ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0327.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; remote sensing; ecosystems; spring-summer; forest
Online: 14 August 2020 (12:11:37 CEST)
The European heatwave of 2018 led to record-breaking temperatures and extremely dry conditions in many parts of the continent resulting in widespread decrease in agricultural yield, early tree-leaf senescence, and increase in forest fires in Northern Europe. Our study aims to capture the impact of the 2018 European heatwave on terrestrial ecosystem through the lens of a high-resolution solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) data acquired from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. SIF is proposed to be a direct proxy for gross primary productivity (GPP) and thus can be used to draw inferences about changes in photosynthetic activity in vegetation due to extreme events. We explore spatial and temporal SIF variation and anomaly during spring and summer months across different vegetation types (agriculture, broadleaved forest, coniferous forest, and mixed forest) during the European heatwave of 2018 and compare it to non-drought conditions (most of Southern Europe). About one-third of Europe’s land area experienced a consecutive spring and summer drought in 2018. Comparing 2018 to mean (2015-2017) conditions, we found a change in intra-spring season SIF dynamics for all vegetation types, with lower SIF during the start of spring followed by an increase in fluorescence from mid-April. Summer, however, showed a significant decrease in SIF. Our results show that particularly agricultural areas were severely affected by the hotter drought of 2018. Furthermore, the intense heat wave in Central Europe showed about 31% decrease in SIF values during July and August as compared to the mean over three previous years. Furthermore, our MODIS and OCO-2 comparative results indicate that especially for forests, OCO-2 SIF has a quicker response and possible higher sensitivity to drought in comparison to MODIS’s fPAR and NDVI when considering shorter reference periods, which highlights the added value of remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence for studying the impact of drought on vegetation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Turnip mosaic virus; Potyvirus; Genetic structure; Population; China
Online: 15 May 2017 (11:38:11 CEST)
Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most widespread and economically important virus infecting both crop and ornamental species of the family Brassicaceae. TuMV isolates can be classified to five phylogenetic lineages, basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and Orchis. To understand the genetic structure of TuMV from radish in China, the 3′-terminal genome of 90 TuMV isolates were determined and analyzed with other Chinese isolates available. The results showed that the Chinese TuMV isolates from radish formed three groups: Asian-BR, basal-BR and world-B. More than half of these isolates (52.54%) were clustered to basal-BR group, and could be further divided into three sub-groups. The TuMV basal-BR isolates in the sub-groups I and II were genetically homologous with Japanese ones, while those in sub-group III formed a distinct lineage. Sub-populations of TuMV basal-BR II and III were new emergent and in a state of expansion. The Chinese TuMV radish populations were under negative selection. Gene flow between TuMV populations from Tai’an, Weifang and Changchun was frequent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1674.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cisplatin resistance; Z-Ligustilide; cell cycle arrest; cell apoptosis; phospholipid synthesis; PLPP1
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:44:55 CEST)
Z-ligustilide is a main active ingredient in the volatile oil of Angelica sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine. Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapy drug for the treatment of lung cancer. Efficacy is often limited by the development of drug resistance after long-term treatment. Here, we investigated the effect of the combination of Z-ligustilide and cisplatin (Z-ligustilide+cisplatin) on resistance of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells and its action mechanism. Cell viability was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry assay. mRNA and protein levels of factors related to cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis and RNA sequencing in A549, A549/DDP and A549/DDP cells treated with the Z-ligustilide+cisplatin were performed. The expression of PLPP1 was analyzed by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The correlation between PLPP1 and prognosis was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter analysis. We found that Z-ligustilide+cisplatin could decrease the cell viability of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells. Z-ligustilide+cisplatin induced cell cycle arrest, and promoted cell apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells. Metabolomics combined with transcriptomics revealed that Z-ligustilide+cisplatin inhibited phospholipid synthesis by upregulating the expression of PLPP1. Furthermore, PLPP1 expression was positively correlated with good prognosis. Knockdown of PLPP1 abolished the effects of Z-ligustilide+cisplatin on cell cycle and apoptosis. Z-ligustilide+cisplatin inhibited the activation of AKT by reducing the levels of PIP3 levels. Z-ligustilide+cisplatin induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cell apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells by inhibiting PLPP1-mediated phospholipid synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: DEHP; biochemical pathways; immobilization; MBR; bacterial community dynamics
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:00:48 CET)
A bacterial strain that could effectively degrade DEHP was isolated from the activated sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. by DNA sequencing. The biochemical degradation pathway of DEHP was further analyzed by GC-MS, and the results showed that DEHP was first decomposed into phthalates (DBP). Diuretic sylycol (DEP) was then generated, and phthalates (PA) were generated by a continuous de-ehelateization reaction. Phthalic acid (PA) was oxidized, dehydrogenated, and decarboxylated into protocatechins. Protocatechins enter the TCA cycle through orthotopic ring opening. To enhance DEHP degradation, sodium alginate and calcium chloride were used as embedding and cross-linking materials, and the strain was immobilized. The immobilization conditions were optimized via an orthogonal experiment, and the results showed that the optimal immobilization conditions were SA mass fraction of 4%, CaCl2 mass fraction of 5%, ratio of bacteria to SA of 1:1, and the crosslinking time of 6 hours. The immobilized bacteria agent was further applied to MBR systems. The results showed that the removal rate of DEHP (5mg/L) in the system by immobilized bacteria was 91.9%, which is significantly higher than that of free bacteria. The 3, 4-dioxygenase gene and microbial community dynamics were analyzed by q-PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing. The q-PCR results showed that the number of copies of 3, 4-dioxygenase gene in the immobilized system was significantly higher than that of free bacteria. Illumina Miseq sequencing results showed that Micromonospora, Rhodococcus, Bacteroides and Pseudomonas were the dominant generas in the MBR system. The analysis of bacterial community structure indicated that immobilization technology had a positive impact on the system stability. The results implied that this immobilized technique had potential applications in DEHP wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD); platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR); neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR); baso-phil-to-lymphocyte ratio (BLR); eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ELR); in-hospital mortality; nom-ogram; decision curve analysis (DCA); clinical impact curve (CIC)
Online: 14 November 2022 (04:42:59 CET)
The study comprehensively evaluated the prognostic roles of PLR, NLR, MLR, BLR, and ELR in patients with acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). 619 patients with AECOPD and 300 healthy volunteers were retrospectively included into the study. The clinical characteristics containing laboratory findings of the AECOPD patients and the blood cell counts (CBCs) of the healthy volunteers were collected. Compared with the healthy volunteers, PLR, NLR, and MLR were elevated in COPD patients in stable condition, and were further ele-vated during exacerbation. ELR showed the opposite trend. PLR, NLR, and MLR were all posi-tively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. In contrast, ELR was negatively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with more serious airflow limitation in AECOPD. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with increased in-hospital mortality while Elevated ELR was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. A nomogram was construct to predict in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. The nomo-gram had a C-index of 0.850 (95% CI: 0.799 – 0.901) with good predictive value and clinical ap-plicability. In summary, PLR, NLR, MLR, and ELR served as predictors for clinical outcomes in patients with AECOPD.