ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0415.v1
Online: 16 November 2020 (11:43:12 CET)
The Kenya Forestry Service permits rental of low-density national forest areas for use as common farmland, but public access to such areas is restricted to prevent deforestation against a background of rising demand for fuel wood. This study was conducted to clarify characteristics relating to the production of indigenous bamboo (a useful wood resource) by the approximately 23% of locals who work on common farmland in central Kenya’s Kamae forest management area, with estimation to determine above-ground biomass. The results showed that bamboo still represents 60% of such biomass, indicating sustainability in the industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0129.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:38:04 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to identify potential causes of violence and crime in informal settlements and residents’ strategies for response and prevention to these issues, as perceived by women living in Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with women living in the informal settlement in 2015-2016. A modified grounded theory approach was used to guide data collection and analysis. The most common contributor to violence and crime identified by women in Mathare informal settlement was idle youth, but leadership and government challenges, corruption and/or inadequacy of police, community barriers, tribalism, and lack of protective infrastructure also emerged as contributing factors. Despite facing many economic, environmental, and day-to-day challenges, women in Mathare identified violence and crime as predominant issues; thus, developing effective response and prevention strategies to these issues in informal settlements is paramount. Women suggest there are many strategies and initiatives to reduce and prevent violence and crime in informal settlements, but also identified barriers to implementing them. Findings suggest there is a need for trust-building between formal and informal organizations and institutions, systems of accountability, and long-term investment to foster sustainable and effective violence and crime response and interventions in these settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0560.v1
Online: 24 September 2020 (03:29:07 CEST)
The Sustainable Development Goals provide a global development agenda that is meant to be inclusive of all people. However, the development needs for vulnerable populations such as youth are not reflected within the policy agenda of some developing countries. One of the reasons for this is that research that explores health and wellbeing concerns for young people are sparse in the region and where they exist, the focus has been on marginalized subgroups. To address this gap, this cross-sectional study explored the health and wellbeing of youth in Kenya. We conducted 10 focus group discussions and 13 in-depth interviews with youth ages 15 to 24 years. A thematic analysis of the data revealed that structural factors are important influencers of youth perceptions and their social constructions of health and wellbeing. Kenyan youth are concerned about the health status and healthcare services in their communities, as well as issues of community trust of youths and perceived risks of political misuse and emotional suffering. Our findings suggest that youth transitioning into adulthood in resource constrained areas experience feelings of being powerless and unable to take charge over their own life. This impacts how they perceive and socially construct health and wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Pandemic; Covid-19; Online learning; Teachers; Kenya
Online: 16 March 2022 (10:13:01 CET)
Majority of published articles have talked about the challenges faced by students in learning online however, little has been talked about what the teachers have gone through especially during these times of the pandemic. This paper discusses the factors university teachers face when teaching online. These factors include accessibility to the internet, level of interaction between teachers and students, costs incurred, availability of training and academic policies kept in place to enhance effectiveness of teaching online. These are further divided into personal, social and economic factors where the teachers’ age, gender, remuneration, availability of resources, location and the economic status of the country is discussed in relation to the effectiveness of online learning. Upon carrying out a literature review on articles written on the effectiveness of online learning with the main focus being teachers, it was noted that the main factors affecting the effectiveness of online learning was the availability of internet connection and training provided to teachers. In Kenya, majority of the rural areas lack access to the internet and devices to learn online which makes it difficult for a teacher to teach effectively given the pandemic constraints. This study sheds light on the need for institutions and governments to take input from their teachers and train them on how to make online learning more effective. It also shows the status of universities in Kenya which had to shift to learning online due to the pandemic. Majority of them took time to adapt to this new change due to the discussed factors. Therefore it is recommended that the Government should train teachers and address the issue of lack of internet and electricity in Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0412.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: distance; inpatient care; SDG’s; Kenya; Tweedie; clustered
Online: 18 September 2020 (03:52:59 CEST)
Background: Distance to a health facility for inpatient care in developing countries has been a huge hindrance towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal three. The United Nation encourages countries to research on access to inpatient care, so as to form health policies based on data. Methods: Data on four hundred and eighty-one participants of all ages from forty-seven counties in Kenya who sought inpatient care in Kenya in 2018 were analyzed. Distance to a health facility was captured as a continuous variable and was self-reported by the respondent. The response exhibited a discrete mass at zero and continuous characteristic, therefore a Tweedie distribution was adopted for modelling. Due to the correlation nature of clustered data, we embraced the Generalized Estimating Equations approach with an exchangeable correlation. Since no standard software was available to analyze this problem, we developed an R functions. We assessed the best model fit using the QICu and criteria, in which the lowest value for the former and the highest for the later are preferred.Findings: Differences in employment, ability to pay for the service and household size are associated with the distance covered to access government facilities. Interpretation: Poor people tend to have large households and are more likely to live in rural areas and slums, thus are forced to travel for long distance to access inpatient care. Compared to unemployed, the employed could have better socio-economic status and possibly live within reach of the inpatient health facilities, therefore travel less distances to access. Longer distances are associated with high payments, signifying some form of specialized treatment care due to the complexity of the medical cases, that are expensive to treat.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Drought; SPEI; Pluvial; Severity; Frequency; Duration; Kenya
Online: 4 February 2020 (15:56:58 CET)
This work examines drought and wet events based on Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) over Kenya from 1981 to 2016. Spatiotemporal analysis of dry and wet events is conducted for 3 and 12-month SPEI. The drought incidences were observed during the period 1984, 1987, 2000, 2006, 2009, 2015, and 2016 for SPEI-3 whilst the SPEI-12 demonstrated the manifestation of drought during the year 2000 and 2006. SPEI clearly shows that the wettest period, 1997 and 1998 that coincide with the El Nino event in both time steps. SPEI -3 shows a reduction in moderate drought events while severe and extreme cases were on increase towards the end of the twentieth century. Conversely, SPEI-12 depicts an overall increase in severe drought occurrence over the study location with observed intensity of -1.54 and cumulative frequency of 64 months during the study period. The trend of wet events is upwards in the western and central highlands while the rest of the regions show increase in dry events during the study period. Moreover, moderate dry/wet events predominate whilst extreme events occur least frequent across all grid cells. It is apparent that the study area experiences mild extreme dry events in both categories although moderately severe dry events dominate most parts of the study area. High intensity and frequency of drought is noted in SPEI-3 while least occurrences of extreme events are recorded in SPEI-12. Although drought event prevails across the study area, there is evidence of extreme flood conditions over the recent decades. These findings form a good basis for next step of research that will look at projection of droughts over the study area based on regional climate models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0517.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: agricultural productivity; cropping patterns; Kenya; multi-data analysis
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:44:04 CET)
The proportion of area under various crops at a given point in time, known as a cropping pattern, plays an essential role in determining the level of agricultural production. In this study, cropping patterns of three sub-counties in Murang’a County, a typical African smallholder farming area in Kenya, were mapped. Specifically, we compared the performance of eight classification scenarios for mapping cropping patterns; namely using (i) only Sentinel-2 reflectance bands (S2), (ii) S2 and S2 derived vegetation indices (VIs); (iii) S2 and S2 vegetation phenology (VP); (iv) S2 and Sentinel-1 radar backscatter data (S1); (v) S2, VIs, and S1; (vi) S2, VP, and S1; (vii) S2, VIs and VP, and (viii) S2, VIs, VP and S1. Reference data of the dominant cropping patterns and non-croplands were collected. The guided regularized random forest (GRRF) algorithm was used to select the optimum variables and to perform the respective classification for each scenario. The most accurate result of the overall accuracy of 93.16% was attained from the scenario (viii) S2, VIs, VP, and S1. The McNemar’s test of significance did not show significant differences (p≤0.05) among the tested scenarios. Our study demonstrated the strength of GRRF and the synergetic advantage of S2 and S1 derivatives to map cropping patterns in a heterogeneous landscape where high resolution imagery are inaccessible. Our cropping pattern mapping approach can be used in other sites of relatively similar agro-ecological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020026
Online: 10 April 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Aflatoxin contaminated maize is of public health concern in Kenya. Training farmers on good agricultural practice (GAP) has been touted as a mitigative measure. Little is known of the effect of such training on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in Kenya. This study evaluated what effect training farmers on GAP has on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in in maize grown in Kaptumo, Kilibwoni, and Kipkaren divisions in Nandi County. Ninety farmers were recruited for the study and interviewed on GAP. Maize samples were additionally collected from the participating farmers and analyzed for aflatoxins using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). All farmers prepared the land before planting, did correct spacing between the planted crops, carried out weeding, cleaned their stores before use, checked the condition of the maize after harvesting, sorted maize after shelling, and knew aflatoxins. A majority of the farmers (90%) used fertilizers, dried maize after harvesting, knew that aflatoxins were harmful to humans, and used clean transport in transporting the harvested maize. About 98% of farmers did stooking after harvesting and 97% used wooden pallets in the maize stores. The percentage of farmers who practiced early planting, top dressing, crop rotation, raising stores above the ground, applying insecticide after shelling and feeding damaged/rotten seeds to their animals was 84–96%, 62–80%, 67–85%, 86–98%, 63–81%, and 7–21% respectively. About 18/90 (20%) of all farmers reported that they had a relative who had died from liver cancer and the mean aflatoxin levels in season 1 were significantly different from season 2 (1.92 ± 1.07 ppb; 1.30 ± 1.50 ppb). Our findings suggest that although training farmers to adopt good agricultural practices was observed to be efficient in mitigating the problem of aflatoxins, the receptiveness of farmers to different aspects of the training may have differed. Therefore, in designing an optimized regional aflatoxin contamination strategy, local applicability should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Kenya; COVID-19; community representatives; self-testing; diagnostics; qualitative research
Online: 10 May 2022 (09:38:58 CEST)
Rapid SARS-CoV-2 self-tests have the potential to expand access to COVID-19 testing and improve community-level case detection, particularly in resource-constrained countries such as Kenya. However, prior to their introduction, their acceptability must be assessed. This qualitative study explored key decision-takers’ values towards SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya. Healthcare workers, representatives of civil society, and potential implementors from Mombasa and Taita-Taveta were selected as decision-takers. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data on their values towards self-testing. A thematic analysis approach was applied. Most informants considered that the Kenyan public is equipped to accept and use self-testing safely as an approach to help to reduce workload at public healthcare facilities, and know one’s COVID-19 status in a private manner. The informants emphasized the need to provide counselling to end-users, to support those needing to self-isolate, and to engage different civil society stakeholders in information provision on self-testing. Fear of stigma and of forced isolation were noted as potential deterrents to self-testing uptake for some individuals. In conclusion, there is high acceptability of self-testing in Kenya among decision-takers. However, enhanced education, counselling, and addressing deterrents to testing would be helpful to ensure effective use of SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Urban household, migration, connectivity, food remittances, food security, Nairobi, Kenya
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:55:04 CEST)
This paper draws on data from a representative city-wide household food security survey of Nairobi conducted in 2017 to examine the importance of food remitting to households in contemporary Nairobi. The next section of the paper provides an overview of urbanization and the rapid growth of Nairobi which has led to growing socio-economic inequality, precarious livelihoods for the majority, and growing food insecurity, as context for the more detailed empirical analysis of food security and food remittances that follows. It is followed by a description of the survey methodology and sections analyzing the differences between migrant and non-migrant households in Nairobi. Attention then turns to the phenomenon of food remitting, showing that over 50% of surveyed households in the city had received food remittances in the previous year. The paper then uses multivariate logistic regression to identify the relationship between Nairobi household characteristics and the probability of receiving food remittances from rural areas. The findings suggest that there are exceptions to the standard migration and poverty-driven explanatory model of the drivers of rural-urban food remitting and that greater attention should be paid to other motivations for maintaining rural-urban connectivity in Africa.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: respectful maternity care; disrepectful maternity care; violence; obsteteric; rural; kenya
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:21:16 CEST)
While disrespectful treatment of pregnant women attending health care facilities occurs globally, it is more prevalent in low resource countries. In Kenya, a large body of research studies or has studied disrespectful maternity care (DMC) from the perspective of the service users. This paper examines the perspective of health care workers (HWCs) on factors that influence DMC experienced by pregnant women at health care facilities in rural Kisii and Kilifi counties in Kenya. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with health care workers (HCWs) in these two sites. Data were analyzed deductively and inductively using NVIVO 12. Findings from HCWs reflective narratives identify four areas connected to the delivery of disrespectful care including poor infrastructure, understaffing, service users’ socio–cultural beliefs, and health care workers’ attitudes toward marginalized women. Investments are needed to address health systems influences on DMC including poor health infrastructure and understaffing. Additionally, it is important to reduce cultural barriers through training on HCWs interpersonal communication skills. Further, strategies are needed to affect positive behavior changes among HCWs directed at addressing stigma and discrimination of pregnant women due to socio-economic standing. To develop evidence-informed strategies to address DMC, a holistic understanding of the factors associated with pregnant women’s poor experiences of facility based maternity care is needed. This may best be achieved through an intersectional approach to address DMC by identifying systemic, cultural, and socio-economic inequities as well as the structural and policy features that contribute and determine peoples’ behaviors and choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0127.v1
Subject: Keywords: Granger-causality; carbon dioxide emissions; ARDL; Kenya; variance decomposition; climate change
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:02:23 CET)
In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the Kenya case of multivariate causality of carbon dioxide emissions by employing a time series data spanning from 1961-2011 using the ARDL method of cointegration analysis. The long-run elasticities show that, a 1% increase in financial development increases carbon dioxide emissions by 0.28%, a 1% increase in GDP per capita increases carbon dioxide emissions by 1.32% and a 1% increase in urbanization decreases carbon dioxide emissions by 1.14%. There was a unidirectional causality running from financial development, food production index, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization to carbon dioxide emissions. The innovation accounting shows that 20% of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in financial development, 9% of future shocks in financial development are due to fluctuations urbanization and 22% of future shocks in food production index are due to fluctuations in carbon dioxide emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Urban; rural; COVID-19; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practices; vaccine acceptability; Vaccine hesitancy; Kenya
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:46:00 CEST)
An important step towards COVID-19 pandemic control is adequate knowledge and adherence to mitigation measures, including vaccination. We assessed the level of COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices among residents from an urban informal settlement in the City of Nairobi (Kibera), and a rural community in western Kenya (Asembo). A cross-sectional survey was implemented from April to May 2021 among randomly selected adult residents from a population-based infectious diseases surveillance (PBIDS) cohort in Nairobi and Siaya Counties. Factors associated with the level of COVID-19 KAP, were assessed using multivariable regression methods. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was 83.6% for the participants from Asembo and 59.8% in Kibera. The reasons cited for vaccine hesitancy in Kibera were safety concerns (34.0%), insufficient information available to decide (18.0%), and a lack of belief in the vaccine (21.0%), while the reasons in Asembo were safety concerns (55.0%), insufficient information to decide (26.0%) and lack of belief in the vaccine (11%). Our study findings suggest the need for continued public education to enhance COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices to ensure adherence to mitigation measures. Urban informal settlements require targeted messaging to improve vaccine awareness, acceptability, and uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0059.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: fear of victimization, violence, crime, geography of crime, women, informal settlements, Kenya
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:58:56 CEST)
Around one billion people live in informal settlements, globally, including over half of Nairobi, Kenya’s three million residents. The purpose of this study was to explore women’s fear of victimization within Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya and how fear of victimization influences behavior. Fifty-five in-depth interviews were conducted with women in 2016. A modified grounded theory approach guided data collection and analysis. Findings suggest fear of victimization is a serious concern in informal settlements. Women have found ways to adopt their behaviors that allow them to continue to function and protect their children despite fearing victimization, but at a potential cost to their health and well-being. Thus, there is a critical need for more research focused on social, economic, structural, community, infrastructure, technological, and individual strategies to prevent violence, enhance residents’ sense of safety, and, subsequently, minimize women’s fear of victimization in informal settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0119.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Quantile Mapping Bias Correction (QMBC); Regional Climate Models (RCMs); Rossby Centre Regional Climate Models (RCA4); Drought; Flood; Kenya
Online: 12 January 2020 (14:18:56 CET)
Accurate assessment and projections of extreme climate events requires the use of climate datasets with no or minimal error. This study uses quantile mapping bias correction (QMBC) method to correct the bias of five Regional Climate Models (RCMs) from the latest output of Rossby Climate Model Center (RCA4) over Kenya, East Africa. The outputs were validated using various scalar metrics such as Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and mean Bias. The study found that the QMBC algorithm demonstrate varying performance among the models in the study domain. The results show that most of the models exhibit significant improvement after corrections at seasonal and annual timescales. Specifically, the European community Earth-System (EC-EARTH) and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) models depict exemplary improvement as compared to other models. On the contrary, the Institute Pierre Simon Laplace Model CM5A-MR (IPSL-CM5A-MR) model show little improvement across various timescales (i.e. March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND)). The projections forced with bias corrected historical simulations tallied observed values demonstrate satisfactory simulations as compared to the uncorrected RCMs output models. This study has demonstrated that using QMBC on outputs from RCA4 is an important intermediate step to improve climate data prior to performing any regional impact analysis. The corrected models can be used for projections of drought and flood extreme events over the study area. This study analysis is crucial from the sustainable planning for adaptation and mitigation of climate change and disaster risk reduction perspective.