the indicators of impairment in the field of Neuro Psychic Adaptation, Situational and Personal Anxiety, and Social Frustration are significantly more pronounced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: ethnic identity; mental health; migrant; transcultural psychiatry; youth
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:58:41 CEST)
Background: The number of young Japanese Brazilians, who are return migrants with Japanese ancestral roots, is increasing rapidly in Japan. However, the characteristics of their mental health and the relation between mental health and a complex ethnic identity remains unclear. Methods: This cross-sectional study compared 25 Japanese-Brazilian high school students with 62 Japanese high school students living in the same area. Research using self-report questionnaires on mental health, help-seeking behavior tendencies, and ethnic identity was conducted. The Japanese-Brazilian group was also divided into high and low ethnic identity groups, and their mental health conditions were compared. Results: The Japanese-Brazilian group had significantly poorer mental health conditions and lower ethnic identities than the Japanese group and were less likely to seek help from family members and close relatives. Among the Japanese Brazilians, those with low ethnic identity had significantly poorer mental health than those with high ethnic identity. Conclusions: Young Japanese Brazilians may face conflicts of ethnic identity that can disturb their mental health. To build an inclusive society, the establishment of community services to support mental health and to help return migrants develop their ethnic identity is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: extended newborn screening; ethnic screening differences; Roma ethnicity
Online: 14 April 2017 (08:31:47 CEST)
Authors present The First Results of the National Extended Newborn Screening (ENS) in Slovakia in the majority (M) and the Roma (R ) ethnic populations. The follow-up of the ethnicity has been introduced in Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis (NSCF) and after to entire ENS program comprising of 23 Hereditary Metabolic Disorders (HMD). Results: In 2013-2015, a total of 165,648 newborns were investigated in ENS, 23,321 of them (15,3%) were the R ethnic group, a total of 313 positive cases were discovered (total ENS prevalence = 1:529, M=1:758, R=1:198). In the R ethnic group, there was slightly higher prevalence in cong. hypothyreosis (CH), only one case of CF, and no cases of CAH in the R ethnic group. The ENS prevalence of HMD detected by MS/MS was expressively higher in the R ethnic group than in M group (M=1:1670 vs. R=1:234, OR:7,13). Significant differences in the prevalence of individual types of HMD were found. Whereas the PKU and spectrum of aminoaciduria and organic acidurias dominate in the M group, the fatty acids oxidation disorders (MCAD, SCAD) and carnitine defects (CUD) were frequent in the R newborn group. Conclusion: Despite the presented results are preliminary, the ethnic approach to ENS is enabling the recording of the ethnic differences in the screening prevalence of individual disorders, which would be missing during unitary approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0164.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Environmental quality; institutional quality; ethnic conflicts; socio-economic factors
Online: 18 April 2022 (10:38:40 CEST)
Nowadays, determining the socioeconomic factors' influence on environmental quality is a crucial issue for policymakers. We aim to explore the impact of socioeconomic factors i.e., ethnic conflicts inform ethnic fragmentation, institutions quality effectiveness, and energy consumption on environmental quality by testing the various hypotheses (Pollution Halo Hypothesis, IPAT, and EKC) in 40 selected Asian countries throughout 1993-2019. We also use a set of control variables which are gross domestic product per capita, foreign direct investment inflows, and population growth to determine their impact on environmental quality. We use the Panel Quintile Regression Method of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 to analyze the results. We find ethnic conflict negatively affects the environmental quality at all quantiles. The institution's variables regulatory quality and rule of law negatively influence the environmental quality. Our result supports Porter's hypothesis because the effect of direct foreign investment on the amount of CO2 emissions is negative and significant at 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 quantiles which states that foreign direct investment in the host country supports environmental quality. Furthermore, our results support the IPAT hypothesis in selected Asian countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition; Hydration; Dementia: Eating; Drinking; Food; Ethnic minorities; Culture
Online: 25 March 2022 (02:47:59 CET)
Eating and drinking difficulties are common in dementia, but little is known about the experiences of ethnic minority groups managing these difficulties at home. We undertook qualitative semi-structured interviews, exploring the meaning of food, the impact of dementia on eating and drinking and carers’ experiences of support. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interviewed 17 carers and people with dementia from ethnic minority backgrounds, using reflexive thematic analysis to analyse data. Food/drink had strong links to identity, culture and emotions. Providing culturally familiar foods, celebrating traditional festivals and supporting previous food-related roles promoted reminiscence, which encouraged people with dementia to eat and drink, as did social interactions. However, these strategies sometimes led to distress in those with more advanced dementia. Food choices were also influenced by carer strain, generational differences and the impact of health conditions. Despite a strong sense of duty to care for relatives at home, there was low awareness of community support services. Carers expressed a need for culturally tailored support for managing dementia-related eating and drinking difficulties at home. Healthcare professionals must provide contextually relevant advice to carers, being mindful of how cultural backgrounds can affect dietary choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0676.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Patella; dimension; ethnic anatomy; patellar thickness; ridge-offset ratio
Online: 28 December 2020 (10:10:21 CET)
Whether resurfacing or not resurfacing the patella during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) still is a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. A significant reason for this controversy is the far from perfect outcomes of both techniques, resulting from inadequate knowledge of normal patellar dimensions in a diseased one. The primary purpose of the current study is to find the pre-diseased patellar dimensions and the ethnic differences in patellar dimensions. We measured the patella's dimensions on 927 normal young adult knee MRIs from seven different ethnicities. Besides comparing the dimensions between sexes, ages, and sides, we analyzed the differences among ethnic groups. The average thickness was 25.12±2.33 mm; the average width was 44.57±4.32 mm, the average articular surface length was 32.69±3.75 mm, with significant gender, age, and ethnic differences. There were also significant differences in dimensions among ethnic groups, except for between the Indians and Far Eastern Asians and between the Arabs and North Africans. We could also find a robust mathematical relationship between the patella's width, length, and thickness. The ethnic differences in patellar dimensions found in this study can help optimize surgical technique and implant designs for patellar resurfacing. The mathematical equation will help the surgeons find the normal, pre-diseased patella thickness to prevent over-or under-stuffing during the patellar resurfacing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0604.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: isolated neutropenia; benign ethnic neutropenia; reference intervals; Saudi Arabia
Online: 24 December 2020 (07:54:21 CET)
Objectives: Isolated mild neutropenia is a common clinical problem. The current study aims to validate our previous findings regarding the high prevalence of isolated neutropenia in Southern and Southwestern Saudi Arabia and explore the effect of altitude or regional differences. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, laboratory results of a commercial laboratory were screened over a period of 5 years (2016–2020) in seven different cities in South and southwestern Saudi Arabia. Participants’ laboratory investigations were reviewed and excluded for any ab-normal complete blood count, renal profile, liver profile, lipid profile, thyroid function test, fasting blood glucose, or HbA1c findings. Descriptive analysis and 95th percentile range were calculated using standard statistical methods. Results: A total of 91,880 complete blood count results were included in the final analysis. isolated neutropenia is common laboratory finding, with a prevalence ranging from 11-23%. The 2.5th percentile of the neutrophil count was lower than 1.5×109/L in all seven cities. Conclusions: Mild to moderate neutropenia is common in Southern and Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN) may explain this high prevalence. Since BEN has no clinical significance, the reference range for normal neutrophil counts needs to be adjusted to reflect the effect of BEN.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: hyperpigmentation; palpebral region; geographic skin differences; ethnic predisposition; skin disorder;
Online: 23 July 2018 (12:56:47 CEST)
POH (Peri Orbital Hyperpigmentation) represents a minor clinical entity that attracts immense aesthetic damages and it generates social integration difficulties. This review focuses on the etiopathogenic causes of this entity, differentiating and reclassifying this defect as having, on the one hand, genetic causes of melanic hyperproduction – for Fitzpatrick cutaneous phototypes IV and V – and, on the other hand, both genetic and acquired vascular causes, in individuals with light-coloured skin phototypes. Hence, there is a big difference in the field of pathogenic treatment, for the two entities. In addition, this study notes the direct relationship between skin aging and POH, especially for aquired vascular causes. In this reasoning, other aesthetic deficiencies of the skin in the palpebral area should be also considered, like: blepharochalasis, wrinkles, the anatomical causes of the lower eyelid shading, symmetrical or asymmetric suborbital oedema. All of these issues will complicate the therapeutic decision and subsidiary, the pharmaceutical advice. In this context, the review shows the guidelines for a honest councelling of the patients, pointing the efficiency limit for the topical pharmaceutical medication (depigmentants, exfoliants) versus the necessity of minimally invasive or/ and surgical treatments (in blefarochalasis).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0049.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Afghan, civic engagement, discrimination, distress, ethnic identity, pre-resettlement trauma
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:24:10 CET)
This study investigates the effect of perceived discrimination on the mental health of Afghan refugees, and secondly, tests the distress moderating effects of pre-migration traumatic experiences and post-resettlement adjustment factors. In a cross-sectional design, 259 Afghans completed surveys assessing perceived discrimination and a number of other factors using scales developed through inductive techniques. Multivariate analyses consisted of a series of hierarchical regressions testing the effect of perceived discrimination on distress, followed by a sequential analysis of moderator variables. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with higher distress, and this relationship was stronger among those with a strong intra-ethnic identity, high civic engagement, and high pre-resettlement traumatic experiences. Discrimination is a significant source of stress for Afghan refugees, which may exacerbate stresses associated with other post-migration stressors. Future research is needed to tailor interventions that can help mitigate the stress associated with discrimination among this highly vulnerable group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: ecovillage movement; eco-discourses; ethnic traditions; innovation; intentional community; social media, Romania
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:27:35 CET)
This case study explores social media discourses of a virtual ecovillage community based in Central Romania, in a Hungarian speaking region of Transylvania. The investigated virtual community embraces the idea of ecovillage as a local constructive answer to the challenges of the global ecological crisis, based on strategies of revitalizing local ethnic traditions, promoting sustainable development solutions, and innovations. Our key question is the relationship between tradition and innovation—as revealed by the discursive practices of the ecovillage Facebook group most active members. Using ecolinguistic as a frame of reference, the investigation unveiled the role social media played in fostering the formation of a virtual intentional community, and in clarifying the shared values of the group. We found that the local ecovillage is part of a larger regional and global movement, unfolding the organic connection between the Hungarian and the Romanian intentional communities, and the reframing of traditional values within innovative, sustainable everyday practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0773.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ethnic beer; borde; shamita; keribo; korefe; indigenous drinks; fermented beverages; probiotics; Farsoo; moringa
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:50:33 CEST)
This study was designed to improve Ethiopian traditional beer – tella with the substitution of gesho by moringa leaves to enhance micronutrients. Substation of gesho by moringa from 50 – 100% against the biochemical dynamics, nutritional and sensorial profiles of tella was assessed. Incorporation of moringa suppressed the activities of yeast and favored that of lactic acid bacteria, which shifted the property of the product from mild alcoholic nature to low alcoholic and mild acidic nature, revealing the probiotic potential of tella. Moringa leaves at 100% substitution for gesho resulted in to the least yeast count compared to the other formulations. The storage of tella samples over periods of 10 days also strengthened the probiotic nature of tella by drastically reducing the yeast cell counts (from 5 logs to <1). This corresponded to the slow increase in the acidity (0.63 to 0.99%), indicating comparatively higher activities of lactic acid bacteria. The best nutritional contents (dietary minerals) and sensorial acceptance of the product was attained at the 50% substitution of gesho by moringa. The implication of the present study is that ethnic foods and beverages can be innovated to meet the nutritional needs of the community
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: executive functioning; domain-specific cognitive stimulation; math; low-performing student; Roma ethnic group.
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:06:47 CEST)
The current study investigated whether a domain-specific intervention targeting maths and executive functions of primary school children with a Roma background would be effective in improving their scholastic performance and executive functioning. In total, 122 students attending Grade 4 of elementary school took part in the project. The study concerned a pretest-intervention-training experimental design with three conditions: the experimental condition, an active and a passive control group. The results suggested that both maths performance and executive functions improved over time, with no significant differences between the three conditions. An additional correlational analysis indicated that pretest performance was not related to posttest performance for the children in the experimental and active control group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0273.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; IFITM3; rs12252; rs34481144; ethnic groups; bame; cytokine storm
Online: 20 August 2020 (04:29:43 CEST)
Evidence was brought forward in England and the USA that Black, Asian, Latino and Minority Ethnic people exhibit higher mortality risk from COVID-19 than White people. While socioeconomic factors were suggested to contribute to this trend, they arguably do not explain the range of the differences observed, allowing for possible genetic implications. Almost concurrently, the analysis of a cohort in Chinese COVID-19 patients proposed an association between the severity of the disease and the presence of the minor allele of rs12252 of the Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) gene. This SNP, together with rs34481144, are the two most studied polymorphisms of IFITM3 and have been associated in the past with increased severity in Influenza, Dengue, Ebola, and HIV viruses. IFITM3 is an immune effector protein that is pivotal for the restriction of viral replication, but also for the regulation of cytokine production. Following up to these two developments in the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the present study investigates a possible association between the differences in mortality of ethnic groups in England and the combined haplotypes of rs12252 and rs34481144. The respective allele frequencies were collected for 26 populations from 1000 Genomes Project and subgroups were pooled wherever possible to create correspondences with ethnic groups in England. A significant correlation (r=0.9687, p= 0.0003) was observed between the reported Standardized Mortality Ratios and the frequency of the combined haplotype of both reference alleles, suggesting that the combination of reference alleles of the specific SNPs may be implicated in more severe outcomes of COVID-19. This study calls for further focus on the role of IFITM3 variants in the mechanism of cellular invasion of SARS-CoV-2, their impact in COVID-19 severity and their possible implications in vaccination efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0123.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Protestantism; Protestant Churches; post-Soviet Russia; ethnic groups; national intelligentsia; native peoples; social activity
Online: 20 November 2017 (08:10:47 CET)
This paper considers two types of Protestant ethnic groups of some areas of Urals and Western Siberia. The first type consist of representatives of members of different ethnic groups consisting of well-educated professionals, incorporated into industrial society and associated with the intellectualism of Protestantism. The second type is represented by the indigenous peoples of the Polar Urals and Western Siberia, who use the Protestant religious organizations as tool for restoring life-sustaining elements of the native peoples’ traditional economy. I employed the inductive approach and the comparison method; during the fieldwork I used ethnographic participant observations, sociological structured interviews and closed-ended questionnaires. The empirical data have been collected in the Southern, Middle and Polar Urals and Western Siberia.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: racial discrimination; employment; United Kingdom; The Netherlands; black and ethnic minorities; women; Islam; alienation
Online: 14 December 2016 (07:54:52 CET)
The measurement of discrimination in employment is a key variable in understanding dynamics in the nature of and change in ‘race relations’. Measuring such discrimination using ‘situation’ and ‘correspondence’ tests was influenced by John Rex’s sociological analyses, begun in in England in the 1960s, and replicated in Europe and America in later decades. This literature is reviewed, and the methodologies of testing for employment discrimination are discussed. Recent work in Britain and The Netherlands is considered in detail in the light of changing social structures, and the rise of Islamophobia. Manchester, apparently the city manifesting the most discrimination in Britain, is considered for a special case study, with a focus on one individual, a Muslim woman seeking intermediate level accountancy employment. Her vita was matched with that of a manifestly indigenous, white Briton. Submitted vitas (to 1,043 potential employers) indicated significant discrimination against the Muslim woman candidate. Results are discussed within the context of Manchester’s micro-sociology, and Muslim women’s employment progress in broader contexts, drawing on our work in Jordan and Palestine. We conclude with the critical realist comment that the “hidden racism” of employment discrimination shows that capitalist societies continue to be institutionally racist, and the failure to reward legitimate aspirations of minorities pushes ethnic minorities into a permanent precariat, with implications for social justice and social control, which denies minority efforts to “integrate” in society’s employment systems.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0407.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: covid; covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; zoonosis; ethnic disparities; health care disparities; virus strains; virus subtypes; virus variants
Online: 26 April 2020 (05:13:37 CEST)
A striking aspect of COVID-19 is the difference in the outcome of the infection between different countries, and different ethnic groups within one country. We surveyed the literature on SARS-CoV-2 complemented with comparative publications on SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses to capture the current understanding of virus – host interactions including virus subtypes, transmission, zoonotic aspects, and potential host determinants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: excess winter mortality; influenza; latitude; gender; age; respiratory conditions; spatiotemporal effects; female; male; pandemics; seasons; ethnic groups; respiration disorders; coinfection
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:16:39 CET)
(1) Background: To investigate the dynamic issues behind international variation in EWM. (2) A rolling EWM calculation is used to reveal seasonal changes in the EWM calculation and is especially relevant nearer to the equator. (3) Results: In addition to latitude country specific factors determine EWM. Females generally show higher EWM mainly due to respiratory conditions. The EWM for respiratory conditions in England and Wales ranges from 44% to 83% which is about double the all-cause mortality equivalent. Age has a profound effect on EWM with a peak in puberty and then increasing EWM at old age. The gap between male and female EWM seems to act as a diagnostic tool reflecting the infectious/metrological mix in each winter. Additional difference due to ethnicity are also observed. An EWM equivalent calculation for sickness absence demonstrates how additional health-related variables can be linked to EWM. (4) Conclusions: EWM does not reach a peak at the same time each year, especially so in the tropics. Countries midway between the equator and the poles show highest EWM. Differences between the genders are highly significant and seem to vary according to the mix of variables active each winter. Pandemic influenza does not elevate EWM, although seasonal influenza plays a part each winter.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.