ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: human mobility; COVID-19 spread; global pandemic; social restriction policy; Australia
Online: 8 September 2020 (11:31:16 CEST)
Policy induced decline of human mobility has been recognised to be effective in controlling the COVID-19 spread especially in the initial stage of the outbreak, although the relationship among mobility, policy implementation, and virus spread remains contentious. Coupling data of confirmed COVID-19 cases with Google mobility data in Australia, we present a state-level empirical study to: 1) inspect the temporal variation of COVID-19 spread and the change of mobility adherent to social restriction policies; 2) examine the extent that different types of mobility are associated with the COVID-19 spread in eight Australian states/territories; and 3) analyse the time-lag effect of mobility restriction on the COVID-19 spread. We find that social restriction policies implemented in the early stage of the pandemic controlled the COVID-19 spread effectively; the restriction of human mobility has a time-lag effect on growth rates, and the strength of the mobility-spread correlation increases up to seven days after policy implementation but decreases afterwards. The association between mobility and COVID-19 spread varies across space and time, and subjects to the types of mobility. Thus, it is important for governments to consider the degree to which lockdown conditions can be eased by accounting for this dynamic mobility-spread relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Internet-assisted; English reading teaching; innovative designs; impact; constructivism theory
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:55:44 CEST)
With the development of Internet technology, teachers are constantly seeking innovative teaching methods to match the potential of enhanced technology. Although many studies have been performed before , they aren’t enough in this field. The purpose of this paper is to explore innovative teaching designs and examine the impact of Internet-assisted English teaching of reading based on constructivism. The case is carried out in NO.9 middle school of Bengbu, a underdeveloped area of China, most of students aren’t interested in learning English .We compared Internet-assisted with traditional textbook literature methods to improve the reading proficiency of students, using a questionnaire survey,pre-test and post-tests comparisons. The result showed Internet-assisted English reading teaching is better than textbook. It can arouse students' interest and motivation,reading proficiency and exam result of students have been improved significantly, created a positive learning situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0104.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: landslides; artificial rainfall; grain size; rainfall pattern; pore water pressure
Online: 4 November 2021 (16:15:36 CET)
Landslides are serious geological hazards that become a disaster worldwide, causing a large number of casualties and economic losses every year. There are many factors affecting landslide susceptibility, such as rainfall, soil and slope. Each of them has an important role in the process of slope losing stability. In this paper, the effects of rainfall intensity, rainfall pattern, slope gradient and soil type on landslide susceptibility are studied. In the process of rainfall-induced landslide, the relevant physical quantities of soil changes continuously. Their values and processes are closely related to the time of landslide occurrence. Hence, the variation of soil volumetric water content, matrix suction, pore water pressure and total stress throughout the rainfall are measured. As the results, soil type, slope gradient and rainfall intensity have a large influence on landslide susceptibility. The occurrence of landslides has a prerequisite that the slope is greater than or equal to 15°. The rainfall intensity needs to be not less than 80 mm/h. The difference of rainfall pattern also affects the landslide susceptibility. The rainfall pattern with rainfall intensity peak at the later stage is more likely to induce landslide. Coarser soils with gravels are prone to landslides when other conditions are the same. Steeper slopes, stronger rainfall, and coarser soils can all increase the amount of sediment yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0052.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: skyrmion; circular ring nanotrack; skyrmion Hall effect; Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:22:05 CET)
As an outstanding information carrier, skyrmion is increasingly widely used in devices based on complex geometries. To achieve the skyrmion-based spintronic devices, a reasonable and feasible nanotrack is essential. In this paper, we conducted a study on the current-driven skyrmion movement in a circular-ring-shaped nanotrack. Our results suggest that the asymmetry of the inside and outside boundary of the circular ring changed the stable position of the skyrmion, causing it to move like the skyrmion Hall effect when driven by currents. Moreover, the asymmetric boundaries have advantages in enhancing or weakening the skyrmion Hall effect. Additionally, we also compared the skyrmion Hall effect from the asymmetric boundary of circular ring nanotracks with that from inhomogeneous DMI. It is found that the skyrmion Hall effect caused by the circular ring is significantly greater than that caused by the inhomogeneous DMI. These results contribute to our understanding of the skyrmion dynamics in confined geometries and offer an alternative method for controlling the skyrmion Hall effect of skyrmion-based devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fully-autonomous; AC micro-grid; AC/DC/AC converter; Seamless switching
Online: 22 May 2019 (08:44:26 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel micro-grid structure, which can operate fully-autonomously with inherent seamless switching. It can operate independently in both grid-connected and islanded mode as a self-governed entity without relying on the utility grid. An AC/DC/AC converter is employed as the interface between the micro-grid and the utility grid, which enables the two entities to have different voltages in grid-connected mode. Seamless switching between operation modes can be achieved naturally. The micro-grid is regulated to exchange predefined amount of power with the utility grid in grid-connected mode. This will benefit the power dispatching algorithm of the power system. The predefined power is estimated based on power forecasting of local renewable generations and loads with consideration of the Sate of Charge (SOC) of the battery, and is updated and broadcasted every certain period. A small scale AC micro-grid with a rotating generator, battery storage and solar arrays etc. is built for investigation. Matlab/Simulink results are provided to validate the robustness and flexibility of proposed micro-grid and its operation strategy.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: superabsorbent composites; semicoke; water absorbency
Online: 3 September 2020 (03:46:37 CEST)
A series of novel superabsorbent composites of poly(acrylic acid)/semicoke were prepared by polymerization of acrylic acid using ammonium persulphate as initiator, N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide as crosslinker and semicoke which was the by-product of coal carbonizing as the inorganic components. FTIR and SEM analysis indicated that the superabsorbent composites had been successfully polymerized and the semicoke participated into the construction of 3D polymeric network. Meanwhile, the effects of initiator, crosslinker, semicoke, neutralization degree as well as the pH value were investigated, and the results showed that superabsorbent composites containing 10% of semicoke possessed the maximum water absorbency of 584 g/g in distilled water and 75 g/g in 0.9 % NaCl solution. The superabsorbent composites kept the high water absorbency within a wide pH range of 4-11, and still exhibited better re-swelling capability even after seven times. The superabsorbent composite with the excellent performance is a potential water-retaining agent used in the agriculture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: homeobox; oncogenesis; EMT; immunosuppression; IL6
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:56:10 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer, and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths each year. It involves a multi-step progression and is strongly associated with chronic inflammation induced by the intake of environmental toxins and/or viral infections (i.e., hepatitis B and C viruses). Although several genetic dysregulations are considered to be involved in disease progression, the detailed regulatory mechanisms are not well defined. Homeobox (Hox) genes that encode transcription factors with homeodomains control cell growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis in embryonic development. Recently, more aberrant expressions of Hox genes were found in a wide variety of human cancer, including HCC. In this review, we summarize the currently available evidence related to the role of Hox genes in the development of HCC. The objective is to determine the roles of this conserved transcription factor family and its potential use as a therapeutic target in future investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0365.v1
Online: 31 December 2018 (10:17:25 CET)
Since matter, energy and information are the three major components of the world, is there an interaction between information and matter? In the present work, the coevolution of human language and brain is taken as a case of interaction between information and brain. Some evidence that may show interactions between human language and brain revealed by previous researches is summarized in this paper, such as the language areas in the cerebral cortex of the modern human brain, the evolution of human language and brain in human history, and the genetic basis for the evolution of language. Based on the evidence, a dynamic model is developed to investigate the possible mechanism of coevolution of human language and brain. In the model, human language development and brain development reinforce each other: the developmental level of language can be promoted by advances in brain function due to language-related gene mutations, in turn, whether such mutations are selected positively can be influenced by the current developmental level of language. The coevolution of human language and brain can be taken as a case of interaction between information and matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: solar collection; solid structure; heat absorption analysis; collection heat analysis; reflection spectrum
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:06:13 CEST)
A solid structure, such as a road, building wall or envelop, used as a solar collector is considered an effective and new way to use renewable energy. This paper focused on the temperature characteristics of four structures exposed to sunshine: asphalt, red brick, composite cement and concrete road slab. Furthermore, the collected heat based on a hydraulic system was investigated experimentally. For the four structure slabs, their temperature differences are due to solar radiation absorption varied greatly by the material’s heat absorptance and color. Through the test, asphalt slab attained the highest temperature and had the weakest reflection among the structures. Compared with the others, the temperature of the asphalt slab was greater by 8.1%, 14.9% and 16.4% than the brick, composite cement and concrete, respectively. The reflection intensity growth ratio was defined and indicates the growth potential for absorbing radiation in the solid slab surface. From the experiments, it was concluded that a suitable selection of road materials can greatly improve the thermal absorption, conduction and penetration into the solid slab. The collected heat capability was approximately 250 W/m2 to 350 W/m2 in the natural summer condition. A black coating or a surface modification can collect more heat, reaching greater than 250 W/m2. The solar collecting heat efficiency with a surface configuration of the road slab can reach above 30% in the summer time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1435.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: sharing secret; data outsourcing; reversible watermarking; chaotic map
Online: 21 September 2023 (11:24:52 CEST)
A novel verifiable privacy preservation scheme for outsourcing medical image to cloud through ROI based crypto-watermarking is proposed in the paper. In the proposed scheme, data owner firstly carries out substitution of S-box for the region of interest (ROI) of medical image, and then separates the image into 4 most significant bits (MSBs) plane and 4 least significant bits (LSBs) plane images. Secondly, the hash value of ROI is embedded into the two separated bit plane images using reversible watermarking algorithm. Lastly, some selected hash values are transformed into the initial parameters of chaotic maps, and the two sharing secrets, which are produced through chaos based encryption algorithm, are finally outsourced to two different cloud servers. For authorized users, they can get shares from different cloud servers, and then can losslessly recover the original medical image through a series of decryption operations and extraction of watermarking. Furthermore, the users can verify whether the original image is completely reconstructed or not, they even can locate the tampered parts inside ROI if anyone of the sharing secrets is damaged. Some experiments analyses and comparisons are given to show the security and effectiveness of proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0076.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Chiral drugs; Chirality-induced spin selectivity (CISS); Chiral enzymes; L-DOPA; AADC enzyme
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:40:30 CEST)
The theory of electron spin has been proposed for a century, but the study of quantum effects in biological molecules is still in its infancy. Chirality-induced spin selectivity (CISS) is a very modern theory that can explain many biochemical phenomena. In this paper, we propose a new theoretical model based on CISS theory and quantum chemistry theory, which can well explain the theoretical explanation of the chiral selectivity of chiral proteins. Moreover, this theory can predict the spin state of corresponding chiral molecules. Taking L-DOPA and AADC enzyme as examples, this theoretical model solves the theoretical explanation of AADC enzyme's chiral catalysis selectivity problem and successfully predicts the spin state of L-DOPA and D-DOPA's valence electrons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0559.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: magadiite; organo-layered silicate; removal; eosin; thermal stability; regeneration
Online: 30 July 2018 (05:41:11 CEST)
Na-magadiite exchanged with cetyl-trimethylammonium cations provided organophilic silicate materials that allowed the effective removal of the acidic dye "eosin". The organic cations were intercalated into the interlayer spacing of the layered silicate via an exchange reaction between the organic cations from their bromide salt and the solid Na-magadiite at room temperature. Different techniques were used to characterize the effect of the initial concentration of the surfactant on the structure of the organo-magadiites. The C, H, N analysis indicated that a maximum of organic cations of 1.03 mmol/g was achieved at initial concentrations higher than 0.25 mmol/g and was accompanied by an expansion of the basal spacing of 3.15 nm, with a tilted angle of 64.5° to the silicate layers. The conformation of the organic surfactants was probed using solid-state 13C, finding mainly the trans conformation similar to that of the starting cetyl trimethylammonium bromide salt (C16TMABr). Thermal gravimetric analysis was carried out to study the thermal stability of the resulting organo-magadiites. The intercalated surfactants started to decompose at 200 °C, with a mass loss percentage of 8 % to 25 %, depending on the initial loading of the surfactant, and was accompanied by a decrease of the basal spacing from 3.20 nm to 2.51 nm, as deduced from the in situ X-ray diffraction studies. At temperatures below 220 °C, an expansion of the basal spacing from 3.15 to 3.35 nm occurred. These materials were used as a removal agent for the anionic dye "eosin". The maximum amount of the dye removed was related to the organic cation content and to the initial concentration of eosin, with an improvement from 2.5 mg/g to 98 mg/g. This value decreased when the organo-magadiite was preheated at temperatures above 200 °C. The regeneration tests indicated that an 85 % removal efficiency was maintained after 6 cycles of use for the organo-magadiites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0053.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: factor analysis; geographical factors; right ventricular diameter
Online: 9 November 2016 (10:26:42 CET)
Aim: To analysis the relationship between healthy adults right ventricular diameter (RVD) and geographical factors. Location: China’s 22 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. Methods: Using correlation analysis the relationship between RVD and nine geographic factors, build predictive models by factor analysis. Results: There is significant correlation between RVD and geographical factors, and the annual average temperature is most relevant geographical factors, a predictive model was built by factor analysis: Ŷ = 19.46 + 0.0007072X1 + 0.001034X2 -0.05412X3 -0.001405X4 -0.0006351X5 + 0.02903X6 + 0.01243X7 -0.01033X8 + 0.03816X9 ± 0.63. Then using Kriging interpolation interpolate the geographical distribution of Chinese healthy adult right ventricular diameter reference value in ArcGIS software. Main Conclusion: If geographic factors can be derived in anywhere of China, RVD can be calculated by the model, you can also get RVD from geographical distribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1856.v1
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:27:11 CEST)
Two-dimensional (2D) ice I is an atomic-level ice that is composed of two interlocked atom-ic layers saturated with hydrogen bonds. It has recently been experimentally observed but its properties have yet to be clarified. Accordingly, we theoretically studied the hydrophobic properties of 2D ice I. On the contrary, simulation of a hydrogen fluoride molecule on a 2D ice surface manifested that it destroyed the 2d ice structure and connected new hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Investigations of the interfacial effect between 2D and three-dimensional (3D) ice films indicated that the network structure of 2D ice was not de-stroyed by a 3D ice surface, as the former was saturated with hydrogen bonds. However, the surface of 3D ice reorganized to form as many hydrogen bonds as possible. Thus, the 2D ice film was hydrophobic and inhibited the growth of 3D ice. This shows that if 2D ice can be produced on an industrial scale, it could be used as an anti-3D-icing agent under low tem-perature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: CNN; hybrid classical-quantum neural networks; transfer learning; variational quantum circuit
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:02:34 CEST)
Deep learning is improving by leaps and bounds in remote sensing images (RSIs) analysis, pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown remarkable performance in remote sensing image scene classification (RSISC). Nonetheless, pre-trained CNNs require massive annotated data as samples for data training. When labeled samples are not sufficient, the most common solution is to the pre-trained CNNs using a great deal of natural image dataset (e.g. ImageNet). However, these pre-trained CNNs require a large quantity of labelled data for training, which is often not feasible in RSISC, especially when the target RSIs have different imaging mechanisms from RGB natural images. In this paper, we proposed an improved hybrid classical-quantum transfer learning CNNs composed of classical and quantum elements to classify open-source RSI dataset. The classical part of the model is made up of a ResNet network which extracts useful features from RSI datasets. To further refine the network performance, a tensor quantum circuit is subsequently employed by tuning parameters on near-term quantum processors. We tested our models on open-source RSI dataset. In our comparative study, we have concluded that the hybrid classical-quantum transferring CNN has achieved better performance than other pre-trained CNNs based RSISC methods with small training samples. Moreover, it has been proved that the proposed algorithm improves the classification accuracy while greatly decreasing sum of model parameters and sum of training data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0897.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lung cancer; platinum-based chemotherapy; ERCC5; Genetic polymorphism; prognosis
Online: 13 October 2023 (11:34:21 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer is still the most lethal malignancy in the world from the report of Cancer Statistics in 2021. Platinum-based chemotherapy combined immunotherapy is the first-line treatment in lung cancer patients. However, the 5-year survival rate always affected by the adverse reaction and drug resistance caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. DNA damage and repair system is one of the important mechanisms which can affect the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in lung cancer patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to find the relationship between the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes with the prognosis in platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. Patients and Methods: We performed genotyping in 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation group (ERCC) genes and X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing (XRCC) genes of 345 lung cancer patients by Sequenom MassARRAY. We used Cox proportional hazard models, state and plink to analyze the associations between SNPs and the prognosis of lung cancer patients. Results: We found that the ERCC5 rs873601 was associated with the overall survival time in lung cancer patients treat by platinum-based chemotherapy (p=0.031*). We also discovered that the polymorphisms in rs873601 was significantly associated with the prognosis in age more than 55 years, Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) and smoking patients, Long Intergenic Non-protein Coding RNA (PNKY) rs2444933 in age less than 55 years, SCLC, metastasis and stage III/IV/ED patients, Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR1) rs3740051 in SCLC and metastasis patients, PNKY rs1869641 in SCLC patients, XRCC5 rs1051685 in non-metastasis patients, respectively. Conclusion: The ERCC5 rs873601(G>A) maybe a valuable biomarker for predicting the prognosis in lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Statements and Declarations: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.