ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0716.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: amyloid beta; neuropsychological assessment; machine learning; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 31 August 2020 (09:30:08 CEST)
Substantial studies have focused on early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebral amyloid beta (Aβ), is hallmark of AD, can be observed in vivo via positron emission tomography imaging using amyloid tracer or cerebrospinal fluid assessment, but costly expensive. The current study aims to identify and compared predictability in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers and neuropsychological markers to predict cerebral Aβ status in AD cohort using machine learning (ML) approaches. The predictability in candidate markers for cerebral Aβ status was examined by analyzing 724 participants from the ADNI-2 cohort. Demographic variables, structural MRI markers, and neuropsychological test scores were used as input in several ML algorithms to predict cerebral Aβ positivity. Out of five combination of candidate markers, neuropsychological markers with demographics showed the most cost-efficient result. A feature selection model could distinguish abnormal levels of Aβ with the predictability of 0.85, indicating the same performance with MRI-based models. The result has first to identified the predictability in MRI markers using ML approaches, and secondary to demonstrate the neuropsychological model with demographics could predict Aβ positivity, suggesting a more cost-efficient method for detecting cerebral Aβ status compared to MRI markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0944.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Neuropsychological tests; youth football; concussion; cognition; helmets; head acceleration events
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:40:00 CEST)
Weight and age interact to modify cognitive effects of head acceleration events after two seasons of youth football Abstract This is a follow-up study of youth American football players in a second season of play. Season-one findings identified a relationship between a head acceleration measure (HITsp) and cognitive score changes with weight modifying the effect in 9 to 10 year-olds. Sixty-eight youth completed a second season of play wearing helmet-mounted sensors and were assessed with neuropsychological tests pre- and post-season. Regression analysis of the full sample demonstrated a small but significant negative effect of HAE on cognition as indexed by test score changes: R2 = .06, F = 4.06, p = .024. Outcome differences between those who started playing at ages nine to 10, compared to those who started between 11 and 13 were identified: t(66) = -3.39, p<.01, d = -.84, 95th CI -2.77 to -.72. Regression models including players’ weights found that the relationship of weight to outcome was different by group: greater negative cognitive effects were found in younger-heavier players (R2 = 0.21, F =3.21, p = 0.03) and older-lighter players (R2 = 0.18, F =4.26, p <.001). These findings confirmed a negative relationship of HAE and cognitive change and point to player weight as an important developmental factor to consider in understanding concussion biomechanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0758.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: abused women; neuropsychological sequelae; attention; memory; depression; Luria DNA battery
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:47:08 CEST)
Abstract Women victims of abuse can suffer neuropsychological sequelae that affect memory and attention, as well psychopathological disorders such as depression. These consequences affect their daily life and physical and psychological health. Objective: To analyze sequelae that affect attention and memory, as well a possible association of these sequelae to depression. Method: A total of 68 women victims of gender-based violence participated in the study. The participants were between 15 and 62 years of age and resided in Spain at the time of data collection. The Luria DNA Battery (Neuropsychological Diagnosis of Adults) by Manga and Ramos (2000); and the Beck Depression Inventory were applied. Results: Women victims of gender-based violence suffer neuropsychological sequelae, presenting low short-term memory and attentional control; and score low on the Luria-DNA battery. Of these women, 60% suffer from some relevant type of depression, and there are significant differences according to their degree of memory. Through the HJ-Biplot, a direct relationship was found between memory and attentional control with the total score of the Luria battery. On the other hand, an inverse relationship was found between short-term memory and depression. Lastly, three well-differentiated gender clusters of women victims of gender-based violence were identified. Conclusions: A lower rate of depression is observed in women victims of abuse when they have a more intact short-term memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health literacy; Quality of Life; Affective ranges; HADS; WHO-QOL BREF; Oman; Famiilial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health Literacy; Affective ranges; HADS; Oman
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:16:04 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest to view the diagnosis of Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) through the lens of the biopsychosocial model. However, other than a few epidemiological surveys, there is a dearth of studies from emerging economies that have examined FH using the biological, psychological and socio-environmental facets of the aforementioned model. AIM. The three aims of the current study were as follows: (i) to examine the psychosocial status among patients with genetically confirmed FH, (ii) to compare the intellectual capacity and cognitive outcomes with a reference group, and (iii) to examine the relationship between health literacy and cognitive functioning. METHOD: Consecutive FH patients referred to the lipid clinic at a tertiary care center for an expert opinion were recruited into this study, conducted from September 2019 to March 2020. Information regarding psychosocial functioning, health literacy, quality of life, and affective ranges were surveyed. Indices of current reasoning ability (attention and concentration, memory, and executive functioning) were compared with an age-matched reference group. The current hypothesis also explored the impact of FH on health literacy and cognition. RESULT: A total of 70 participants out of 106 (response rate: 66.0%) initially agreed to participate. However, 18 out of 70 dropped out of the study, yielding a final total of 52 FH patients. With 27 (51.9%) males and 25 (48.1%) females, the mean participant age stood at 37.2 years (SD=9.2), ranging from 21 to 52 years of age. In the psychosocial data, thirty-two percent (n=17) of them had anxiety (HADS≥ 8), and twenty-five percent (n=13) had depressive symptoms (HADS≥ 8). The performance of the FH patients was significantly impaired compared to the control group on the indices of current reasoning ability and all domains of cognitive functioning. In univariate analysis conducted to compare cognitive functioning with health literacy status, only indices of attention and concentration emerged as being significant. CONCLUSION: To date, there are only a few studies employing the biopsychosocial paradigm to investigate the FH population. The current study indicates that the FH population is marked by an impediment in almost all of the core features that are characteristically assessed by the biopsychosocial approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0292.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: development; time perception; neuropsychological assessment; zone of proximal development; duration of an event
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:12:41 CET)
We aimed to investigate the ability of children aged 5–14 years old (preschoolers, primary schoolers, and preteens) to assess and anticipate time intervals. 287 Russian children aged 5–14 years old and 26 adults of control group participated in our study. The neuropsychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and a battery of time-related tests were applied. All groups of children overestimated the event’s duration, although the accuracy of the second estimations increased among the participants aged 6–8 years after a prompt was offered. A zone of proximal development for time anticipation task was detected for children aged 9-11 years, when the prompt could significantly improve the accuracy of time perception. The participants overestimated the duration of both upcoming and past events, with the degree of overestimation being found to be negatively correlated with age. Further, a higher degree of accuracy in terms of time estimation was found to be correlated with higher scores on the attention and memory tests, and accuracy of time anticipation was associated with scores of praxis test.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0098.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Cell proliferation; congenital heart disease; embryonic lethality; folliculogenesis; neuropsychological profile; prolonged cell cycle; short stature; Turner syndrome
Online: 3 March 2022 (04:27:26 CET)
Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder that is caused by a missing or structurally ab-normal second sex chromosome. Subjects with TS are at an increased risk of developing intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, short stature, congenital heart diseases, infertility, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases (stroke and myocardial infarction). The underlying pathogenetic mechanism of TS is unknown. The assumption that X chromosome-linked gene haploinsufficiency is associated with the TS phenotype is questioned since such genes have not been identified. Thus, other pathogenic mechanisms have been suggested to explain this phenotype. Morphogenesis encompasses a series of events that includes cell division, the production of migratory precursors and their progeny, differentiation, programmed cell death, and integration into organs and systems. The precise control of the growth and differentiation of cells is essential for normal development. The cell cycle frequency and the number of proliferating cells are essential in cell growth. 45,X cells have a failure to proliferate at a normal rate, leading to a decreased cell number in a given tissue during organogenesis. A convergence of data indicates an association between a prolonged cell cycle and the phenotypical features in Turner syndrome. This review aims to examine old and new findings concerning the relationship between a prolonged cell cycle and TS phenotype. These studies reveal a diversity of phenotypic features in TS that could be explained by reduced cell proliferation. The implications of this hypothesis for our understanding of the TS phenotype and its pathogenesis are discussed. It is not surprising that 45,X monosomy leads to cellular growth pathway dysregulation with profound deleterious effects on both embryonic and later stages of development. The prolonged cell cycle could represent the beginning of the pathogenesis of TS, leading to a series of phenotypic consequences in embryonic/fetal, neonatal, pediatric, adolescence, and adulthood life.