REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0405.v1
Online: 19 July 2020 (10:36:28 CEST)
In numerous instances, the fate of a single cell not only represents its peculiar outcome but also contributes to the overall status of an organism. In turn, cell division cycle and its control strongly influence cell destiny playing a critical role in targeting it towards a specific phenotype. Several factors participate to the control of growth and among them p27 and p57, two proteins modulating various transitions of cell cycle, appear to play key functions. In this review, the major features of p27 and p57 will be described, focusing in particular on their recently identified roles not directly correlated to cell cycle modulation. Then, their possible role as molecular effectors of polyphenols activities are discussed. Polyphenols represent a large family of natural bioactive molecules that have been demonstrated to play promising protective activities against several human diseases. Their use has also been proposed in association with classical therapies for ameliorating their clinical effects and for diminishing their negative side activities. The importance of p27 and p57 in polyphenol cellular effects will be discussed with the aim of identifying novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of important human diseases, such as cancers, characterized by an altered control of growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0018.v1
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:45:33 CET)
The amyloid fibril formation by $\alpha$-synuclein is a hallmark of various neurodegenerative disorders, most notably Parkinson's disease. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been reported to be an efficient aggregation inhibitor of numerous proteins, among them $\alpha$-synuclein. Here we show that this applies only to a small region of relevant parameter space and that under some conditions, EGCG can even accelerate α-synuclein amyloid fibril formation through facilitating its heterogeneous primary nucleation. Furthermore, we show through quantitative seeding experiments that contrary to previous reports, EGCG is not able to re-model α-synuclein amyloid fibrils into seeding-incompetent structures. Taken together, our results paint a complex picture of EGCG as a compound that can under some conditions inhibit the amyloid fibril formation of α-synuclein, but the inhibitory action is not robust against various relevant changes in experimental conditions. Our results are important for the development of strategies to identify and characterise promising amyloid inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0331.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gold nanoparticles; EGCG; doxorubicin; radiolabeling; theranostics
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:32:59 CEST)
Gold nanoparticles are currently used for the treatment of cancer through a myriad of modalities and delivery approaches. Conjugation of tumor imaging Single Photon Emitting Computed Tomographic (SPECT) radiopharmaceutical to gold nanoparticles will allow systemic targeting and imaging of cancer tissues simultaneously. In this study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared using Epigallocatechingallate (EGCG), loaded with doxorubicin (Dox), and characterized before and after doxorubicin conjugation. Cytotoxicity of EGCG-AuNPs and Dox-EGCG-AuNPs were evaluated against breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2) cell lines demonstrating high cytotoxic effects of Dox-EGCG-AuNPs against both cell lines. Doxorubicin was radiolabeled with 99mTc and our new approach has optimized various labeling conditions resulting in a radiochemical yield of 93.5 ± 2.04%. Biodistribution of 99mTc-Dox-EGCG-AuNPs was studied in normal and tumor bearing mice following I.V. and intratumoral injections at different time intervals. Results showed high uptake of the intravenously injected 99mTc-Dox-EGCG-AuNPs in tumor tissue (22.45 %ID/g at 2 h). In addition, localized intratumoral injection of 99mTc-Dox-EGCG-AuNPs showed extremely high levels of uptake in tumor (80.22 %ID/g at 15 min) with high retention for extended periods post injection. Our results present prospects for the utility of 99mTc-Dox-EGCG-AuNPs as a multiplexed theranostic agent through SPECT imaging of tumor tissue and therapy through photothermal destruction of cancer tissue through the application of exogenous laser lights as well as through tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor (through EGCG), and topoisomerase II inhibitor (through doxorubicin) effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0298.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell; collagen type I; EGCG; oxidation; remodeling
Online: 17 August 2022 (04:11:29 CEST)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in the process of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling where collagens play a pivotal role. We recently demonstrated that the remodeling of adsorbed collagen type I might be disordered upon oxidation following its fate in the presence of human adipose-derived MSC (ADMSCs). With the present study, we intended to learn more about the effect of polyphenolic antioxidant Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attempting to mimic the conditions of oxidative stress in vivo and its putative prevention by antioxidants. Collagen Type I was isolated from mouse tail tendon (MTC) and labeled with FITC before oxidizing according to Fe2+/H2O2 protocol. FITC-collagen remodeling by ADMSC was assessed morphologically before and after EGCG pretreatment and confirmed via detailed morphometry analysis measuring the anisotropy index (AI) and fluorescence intensity (FI) in selected regions of interest (ROI), namely: outside the cells; over the cells and central (nuclear perinuclear) region, whereas the pericellular proteolytic activity was measured by de-quenching of fluorescent collagen probes (FRET effect). Here we provide morphological evidence that MTC undergoes significant reorganization by the adhering ADMSC along with the substantial activation of pericellular proteolysis, and further confirm that both processes are suppressed upon collagen oxidation. An important observation was that this abrogated remodeling cannot be prevented by the EGCG pretreatment. Conversely, the detailed morphometry analysis showed that oxidized FITC-collagen rather tends to accumulate beneath the cells and around the cell’s nuclei suggesting the activation of alternative routes for its removal, such as internalization and/or transcytosis. Morphometry analysis also revealed that both processes are supported by EGCG pretreatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0212.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: plant polyphenol; EGCG; gelatin; bone formation; congenital bone defect; dedifferentiated fat cell; adipose-derived stem cell; scaffold
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:34:11 CET)
Cost-effective and functionalized scaffolds are in high demand for stem-cell-based regenerative medicine to treat refractory bone defects in craniofacial abnormalities and injuries. One potential strategy is to utilize pharmacological and cost-effective plant polyphenols and biocompatible proteins, such as gelatin. Nevertheless, the use of chemically modified proteins with plant polyphenols in this strategy has not been standardized. Here, we demonstrated that gelatin chemically modified with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin isolated from green tea, can be a useful material for dedifferentiated fat cells and adipose-derived stem cells and can induce bone regeneration in a rat congenial cleft-jaw model in vivo. Vacuum-heated gelatin sponge modified with EGCG (vhEGCG-GS) induced superior osteogenesis from these two cell types compared with vacuum-heated gelatin sponge (vhGS). The EGCG-modification converted the water wettability of vhGS to a hydrophilic property (contact angle: 110° to 3.8°) and the zeta potential to a negative surface charge; the modification enhanced the cell adhesion property and promoted calcium phosphate precipitation. These results suggest that the EGCG-modification with chemical synthesis can be a useful platform to modify the physicochemical property of gelatin. This alteration is likely to provide a preferable microenvironment for multipotent progenitor cells, inducing superior bone formation in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0270.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Systemic amyloidosis; amyloid fibrils; amyloidogenesis inhibitors; antibody light chains; light chain stabilizers; doxycycline; EGCG; thioflavin T; filter trap; PAINS
Online: 9 April 2021 (15:07:24 CEST)
Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation could benefit patients with systemic amyloidosis. In this group of diseases, deposition of amyloid fibrils derived from normally soluble proteins leads to progressive tissue damage and organ failure. Although many small molecules have been proposed as inhibitors of amyloid formation, few have been successful in clinical trials. Amyloid formation is complex and several individual steps could be targeted by small molecules. However, the exact mechanism of action for a molecule is often not known, which impedes medicinal chemistry efforts to develop more potent molecules. Furthermore, commonly used assays are prone to artifacts that must be controlled for. Here, potential mechanisms by which small molecules could inhibit aggregation of immunoglobulin light chain dimers, the precursor proteins for AL amyloidosis are studied in assays that recapitulate different aspects of amyloidogenesis in vitro. One molecule reduced unfolding-coupled proteolysis of light chains, but no molecules inhibited aggregation of light chains or disrupted pre-formed amyloid fibrils. This work demonstrates the challenges associated with drug development for amyloidosis, but also highlights the potential to combine therapies that target different aspects of amyloidogenesis.