ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0783.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Online banking; Digital security; Technology implementation
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:36:13 CEST)
This research study aims to explore how during COVID-19, the adoption of online banking is impacted by various factors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived security, and trust. The data were collected using the primary questionnaire with 98 respondents. The study investigates the direct effect using the PLS-SEM method, and the indirect effects are analyzed using mediation analysis. The study indicates that perceived security is an important factor that impacts the adoption of online banking by self-help groups in India. Trust in online banking without allaying the fears of banking online does not lead to the adoption of technology. Perceived ease of use and ease of usage directly impact the adoption of online banking by the members of self-help groups in India. The study is the first-ever study to measure the indirect impact of trust on the intention to use online banking by the members of self-help groups in India This study has far-reaching implications for policymakers and banks. To increase the adoption of online banking, it is important to allay the fears of security among the members of self-help groups in India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0108.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Plant phenotyping, Plant pixel classification, Colour space, , Gaussian mixture model, Earth mover distance, Variance ratio, Plant segmentation.
Online: 15 December 2017 (16:52:23 CET)
Segmentation of a region of interest is an important pre-processing step for many colour image analysis techniques. Similarly segmentation of plant in digital images is an important preprocessing step in phenotying plants by image analysis. In this paper we present an analytical study to statistically determine the suitability of colour space representation of an image to best detect plant pixels and separate them from background pixels. Our hypothesis is that the colour space representation in which the separation of the distributions representing plant pixels and background pixels is maximized would be the best for detection of plant pixels. The two classes of pixels are modelled as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In our GM modelling we don't make any prior assumption about the number of Gaussians in the model. Rather a constant bandwidth mean-shift filter is used to cluster the data and the number of clusters and hence the number of Gaussians is automatically determined. Here we have analysed following representative colour spaces like $RGB$, $rgb$, $HSV$, $Ycbcr$ and $CIE-Lab$. This is because these colour spaces represent several other similar colour spaces and also an exhaustive study of all the colour space will be too voluminous. We also analyse the colour space feature from the two-class variance ratio perspective and compare the results of our hypothesis with this metric. The dataset for this empirical study consist of 378 digital images of plants and their manual segmentation. Dataset consist of various species of plants (arabidopsi, tobacco, wheat, rye grass etc.) imaged under different lighting conditions, indoor and outdoor, controlled and uncontrolled background. In results we obtain better segmentation of the plants in $HSV$ colour space, which is supported by its Earth mover distance (EMD) on the GMM distribution of plant and background pixels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0199.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Water Security, Groundwater assessment, Groundwater quality, India
Online: 31 May 2018 (16:47:27 CEST)
Achieving water security and availability for all is among the principle agenda of the UN-Sustainable Development Goals. To achieve the goal of water security, particularly in rapidly expanding cities, identification of safe and sustainable water resources is an absolute necessity. The paper conducts an exploratory investigation in the hydro geochemical characteristics of groundwater and thereby, assess the suitability of groundwater as an alternative and reliable resource for public water supply in the Indian city of Surat. A total of 33-groundwater samples, selected on the basis of aquifer depth, land use signatures, were collected from open, bore, dug wells and hand pumps. After the hydrogeochemical analysis, the study evaluated the present state of the groundwater quality and determined the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as hardness, electrical conductivity, Cl −, pH, SO42-, and NO3 − concentrations. An interpolation technique, known as ordinary kriging, was used to acquire the spatial distribution of parameters of groundwater quality parameters. Based on the permeability index, result showed that 80% of the sampled groundwater quality falls under excellent class i.e. category I with PI value ranging from 1-24%, whereas the rest 20% of the samples has fallen under good class i.e. category II with PI value ranging from 25 to 75% on the suitability of water for irrigation. The results of this study outlines the unsustainability of groundwater for direct consumption, especially without any improved onsite water treatment, but it is appropriate for the irrigation purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: active contour models; LiDAR, segmentation; road edges
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:24:55 CEST)
Active contour models present a robust segmentation approach which make efficient use of specific information about objects in the input data rather than processing all the data. They have been widely used in many applications including image segmentation, object boundary localisation, motion tracking, shape modelling, stereo matching and object reconstruction. In this paper, we investigate the potential of active contour models in extracting roads from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) data. The categorisation of active contours based on their mathematical representation and implementation are discussed in detail. We discuss an integrated version in which active contour models are combined to overcome their limitations. We review various active contour based methodologies which have been developed to extract roads and other features from LiDAR and digital imaging datasets. We present a small case study in which an integrated version of active contour models is applied to automatically extract road edges from MLS dataset. An accurate extraction of left and right edges from the tested road section validates the use of active contour models. The present study provides a valuable insight on the potential of active contours for extracting roads and other infrastructures from 3D LiDAR point cloud data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: airborne laser scanning; geospatial database; data retrieval; road median; attributes
Online: 11 April 2018 (04:27:42 CEST)
Laser scanning systems make use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology to acquire accurately georeferenced sets of dense 3D point cloud data. The information acquired using these systems produces better knowledge about the terrain objects which are inherently 3D in nature. The LiDAR data acquired from mobile, airborne or terrestrial platforms provides several benefit over conventional sources of data acquisition in terms of accuracy, resolution and attributes. However, the large volume and scale of LiDAR data have inhibited the development of automated feature extraction algorithms due to the extensive computational cost involved in it. Moreover, the heterogeneously distributed point cloud, which represents objects with varying size, point density, holes and complicated structures pose a great challenge for data processing. Currently, geospatial database systems do not provide a robust solution for efficient storage and accessibility of raw data in a way that data processing could be applied based on optimal spatial extent. In this paper, we present Global LiDAR and Imagery Mobile Processing Spatial Environment (GLIMPSE) system that provides a framework for storage, management and integration of 3D LiDAR data acquired from multiple platforms. The system facilitates an efficient accessibility to the raw dataset, which is hierarchically represented in a geographically meaningful way. We utilise the GLIMPSE system to automatically extract road median from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point cloud. In the first part of this paper, we detail an approach to efficiently retrieve the point cloud data from the GLIMPSE system for a particular geographic area based on user requirements. In the second part, we present an algorithm to automatically extract road median from the retrieved LiDAR data. The developed road median extraction algorithm utilises the LiDAR elevation and intensity attributes to distinguish the median from the road surface. We successfully tested our algorithms on two road sections consisting of distinct road median types based on concrete and grass-hedge barriers. The use of GLIMPSE improved the efficiency of the road median extraction in terms of fast accessibility to ALS point cloud data for the required road sections. The developed system and its associated algorithms provide a comprehensive solution to the user's requirement for an efficient storage, integration, retrieval and processing of large volumes of LiDAR point cloud data. These findings and knowledge contribute to a more rapid, cost-effective and comprehensive approach to surveying road networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0381.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Lung Cancer; Magnetic nanoparticles; Detection and monitoring; Theranostics
Online: 15 March 2021 (12:55:08 CET)
There are numerous challenges involved in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Globally, majority of people suffers from cancerous disease involving throat cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, cancerous brain tumor. Among these the most common ones is the lung cancer or lung carcinoma. The leading cause of the lung cancer is the smoking. Around 80% to 90% of deaths are caused due to Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The inadequate diagnostic techniques and low chances for the survival of lung cancer patients results from the lack of an early prognosis and incompetency in traditional therapies. However, such challenges involved in the prognosis and treatment of lung cancer are on decline with the progression in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) technology. Many break-through discoveries and inventions have been made in the field of cancer therapy by using magnetic nanoparticles. The implication of nanotechnology has led to the recent advancement in nanomedicine field. This has encouraged the improvement in different therapeutic and diagnosis strategies employing nanotechnology. The generation of immense technological benefits for nanoparticles systems has been accredited to its remarkable nanoscale physico-chemical properties. This in turns provides the early detection of lung cancer and active drugs delivery for an improved theranostics strategy. The present review provides a general idea of the current progression in the therapeutic and prognosis purpose of magnetic nanoparticles. Further, we disclose the development in the lung cancer theranostics by functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles. The established importance of magnetic nanoparticles in the theranostics centers for lung cancer has been revealed in this paper. The challenges existing in the theranostics of lung cancer are addressed through the functioning of magnetic nanoparticles in the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0024.v1
Online: 4 June 2020 (05:50:09 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic has caused a large-scale havoc in almost every country across the globe, putting major challenges for the healthcare system in many parts of the world. Several of the laboratories are running in the race with undying efforts for developing potential vaccine, drugs or therapeutics to treat or prevent the infection. However, with the limited time window and high rate of infection, the task is very big for humanity to find a cure. With hundreds of genomic data of SARS-CoV-2 virus isolates from humans are being submitted almost every day, it is coming into knowledge that virus is mutating, slower in countries with sporadic cases, but higher in countries experiencing large outbreak. These types of mutations in virus may bring challenges in vaccine or therapeutic development for use in each and every country, as each hotspot region may have their own pattern of mutations in virus with ongoing outbreak. In our current study, we retrieved non-synonymous mutation data of around 12,225 SARS-CoV-2 virus samples isolated from humans globally, and discovered all mutations that are collectively happening in antibody epitope regions of the virus country-wise. We found a few numbers of epitope regions in SARS-CoV-2 that are highly conserved collectively in all variants and may be used for epitope-based vaccine development for whole world. We also found epitope regions that are conserved collectively in SARS-CoV-2 variants country-wise and can be used for customized epitope-based vaccine development in each different country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0302.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Organic mulching; rainfall simulator; Hydraulic Tilting flume system; Sediment concentration; Sediment outflow rate
Online: 29 April 2022 (12:52:48 CEST)
Trash mulches are very effective in preventing soil erosion; reduce sediment transport rate, runoff rate and increasing infiltration. The study was carried out with the objectives to observe the sediment outflow from sugar cane leaf (trash) mulch treatments at selected land slopes under simulated rainfall conditions by using rainfall simulator of size 10 m × 1.2 m × 0.5 m with the locally available soil material collected from Pantnagar. In the present study, trash mulches with different quantities were selected to observe the effect of mulching in soil loss reduction. The quantity of mulch was taken as, 6 t/ha, 8 t/ha and 10 t/ha, three rainfall intensities viz. 11cm/h, 13cm/h and 14.65cm/h at 0%, 2% and 4% land slopes were selected. The duration of rainfall was fixed (10 minutes) for every mulch treatment. The total runoff volume was found to be varying with different mulch rates for particular rainfall input and land slope. The runoff distribution pattern was observed to be increasing with the increase in land slope. The average sediment concentration (SC) and outflow was found to be increasing with the increasing land slope, but SC and outflow decreased with increasing mulch rate for particular land slope and rainfall intensity. The SOR (SOR) for no mulch treated land was higher as compared to trash mulch treated lands. Mathematical relationships were developed for relating SOR, SC, land slope and rainfall intensity for a particular mulch treatment. It was observed that values of SOR and average SC had a good correlation with rainfall intensity and land slope for each mulch treatment. The correlation coefficients of developed models were found to be more than 90%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: MARS; SVM; RF; rainfall; runoff; rainfall-runoff modelling
Online: 13 June 2022 (03:29:36 CEST)
Nowadays, great attention has been attributed to the study of runoff and its fluctuation over space and time. There is a crucial need for a good soil and water management system to overcome the challenges of water scarcity and other natural adverse events like floods and landslides, among others. Rainfall-runoff modeling is an appropriate approach for runoff prediction, making it possible to take preventive measures to avoid damage caused by natural hazards such as floods. In the present study, several data driven models, namely: Multiple linear regression (MLR), Multiple adaptive regression splines (MARS), Support vector machine (SVM), and Random Forest (RF), were used for rainfall-runoff prediction of the Gola watershed, located in the south-eastern part of the Uttarakhand. The performance of the models was evaluated based on the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBAIS) indices. In addition to the numerical comparison, the models were evaluated and their performances were evaluated base on graphical plotting, i.e., line diagram, scatter plot, Violin plot, relative error plot and Taylor diagram (TD). The comparison results revealed that the four heuristic methods gave higher accuracy than the MLR model. Among the machine learning models, the RF (RMSE (m3/s), R2, NSE, and PBIAS (%) = 6.31, 0.96, 0.94, and -0.20 during the training period, respectively, and 5.53, 0.95, 0.92, and -0.20 during the testing period, respectively) surpassed the MARS, SVM, and the MLR models in forecasting daily runoff for all cases studies. Among all four models, the RF model outperformed in the training and testing periods. It can be summarized that the RF model is best-in-class and delivers a strong potential for runoff prediction of the Gola watershed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0550.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Basmati rice; QTL introgression; near isogenic lines; yield under drought; climate resilience
Online: 20 November 2020 (20:45:02 CET)
Drought stress at the reproductive stage in rice is one of the most important cause for yield reduction, affecting both productivity and quality. All Basmati rice varieties, including the popular cultivar ‘Pusa Basmati 1 (PB1)’ is highly sensitive to reproductive stage drought stress (RSDS). We report for the first time, improvement of a Basmati cultivar for RSDS tolerance, with the introgression of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), ‘qDTY1.1’ into PB1. The QTL donor was sourced from an aus variety, Nagina 22 (N22). A QTL linked microsatellite (SSR) marker ‘RM 431’ was employed for foreground selection for qDTY1.1 in the marker assisted backcross breeding process. A set of 113 SSR markers polymorphic between N22 and PB1 were utilized for background selection to ensure higher genome recovery. After three backcrosses followed by five generations of selfing, eighteen near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed, through combinatory selection for agro-morphological, grain and cooking superiority traits. The NILs were evaluated for three consecutive Kharif seasons, 2017, 2018 and 2019 under well-watered and drought stress conditions. RSDS tolerance and yield stability indicated that NIL3, NIL5, NIL6, NIL7, NIL12, NIL15 and NIL17 were best in terms of overall agronomic and grain quality under RSDS. Additionally, NILs exhibited high yield potential under normal condition as well. The RSDS tolerant Basmati NILs with high resilience to water stress, is a valuable resource for sustaining Basmati rice production under water limiting production environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0359.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 1, 2, 4-Triazine; Lanosterol 14a-demethylase (CYP51); Drug Resistance; Molecular Docking; Molecular Dynamic Simulation.
Online: 17 August 2021 (12:27:02 CEST)
This research aims to find out whether the synthetic 1, 2, 4-triazine and its derivatives have antifungal effects and can protect humans from infection with Candida albicans. Molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation are widely used in modern drug design to target a We are interested in using molecular docking and molecular dynamics modelling to investigate the interaction between the derivatives of 1, 2, 4-triazine and the resulting lanosterol 14 - demethylase (CYP51) of Candida albicans The inhibition of Candida albicans CYP51 is the main goal of our research. The 1, 2, 4-triazine and its derivatives have been docked to the CYP51 enzyme, which is involved in Candida albicans Multidrug Drug Resistance (MDR). Autodock tools were used to identifying the binding affinities of molecules against the target proteins. Compared to conventional fluconazole, the molecular docking results indicated that each drug has a high binding affinity for CYP51 proteins and forms unbound interactions and hydrogen bonds with their active residues and surrounding allosteric residues. The docking contacts were made using a 10 ns MD simulation with nine molecules. RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds, and the Rg all confirm these conclusions. In addition, these compounds were expected to have a favorable pharmacological profile and low toxicity. The compounds are being offered as scaffolds for the development of new antifungal drugs and as candidates for future in vitro testing.