Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: bioeconomy; open science; open access
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:45:27 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to assess the degree of openness of scientific articles on bioeconomy. Based on a WoS corpus of 2,489 articles published between 2015 and 2019, we calculated bibliometric indicators, explored the openness of each paper and assessed the share of journals, countries and research areas of these articles. The results show a sharp increase and diversification of articles in the field of bioeconomy, with a beginning long tail distribution. 45.6% of the articles are freely available, and the share of OA papers is steadily increasing, from 31% in 2015 to 52% in 2019. Gold is the most important variant of OA. Open access is low in the applied research areas of chemical, agricultural and environmental engineering but higher in the domains of energy and fuels, forestry, and green and sustainable science and technology. The UK and the Netherlands have the highest rates of OA papers, followed by Spain and Germany. The funding rate of OA papers is higher than of non-OA papers. This is the first bibliometric study on open access to articles on bioeconomy. The results can be useful for the further development of OA editorial and funding criteria in the field of bioeconomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0232.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: limocitrol; lemon; citrus; bioeconomy; biocolorant; flavonoids
Online: 10 September 2020 (09:12:44 CEST)
A brief technical and economic insight into producing the water-soluble yellow colorant limocitrol 3-O-6”-[3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)])-β-D-glucopyranoside from waste lemon peel via simple solid-liquid extraction in aqueous ethanol or via hydrodynamic cavitation of waste lemon peel in water, shows that the biocolorant can be obtained at affordable cost. Coupled to the simplicity and sustainability of the extraction processes suggested, the high chemical and physical stability of this polymethoxylated flavanol and the health benefits of citrus flavonoids, support industrialization of this new bioeconomy production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0028.v1
Online: 4 March 2019 (09:53:55 CET)
Approaching the end of the second decade of the 21st century, almost the whole demand of vanillin is met by the synthetic product obtained either via a petrochemical process starting from phenol and glyoxylic acid or from energy intensive alkaline oxidative depolymerization of lignin. Only a minor fraction is comprised of natural vanillin obtained from ferulic acid fermentation, and even less of highly valued Vanilla planifolia extracts. Are there alternative green production methods? And, if yes, are they suitable to find practical application?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0063.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Bioeconomy, bibliographic databases, value chains agricultural, production.
Online: 2 August 2021 (23:07:58 CEST)
This work analyzes the visibility and scientific impact of publications related to agricultural value chains. The incidence of bibliometric indicators allows for the interpretation of bibliographic information generated worldwide. Objective: The objective of this research is to analyze the published literature and bibliometric indicators on agricultural value chains. The Web of Science database was used to extract value chains data. The study analyzed articles published between 2010 and 2020. The keywords used are "agricultural value chains'' and articles from journals or studies related to the subject were selected for bibliometric analysis and methodological review. In the search for the keyword, a total of 4208 results were extracted, of which 1,669 records were considered for analysis. The bibliometric analysis of the data reveals that Wageningen University (55) has the highest number of publications, followed by Chinese Acad Sci (26). The author Klerkx L (9) has the highest number of records, followed by Hellin J (7). With respect to the countries with the greatest contributions on the subject are: the People's Republic of China, Germany, Italy, France and the United States. The study contributes to the analysis of bibliometrics and provides a methodological review of published journal articles on agricultural value chains. This bibliographic study presents the history of research development in agricultural value chains.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0327.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: omega-3; polyphenols; olive; PUFA; hydroxytyrosol; bioeconomy
Online: 15 October 2020 (15:12:25 CEST)
Thanks to the pioneering studies of Østerud and co-workers it is now increasingly understood that natural polyphenols present in marine oils play an essential role in protecting omega-3 lipids from oxidation and autooxidation ensuring that no proinflammatory products are formed after intake as it often happens with assumption of refined omega-3 concentrates. Strong antioxidants exerting multiple biological functions, olive biophenols are ideally suited to functionalize marine oils creating a synergy which has the potential to foster public health across the world. This study identifies suitable avenues to advance the sustainable production of health-beneficial formulations based on newly obtained natural marine oils and olive phenolic extracts. Important educational outcomes for bioeconomy educators conclude the study.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0143.v1
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:54:24 CET)
A shrimp oil rich in omega-3 lipids and carotenoids is obtained in remarkably high 5 wt% yield extending to pink shrimp processing waste (head and carapace) the circular economy approach to extract fish oil from fish processing by-products using d-limonene. Biobased limonene, a powerful antimicrobial and antioxidant agent, is an excellent solvent for both lipids and astaxanthin-based carotenoids preventing oxidative degradation during the extraction cycle including solvent and oil separation at 85°C. A new low cost route is established to extract valued marine oil from biowaste annually made available in over 2.2 million tonnes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0062.v1
Online: 21 July 2017 (11:30:42 CEST)
On June 8 and June 9, 2017, we gave two invited lectures at the Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry (ZIOC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. The first lecture, “Sol-Gel Catalysts: Making Green Chemistry Possible”, focused on the practical outcomes of 25 years of research on sol-gel entrapped catalysts. The second, “Chemistry for the Bioeconomy: From Discussion to Action”, offered a critical insight to the forthcoming bioeconomy. Both lectures aroused much interest in the audience and ended with a vigorous discussion lasting about one hour. An outlook is provided herein.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0486.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Pectin; Food hydrocolloid; Green extraction; Heteropolysaccharide; Citrus; Bioeconomy
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:09:20 CET)
From new understanding of pectin molecular structure and physiological effects on man up to new production methods and new applications, significant new knowledge of pectin has emerged in the last two decades (2010-2020). These developments open the route to new and unexpected applications of this uniquely complex heteropolysaccharide ubiquitous in plants and fruits well beyond its traditional use as food hydrocolloid. This study provides a unified perspective on the new science and technology of pectin. Furthermore, we offer an insight into forthcoming pectin uses from an expanded perspective taking into account selected technology and economic factors that, we argue in this study, will shortly impact the pectin production and uptake in many countries.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0266.v1
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:18:39 CET)
Produced in many world’s countries at over 1 million tonne/year rate by extraction of certain woods and barks with boiling water, tannin is a class of high molecular weight biophenols increasingly used in a number of industries. This study offers a new bioeconomy insight into an old natural product that, we argument in this study, will play a crucial role in the development of the bioeconomy of forest regions. After providing an updated picture of key economic and production aspects, we show how flourishing research on tannin’s biological activity and technological applications has revealed many new properties which are likely to drive significant growth in demand in the near and mid-term future. The study concludes with selected recommendations for bioeconomy scholars and for policy-makers based in forest areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Bioeconomy strategy; regional development; residues; policy; market; technology; commoditization
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:19:07 CET)
The European Bioeconomy Strategy aims to strengthen and boost biobased sectors, unlocking investments and markets while rapidly deploying local bioeconomies across Europe and improving compliance with environmental and social sustainability goals. Current biomass provision structures and infrastructure might not be able to tap the sustainable potential of forestry-, agricultural residues and biogenic waste envisaged forming the biogenic feedstock base of the Circular Bioeconomy of tomorrow. Therefore, for the present paper, we assess mobilization strategies, their current status, opportunities, and barriers for local low value and heterogenous biomass resources. Based on discussions with bioenergy supply chain experts, we cluster mobilization measures into three assessment levels; the legislative framework, market structures and technological innovation. Scientific literature research on the respective keywords is performed, the European policy landscape mapped, and the results are enriched with anecdotal evidence, especially for recent and running projects and market developments that lack in published track records. We can identify research needs on all three assessment levels. Still, technological development and legislative frameworks are providing support for heterogeneous biomass mobilization. Market creation, however, represents a bottleneck. We provide novel perspectives, how physical- and virtual bio-hubs and crediting stake- and shareholder variety could create added-value based on sustainable primary economic activities and their cascading activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0160.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: cellulose; lemon; grapefruit; citrus processing waste; hydrodynamic cavitation; bioeconomy
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:25:17 CET)
Named herein “CytroCell”, the cellulosic material obtained via hydrodynamic cavitation of citrus processing waste in water is cellulose of low crystallinity, high porosity, good water holding capacity and good dispersibility in water. These properties, here demonstrated for the first time for lemon and grapefruit CytroCell, open the route to mass scale production of a useful functional material from a cheap and abundant biowaste. The process, indeed, does not require any pre-treatment of the raw material, and does not use acid, alkali, chemical oxidants or enzymes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0067.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: limonene; poly(limonene carbonate); bioeconomy; sustainable polycarbonates; solar economy
Online: 5 April 2018 (10:48:13 CEST)
Limonene epoxide (1,2 limonene oxide) readily reacts with carbon dioxide in a ring opening copolymerization reaction with insertion of CO2 and formation of polycarbonates of exceptional chemical and physical properties. Both poly(limonene carbonate) and poly(limonene dicarbonate) can be synthesized using low cost Zn or Al homogeneous catalysts. This study addresses selected relevant questions concerning the technical and economic feasibility of limonene and carbon dioxide polymers en route to the bioeconomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: bioeconomy; bio-based products; GDP; policy measures; sustainability assessment; sustainable development
Online: 16 April 2018 (04:54:19 CEST)
Developments in technology have enabled envisioning the derivation of materials and products from renewable biomass, as an alternative to finite fossil-based resource consumption. Therefore, bioeconomy is regarded as an opportunity for sustainable economic growth. Countries are formulating strategies in accordance with their goals to attain from bioeconomy. Proper measurement, monitoring and reporting of the outcomes of these strategies is crucial for long-term success. This study aims to critically evaluate the national methods used for the measurement, monitoring and reporting of bioeconomy contribution to the total economy. For this purpose, research and surveys have been conducted on selected countries (Argentina, Germany, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa and the United States). The results reveal that the bioeconomy targets set up in the strategies often reflect country’s priorities and comparative advantages. However, comprehensive approaches to measure and monitor bioeconomy progress are frequently lacking. Most countries only measure the contribution to gross domestic product (GDP), turnover and employment of the sectors included in their bioeconomy definition, which may provide an incomplete picture. In addition, this study identifies the mismatch between the targets and measurement methods, as the environmental and social impacts of bioeconomy are often foreseen, but not measured. It is concluded that existing global efforts towards a sustainable bioeconomy monitoring can be strengthened and leveraged to measure progress towards sustainable goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0603.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Consequential LCA; System expansion; Life Cycle Assessment; flax fiber biobased materials; bioeconomy
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:27:42 CET)
Flax fiber appears as a suitable feedstock in the endeavor of deploying a sustainable biobased economy. Its environmental performance as reinforcement in composite materials has been studied in previous Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs). However, these studies only present a coarse Life cycle Inventory (LCI) and often fail to detail all processes of the supply chain or to represent the co-products. This paper aims to bridge this gap and provide data for future LCAs on flax fiber production and transformation.The study focuses on the impacts of producing a bio-based reinforcement material (a fabric product for non-aesthetic purposes) with a system expansion perspective. The functional unit is defined as the production of 2400 m² flax-based technical textile per year, this corresponds to one hectare of cultivated land. The geographical scope considers that the production occurs in France and that some manufacturing process are outsourced in China. A Sensitivity Analysis was carried out to assess the influence of the electricity mix in the various countries involved in the manufacturing cycle.A detailed life cycle inventory for flax fiber production and transformation was built and the environmental performance of a flax technical textile was assessed as a cradle-to-gate LCA. The fate of co-products was documented and was shown to contribute to the reduction of the generated environmental impacts. Through a cradle-to-gate LCA, a broader understanding of the environmental performance of a flax-based technical textile was presented by including the valorization of co-products and a wider set of analyzed impact categories, going therefore beyond the existing state-of-the-art. Results show agricultural activities and electricity production to be the biggest contributors to the environmental impacts of flax technical textile; contributions due to land use changes were minor in comparison. Very specifically for this case study, a sensibility analysis showed the influence of an all-French production to be more efficient from an environmental point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Landscape Agroecology, MuSIASEM, Multi-EROI, Circular bioeconomy, Barcelona Metropolitan Region, industrial agriculture
Online: 24 October 2018 (16:30:08 CEST)
The paper analyses how between 1956 and 2009 the agrarian metabolism of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) has become less functional, losing circularity in biomass flows and in relationship to its landscape. We do so by adopting a Multi-EROI and flow-fund (MuSIASEM) analyses and its nexus with landscape functional structure. The study of agricultural flows of Final Produce, Biomass Reused and External Inputs is integrated with that of land use, livestock, power capacity and population changes between 1956 (at the beginning of the Green Revolution) and 2009 (fully industrialized agriculture). A multi-scale analysis is conducted at the landscape scale (seven districts within the Barcelona metropolitan region) as well as for the functions deployed, within an agroecosystem, by the mutual interactions between its funds (land-uses, livestock and farming population). A complex nexus between land, livestock, dietary patterns and energy needs is shown; we conclude that from the perspective of the circular bioeconomy the agrarian sector has gone worse hand in hand with the landscape functional structure. Therefore, a novel perspective in landscape agroecology is opened
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0688.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: grape skins; grape seed oil; fatty acid methyl esters; total phenolic content; antioxidant activity; green extraction; circular bioeconomy
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:18:34 CEST)
The aim of this work was the study and evaluation of winery by-products in the framework of circular bioeconomy. Grape seeds and grape skins from Greek traditional Ionian Islands varieties were analyzed in an attempt to provide the appropriate basis for model development of their sustainable exploitation at a local or regional level. The wastes collected directly from the wineries immediately after the vinification process and analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Also, annual production and yields were estimated. Grape seed oil quality was evaluated based on fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) composition. Grape skins phenolic fraction was extracted by an eco-friendly, non-toxic water-glycerol solvent system and were detected qualitatively. Also, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity were measured. Based on estimated yields, our results demonstrate that winery by-products have the potential to promote the cyclical bioeconomy in a modern economic growth model that will reduce waste, and environmental costs as they can be reused as whole material in foods, dietary supplements, cosmetic ingredients, food colorants and preservatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: circular bioeconomy; biorefinery; waste valorisation; olive mill wastewater (OMWW), bioplastics; PHAs; business canvas; business model, SWOT analysis; industrial symbiosis
Online: 21 October 2022 (13:53:59 CEST)
The concept of biorefinery constitutes a significant contributing factor to the emerging transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy. In such a context, replacing oil and petrochemicals by biomass may involve several feedstocks, platforms, processes, technologies, as well as final products. This paper concentrates in the complex process of transferring the concept of biorefinery from laboratory to industry, and sheds light on the techno-economic, and complexity management dimensions involved in this endeavor. Towards this end, adopting a systems perspective, the paper presents a structured and comprehensive framework, comprising of the definition of the transformation process, business model development, technoeconomic assessment and strategic positioning and viability assessment, which may be employed to facilitate the engineering at-large and launch of a biorefining venture in a circular bioeconomy context. The framework is applied in the context of a biorefinery plant in a specific region in Southern Greece, which is based on the valorisation of olive mill wastewater (a ‘strong’ and quite common industrial waste in Mediterranean Basin), and produces biopolymers (PHAs) and bioenergy (H2).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0618.v1
Subject: Keywords: active packaging; bio-based polymers; bioeconomy; essential oil; food waste; natural additives; permeability; plant extracts; shelf life; sustainable packaging
Online: 25 May 2021 (15:28:12 CEST)
Abstract: The promotion of sustainable packaging is part of the European Green Deal and plays a key role in the EU’s social and political strategy. One option is the use of renewable resources and biomass waste as raw materials for polymer production. Lignocellulose biomass from annual and perennial industrial crops and agricultural residues are a major source of polysaccharides, proteins, and lignin, and can also be used to obtain plant-based extracts and essential oils. Therefore, these biomasses are considered as potential substitute for fossil-based resources. Here, the status quo of bio-based polymers is discussed and evaluated in terms of properties related to packaging applications such as gas and water vapor permeability as well as mechanical properties. So far, their practical use is still restricted due to lower performance in fundamental packaging functions that directly influence food quality and safety, the length of shelf life and thus the amount of food waste. Besides bio-based polymers, this review focuses on plant extracts as active packaging agents. Incorporating extracts of herbs, flowers, trees, and their fruits is inevitable to achieve desired material properties that are capable to prolong the food shelf life. Finally, the adoption potential of packaging based on polymers from renewable resources is discussed from a bioeconomy perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioeconomy 1; footprint analysis 2; land use modelling 3; Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) model 4; land conversion 5; biodiversity 6; ecosystem functions 7
Online: 1 December 2021 (18:08:00 CET)
Footprints are powerful indicators for evaluating the impact of the bioeconomy of a country on environmental goods, domestically and abroad. In this study, we apply a hybrid approach combining a Multi-Regional Input-Output model and land use modelling to compute the agricultural land footprint (aLF). Furthermore, we added information on land-use change to the analysis and allocated land conversion to specific commodities. The German case study shows that the aLF abroad is larger by a factor of 2.5 to 3 than the aLF in Germany. In 2005 and 2010, conversion of natural and semi-natural land-cover types abroad allocated to Germany due to import increases was 2.5 times higher than the global average. Import increases to Germany slowed down in 2015 and 2020, reducing land conversion attributed to the German bioeconomy to the global average. The case study shows that the applied land footprint provides clear and meaningful information for policymakers and other stakeholders. The presented methodological approach can be applied to other countries and regions covered in the underlying database EXIOBASE. It can be adapted, also for an assessment of other ecosystem functions, such as water or soil fertility.