REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: monkeypox, transmission, outbreak, atypical presentation
Online: 8 August 2022 (03:57:03 CEST)
An ongoing monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries has resulted in the declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). Though monkeypox has long been endemic in regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, relatively little is known about its ecology, epidemiology, and transmission. Here, we consider the relevant research on both monkeypox and smallpox, a close relative, to make inferences about the current outbreak. Undetected circulation, combined with atypical transmission and case presentation, including mild and asymptomatic disease, have led to the spread of monkeypox in non-endemic regions. Broader availability of diagnostics, enhanced surveillance, and targeted education, combined with a better understanding of the routes of transmission, are critical to identify at-risk populations and design science-based countermeasures to control the current outbreak.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1468.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: CLL; atypical CLL; CD5; CD23; CLL differential diagnosis.
Online: 21 July 2023 (09:07:06 CEST)
A diagnosis of typical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) requires the presence of ≥5000 clonal B-lymphocytes/μL with the coexistence of CD19, CD20, CD5, and CD23 and the restriction of light chain immunoglobulin, and the lack of expression of antigens CD22 and CD79b. Atypical CLL (aCLL) can be distinguished from typical CLL morphologically and immunophenotypically. Atypical CLL cells are defined as prolymphocytes; morphologically, these present as deeply-clefted lymphocytes which are larger than those in typical CLL, with condensed chromatin and without prominent nucleoli. However, current aCLL diagnostics rely more on immunophenotypic characteristics rather than atypical morphology. Immunophenotypically, atypical CLL differs from classic CLL in the lack of expression of one or fewer surface antigens, most commonly CD5 and CD23, and the patient does not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of any other B-cell lymphoid malignancy. Morphologically atypical CLL has more aggressive clinical behavior and worse prognosis than classic CLL. Patients with aCLL are more likely to display markers associated with poor prognosis, including trisomy 12, unmutated IGVH, and CD38 expression compared with classic CLL. However, no standard or commonly-accepted criteria exist for differentiating aCLL from classic CLL and the clinical significance of aCLL is still under debate. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the morphological, immunophenotypic and genetic abnormalities of aCLL.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: atypical; coinfection; Hepatitis B; human immunodeficiency virus; monkeypox
Online: 28 February 2023 (04:51:43 CET)
Mpox (monkeypox) is a zoonotic disease that has been endemic in African countries for decades, with a recent outbreak in several countries around the world. A 39-year-old male with HIV-HBV coinfection and poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment, who was severely immunocompromised and had a concurrent diagnosis of Mpox infection, presented to our hospital with disseminated dermatosis (over 350 lesions), perianal ulcers, odynophagia, oral intolerance, diarrhea, and soft-tissue bacterial superinfection of the lower extremities. Laboratory results were consistent with HBV infection, with an absolute CD4 cell count of 40 cells/uL and a positive PCR result for Mpox. An abdominopelvic CT scan showed evidence of severe proctitis and perineal soft-tissue infection. After 65 days of Mpox PCR, new lesions in the vesicular stage continued to appear, eventually developing hemodynamic instability and sepsis, resulting in a fatal outcome. Our case highlights the importance of intentionally looking for risk factors such as HIV/HBV coinfection and evaluating immune status (CD4 cell count) in patients with severe Mpox infection because it could be related to higher mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: atypical presentation; COVID-19; frailty; mortality; older patients
Online: 6 January 2021 (15:30:48 CET)
Introduction: We describe the clinical features and inpatient trajectories of older adults hospitalized with COVID-19, and explore relationships with frailty. Methods: This retrospective observational study included older adults admitted as an emergency to a University Hospital who were diagnosed with COVID-19. Patient characteristics and hospital outcomes, primarily inpatient death or death within 14 days of discharge, were described for the whole cohort and by frailty status. Associations with mortality were further evaluated using Cox Proportional Hazards Regression (Hazard Ratio [HR], 95% Confidence Interval). Results: 214 patients (94 women) were included of whom 142 (66.4%) were frail with a median Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score of 6. Frail compared to non-frail patients were more likely to present with atypical symptoms including new or worsening confusion (45.1% vs 20.8%, p<0.001) and were more likely to die (66% vs 16%, p=0.001). Older age, being male, presenting with high illness acuity and high frailty were independent predictors of death and a dose-response association between frailty and mortality was observed (CFS 1-4: reference; CFS 5-6: HR 1.78, 95% CI 0.90, 3.53; CFS 7-8: HR 2.57, 95% CI 1.26, 5.24). Conclusions: Clinicians should have a low threshold for testing for COVID-19 in older and frail patients during periods of community viral transmission and diagnosis should prompt early advanced care planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1023.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Atypical anorexia nervosa; anorexia nervosa; Asian adolescents; eating disorders
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:33:45 CEST)
Atypical Anorexia Nervosa (AAN) had been found to have significant physical and psychological complications at presentation but has not been described in a multi-ethnic Asian population. This retrospective cohort analysis aimed to characterize the baseline presentation of adolescents with Anorexia nervosa (AN) (N=317) and AAN (N=141) in an Asian cohort that presented to a specialist paediatric eating disorder program between January 2010 to October 2020 for assessment. In patients with AAN, there were increased proportions of males (16% vs 7%) and of Malay ethnicity (11% vs 4%) compared to AN. Adolescents with AAN had lower admission rates (61% vs 81%) as well as lower rates of bradycardia (45% vs 75%) and hypotension (7% vs 21%) but higher rate of syncope (13% vs 7%) compared to adolescents with AN. However, adolescents with AAN had higher frequency of psychological complications including self-harm and drug overdose (14% vs 1.5%) requiring admission as well as higher rates of purging (45.1% vs 14.8%) and for Eating Disorder Questionnaire score in the shape domain was more severe. Asian adolescents with AAN manifest with physical complications of malnutrition and had worse eating disorder psychopathology with higher frequency of other psychological co-morbidities underlining the severity of the illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Reflux; Laryngopharyngeal; Clinical; Atypical; Nasal; Otological; Respiratory; Management; Treatment; Diagnosis
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:08:19 CEST)
Background: Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disease in otolaryngology characterized by an inflammatory reaction of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract caused by digestive refluxate enzymes. LPR has been identified as etiological or favoring factor of laryngeal, oral, sinonasal or otological diseases. In this case-series, we reported atypical clinical presentation of LPR in patients presenting in our clinic with reflux. Methods: A retrospective medical chart review of 351 patients with LPR treated in the European Reflux Clinic in Brussels, Poitiers and Paris was performed. In order to be included, patients had to report atypical clinical presentation of LPR, consisting of symptoms or findings that are not described in reflux symptom score and reflux sign assessment. The LPR diagnosis was confirmed with 24-hour hypopharyngeal-esophageal impedance pH-study and patients were treated with a combination of diet, proton pump inhibitors and alginates. The atypical symptoms or findings had to be resolved from pre- to posttreatment Results: From 2017 to 2021, 21 patients with atypical LPR were treated in our center. The clinical presentation consisted of recurrent aphthosis or burning mouth (N=9), recurrent burps and abdominal disorders (N=2), posterior nasal obstruction (N=2), recurrent acute suppurative otitis media (N=2), severe vocal fold dysplasia (N=2), and recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis (N=1), tearing (N=1), aspirations (N=1) or tracheobronchitis (N=1). Abnormal upper aerodigestive tract reflux events were identified in all of these patients. Atypical clinical findings resolved and did not recur after an adequate anti-reflux treatment. Conclusion: LPR may present with various clinical presentations including mouth, eye, tracheobronchial, nasal or laryngeal findings, which may all regress with an adequate treatment. Future studies are needed to better specify the relationship between LPR and these atypical findings through analyses identifying gastroduodenal enzyme in the enflamed tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1636.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Autism spectrum conditions; Atypical resource allocation; Listening effort; Pupillometry; Speech-in-noise recognition
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:10:24 CEST)
Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) often experience difficulties in speech-in-noise (SiN) perception, leading to increased listening effort that impacts their well-being and academic performance. This study aimed to investigate the SiN processing challenges faced by Mandarin-speaking children with ASC and its impact on their listening effort. Methods: Participants completed sentence recognition tests in both quiet and noisy conditions, with a steady-state noise masker presented at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio in the noisy condition. We compared recognition accuracy and task-evoked pupil responses from 23 Mandarin-speaking children with ASC to 19 age-matched neurotypical (NT) counterparts to gauge their behavioral performance and listening effort during these auditory tasks. Results: The ASC group demonstrated notably decreased accuracy in noise compared to their NT peers, suggesting poorer SiN perception. Pupillometric data further revealed significantly larger peak dilations in the ASC group than in the NT group under comparable conditions. Importantly, the ASC group's peak dilation in quiet mirrored the NT group's in noise. However, the ASC group exhibited shorter peak latencies and reduced mean dilations than the NT group in similar conditions. Such patterns indicate the ASC group might initially experience a heightened cognitive load but utilize fewer cognitive resources as the task continued, indicating an atypical allocation of cognitive resources and a potential tendency towards relatively superficial and automated auditory processing. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the unique SiN processing challenges children with ASC face, underscoring the importance of a nuanced, individual-centric approach for interventions and support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: disruptive behavior disorders; conduct disorder; oppositional defiant disorder; aggression; atypical antipsychotics; risperidone; clozapine
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:03:40 CEST)
Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) in childhood, such as conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are characterized by high levels of irritability and aggression. Though psychological management is considered the first-line approach for these disorders, many children and adolescents require adjunctive pharmacotherapy for the control of specific symptoms. Several prior systematic reviews have examined the evidence for the use of antipsychotics in the symptomatic management of DBDs, but have concluded that their efficacy is marginal and limited by significant adverse effects. This paper updates existing reviews of this field by reviewing clinical trials of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with DBDs published in the period 2-1-2017 to 2-10-2022. The PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases were searched for relevant citations. Six relevant trials were identified during this period. These trials were critically evaluated in terms of outcome measures, efficacy and safety. Overall, the data from these trials suggests that certain atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone and clozapine, are effective in the short-term management of aggression in DBDs. They have no apparent effect on cognition, but are associated with significant metabolic adverse effects. The results of these trials, and of the earlier systematic reviews, are discussed in the light of global trends towards increasing off-label prescription of antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents, and of recent literature on the neuropharmacology of aggression in this patient population. The need for rational, short-term use of these drugs is highlighted, as well as the importance of post-marketing surveillance for long-term or severe adverse events.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Approach Path Management; Atypical Flight Event; Non-Compliant Approach; Real Time; Anomaly Detection; Functional Principal Component Analysis; Unsupervised Learn- ing; Dubins Path
Online: 12 March 2021 (21:17:22 CET)
In this paper, a complete tool for real-time detection of atypical energy behaviors of airplanes is presented. The methodology extends in real time an existing offline process using Dubins trajectories as a predictor of the remaining distance to the runway threshold. Two major contributions are presented in this paper. First, a real-time measure of the aircraft energy behaviour is defined, indicating whether the aircraft is in good condition to intercept the extended runway centreline from its current position. Secondly, a 2D trajectory suggestion is given, allowing safe management of the approach path according to atypical criteria of historical data. Finally, this document proposes a comprehensive tool for air traffic controllers, which is a major step forward in understanding, becoming aware of and resolving critical situations that could lead to accidents.