Tourism, Leisure, Sport and Hospitality
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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0304.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: agro-ecotourism; sustainability; community; West Java; Indonesia
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:19:16 CEST)
Agro-ecotourism is a tourism development activity in a location with ecological and agricultural advantages, leading to business utilization to generate economic value. Agro-ecotourism in West Java has a selling point in the form of natural potential, agriculture, arts, handicrafts, to the traditional culinary processing typical of the village. This research aims to analyze the sustainability level and the sensitive factors or attributes that affect the level of sustainability of community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java. The study used a survey method on 237 agritourist actors. Data were analyzed using Multi-Dimensional Scaling in the Rapid Appraisal-Tourism technique. The study results show that community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java is quite sustainable (57.07). This study analyzed sustainability through economic, social, cultural, institutional, ecological, and technological dimensions. The social dimension has the highest value because agriculture-based village tourism is carried out in the community. Meanwhile, the lowest value is the technology dimension. The availability of infrastructure influenced the value obtained and means of transportation as well as environmentally friendly farming techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: MVPA; VPA; social norms; children; adolescents; perception
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:47:16 CEST)
Our study points out that there is a discrepancy between the self-perceived levels of own MVPA and VPA and the perceived descriptive norms of peers’ MVPA and VPA. Adolescents underestimate the prevalence of sufficient MVPA and VPA, and thus perceived descriptive norms in MVPA and VPA are worse than levels of own MVPA and VPA. These findings indicate room for targeted intervention based on the social norms based approaches to increase the physical activity of adolescents or at least strengthen their actual positive behaviour.
Thu, 1 June 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: digital health; sports science; global research; bibliometrics; Citespace
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:21:27 CEST)
Digital health has gained widespread adoption across various disciplines. Within the field of sport science, there is growing interest in digital health, leading to a surge in research activities. The objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric and visualization analysis, tracing the evolutionary trajectory, identifying research hotspots, and uncovering emerging trends in digital health within the domain of sport science. By doing so, this research aims to offer scholars a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the dynamic landscape in this field. To achieve this, the Web of Science core collection was chosen as the primary database. A thorough literature search was performed, focusing on digital health and sport science, resulting in the screening of 1870 English-language documents. The findings revealed a consistent upward growth trend in the annual publication count from 2010 to 2023. Notably, the United States, specifically the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania System of Higher Education, and John B. Cronin, emerged as the most prolific contributors in terms of publications. Collaborative efforts among countries, institutions, and authors were also observed. The research hotspots identified encompassed several areas, including the evaluation of digital health technologies' effectiveness, exploration of the relationship between digital health technologies and physical activity/exercise performance, and the use of digital health technologies in assessing and rehabilitating sports injuries. Among the prominent digital health technologies employed in these studies were virtual reality, social media, and wearable devices. The predominant types of studies utilized meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials, and cross-sectional studies. Looking towards the future, the study identified several key research trends. These include the exploration of telemedicine, artificial intelligence-based machine learning, therapeutic interventions, and physical therapy within the realm of digital health. These emerging areas signify promising directions for future investigation and development in the field of digital health within sport science.
Tue, 23 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1638.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: population aging; household tourism consumption; intergenerational care; Internet use
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:26:41 CEST)
The ever deepening population aging has brought opportunities and challenges to the continued expansion of tourism consumption in China. In this article, the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption was studied from both theoretical and empirical aspects. First, the micro mechanisms of the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption were analyzed, which include economic condition mechanism, intergenerational care mechanism, health status mechanism and Internet use mechanism. Subsequently, the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption and its impact mechanisms were tested, and the heterogeneity analysis was conducted, by using the data of China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) from 2014, 2016 and 2018. The main conclusions of the article are as follows: (1) Population aging has a significant negative impact on household tourism consumption, and a series of robustness test results such as endogenous treatment support this finding. (2) The results of the impact mechanism test show that population aging has a negative mediating effect on household tourism consumption by reducing household economic conditions. The moderating effect of intergenerational care on the effect of population aging on household tourism consumption is insignificant. Health status of the elderly and Internet use have a significant positive moderating effect on the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption. (3) The results of the heterogeneity analysis show that the negative impact of population aging on household tourism consumption in urban areas is greater than that in rural areas, and the negative impact of population aging on household tourism consumption of families with the old-old elderly is greater than that of falimies with the young-old elderly. The conclusions of this article provide important references for activating tourism consumption in China in the context of population aging.
Tue, 16 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: tourism development; eco-environment resilience; spatiotemporal heterogeneity; Yangtze River Economic Belt of China
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:20:47 CEST)
Tourism sustainability is a significant approach to forming a synergistic model of industry and ecology in ecologically vulnerable areas. Scientifically detecting the effect mechanism of tourism development (TDI) on eco-environment resilience (ERI) is important in achieving regional social-ecological system sustainability. Empirical exploration is conducted on the levels of TDI and ERI in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) to study the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of TDI's effect on ERI. The results indicate a significant growth in TDI in the YREB, with the formation of tourist clusters around Shanghai and Chongqing as the core. Although ERI typically exhibits a declining trend, the rate of decline has notably slowed, forming a "high at the sides and low in the middle" spatial pattern. TDI and ERI are spatially dependent in the YREB, with predominantly high-high (HH) and low-high (LH) clusters in Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu. Conversely, upstream regions with strong eco-environmental foundations exhibit low-low (LL) and high-low (HL) clusters. In general, TDI promotes ERI, but there is significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the YREB. Positive impact regions are expanding, while negative impact regions are shrinking. These results could provide scientific evidence for differentiated classification and control policies in the YREB.
Wed, 10 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0714.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: cloud tourism; sustainable tourism development; audience psychological analysis; webcast
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:46:18 CEST)
In recent years,"cloud tourism" has developed rapidly and has gained a wide audience, gradually becoming a new operation form of sustainable development in the tourism.However, research on the audience perception, psychological needs, and behavior in this area is still in its infancy. Taking the tourism webcast on the Chinese Weibo platform as an example, this paper constructs a cognitive-emotional model of Chinese tourists' "cloud tourism" and explore the impact mechanism of "cloud tourism" on audience behavioral willingness by drawing on the "cogni-tive-emotional" theory, combining with text analysis and grounded theory. The findings suggest that "cloud tourism" can satisfy the audience's cognitive needs to a certain extent, but the expe-riential nature of tourism is far from sufficient, and it is difficult to realize the essence of tourism. In the future, "cloud tourism" still needs to continuously exert positive effects, becoming a visual presentation of traditional tourism and a novel operation form of sustainable development.
Tue, 9 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Keywords: Sustainable Tourism; community preparedness; Lombok; Indonesia
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:26:26 CEST)
This research aims to examine the level of readiness of the community to carry out sustainable tourism development, especially community-based tourism on small islands, such as Lombok Island, Indonesia. More specifically, the objectives of this study are as follows: (1) Knowing the level of community readiness in carrying out sustainable tourism development. (2) Knowing the various dimensions that influence sustainable tourism development. (3) Knowing the role of stakeholders in sustainable tourism development. The method applied in this research is mixed methods, a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods are used to determine community readiness for sustainable tourism development. A qualitative approach is used to determine the various factors that influence the development of community-based tourism and to determine the role of stakeholders in the development of community-based tourism. The level of community readiness for sustainable tourism development is high in terms of economic, social, cultural, environmental, and symbolic capital aspects. Aspects that influence the development of sustainable tourism are economic, social, and cultural. Stakeholders who play a role in developing sustainable tourism in the research area are the government, the private sector, universities, non-governmental organizations, and the media.
Tue, 2 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: energy prices; hospitality; risk; survey; tourism
Online: 2 May 2023 (04:24:46 CEST)
Energy, with very low demand and replacement elasticity, is a key component of production as well as a good for consumption. Inflation as a whole is instantly impacted by rising energy prices. After lockdowns were lifted in 2020–2021 and the global economy started to recover, oil prices began to rise. This trend continued with escalating geopolitical tensions and the eventual crisis in Ukraine brought on by Russia's invasion in February 2022. The current paper examines how the tourism industry has been impacted by rising energy commodity prices from the perspectives of travelers and hotel managers. Hereby a qualitative and a quantitative process is being used for a thorough examination of the consequences of inflated prices. More specifically, the three methods which were used are: descriptive analysis, correlation matrices and regression analysis. For the latter, all models appear to explain well the variation of the variables and provide reliable results. This study concludes that, although the overall inflation caused by higher energy prices was impactful for the individuals as well as for the businesses, however the touristic season of 2023 is expected to be one of the most fruitful ones yet, especially for the Greek economy, since strong numbers are reported (in revenues, expenditure and percentage of expected guests), while tourists are seemingly not willing to sacrifice their holidays altogether, but make other modifications in their lifestyle and choices. Finally, it is important to stress that governments should start integrating sustainable energy as a key component.
Thu, 27 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: COVID-19; tourist behavior; travel mode preferences; Bosnia and Herzegovina
Online: 27 April 2023 (02:21:14 CEST)
Building on the study by Abdullah et al. (2020), this study aims to analyze the perception of travel, especially in this context of the pandemic, when the measures are alleviated, as well as the citizens' intention and preferences for travel methods during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on travel behavior and travel mode preferences in the example of the residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Five research questions were defined. A quantitative research approach was applied in this study. The data was collected through a questionnaire (online survey) distributed to respondents via e-mail and the social network Facebook. The convenience sample included 265 respondents. Descriptive analysis, as well as quantitative comparative analysis, were carried out on the collected data. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced a change in travel behavior. The primary purpose of travel before and during the COVID-19 pandemic was social activities. The most significant change in the primary purpose of travel before and during the COVID-19 pandemic is reflected in a decrease in social activities and an increase in recreational sports activities. In contrast, other activities remained proportionally the same before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The average distance traveled for primary outdoor trips before the COVID-19 pandemic is greater than that for primary outdoor trips during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article allows for better organization and planning for the future in the event of another pandemic.
Sun, 23 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0776.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Ecotourism; Participations; Perceptions; Impact; Protected area
Online: 23 April 2023 (05:07:16 CEST)
This study aims to examine households' perceptions of the socio-cultural, economic, and environmental impacts of ecotourism in the protected area, focusing on Simien Mountain National Park, North west Ethiopia. Using a mixed research approach with a sequential explanatory design, we collected data through a single-round cross-sectional survey, interviews, focus groups, discussions, and secondary sources of information. Three districts were selected using a multi-stage sampling method, and 397 respondents were surveyed. We analyzed the quantitative data using percentages, averages, t-tests, ANOVA, and regression models, and examined the qualitative data using thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that households living in the park generally perceived the social, economic, and environmental impacts of ecotourism as favorable. However, the study also revealed that the benefits of tourism are not being fully utilized, indicating the potential for further development. We found significant differences in how people perceived ecotourism based on their gender, education, and residence location. Specifically, men and respondents with higher levels of education were more likely to perceive ecotourism positively. The logistic regression model revealed a statistically significant direct cause-and-effect relationship between three demographic factors of household respondents' participation in ecotourism (dependent variable) and gender (B = 1.85, p = 0.023), educational attainment (B = 0.23, p = 0.003), and location (B = 0.42, p = 0.041). In light of these findings, the authors recommend that the local government and the Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Agency should develop sustainable plans for tourism that will benefit nearby communities and improve living conditions in the park.
Tue, 11 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0218.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: marathon; performance; foot strike pattern; Olympic Games; cadence; running
Online: 11 April 2023 (10:04:26 CEST)
(1) Background: Foot strike pattern and cadence are two important variables that are related to sport performance and injury risks; the objective of this study is to analyse the foot strike pattern and cadence of the male elite athlete that participated in the Tokyo Olympic Games marathon. (2) Methods: Two independent researchers analysed the foot strike pattern of the first 51 participants in the 5km, and the cadence of the finalists in three different segments of the race. Descriptive statistics were presented for the main variables of this study. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to study the differences in cadence between different sections of the race (p<0.05). (3) Results: Average of the cadence of the eight finalists was 185.5 steps per minute (SD ± 5.1). No differences between sections of the race were found. The more most common foot strike pattern was midfoot strike pattern, followed by rearfoot strike pattern, and forefoot strike pattern. The results of cadence are in line with previous studies that analysed elite athletes, with the values being higher than other research involving recreational runners. (4) Conclusions: elite marathon runners mostly run with a running non-rearfoot strike pattern and a cadence of over 185 steps per minute.
Fri, 6 January 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0406.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: cultures; heritage; indigenous knowledge; local people; losers; management; rural stakeholders; tourism; winners
Online: 6 January 2023 (10:06:05 CET)
Rural tourism plays an increasing role in maintaining sustainable rural development. In-11 tegrating culture into rural tourism is multifaceted. Local communities have often been regarded as 12 homogeneous, and different voices within them are selectively presented or re-interpreted by pow-13 ers. A better understanding of how and why cultures are integrated into rural tourism is urgently 14 needed. This paper aims to investigate (1) the aims and motives of tourism managers to integrate 15 cultural concepts into rural tourism; (2) who has participated in the cultural integration process; and 16 (3) how cultures have been integrated into rural tourism. Based on a scoping literature review, we 17 found that cultures could add more attractions, such as historical heritage, artwork, cultural land-18 scape, customs, food, and language, to the natural landscape and bring more tourists to rural areas. 19 However, integrating cultures into rural tourism is not always successful. Conflicts of interest 20 among different stakeholders are also often found. Some of the worst cases of cultural integration 21 have even destroyed the original natural landscape and local cultures. While cultural integration is 22 complicated, injustice and perverse effects do not have to be a consequence of integrating cultures 23 into rural tourism. Multi-way communication among tourism providers, managers, and consumers 24 can mitigate disruptive outcomes and unlock positive social outcomes.
Wed, 26 October 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0406.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: cultures; heritage; indigenous knowledge; local people; losers; management; rural stakeholders; tourism; winners
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:21:11 CEST)
Rural tourism plays an increasing role in sustaining sustainable rural development. Integrating culture in rural tourism is multifaceted. Local communities have often been regarded as homogeneous and different voices internally is selectively presented or re-interpreted by powers. A better understanding of how and why cultures are integrated into rural tourism is urgently needed. This paper aims to investigate: (1) what are the aims and motives of tourism managers to integrate cultural concepts into rural tourism; (2) who has participated in the cultural integration process; and (3) how cultures have been integrated into rural tourism. Based on a scoping literature review, we find that cultures could add more attractions, such as historical heritage, artwork, cultural landscape, customs, food, and language, to the natural landscape and bring more tourists to rural areas. However, integrating cultures into rural tourism is not always successful. Conflicts of interests among different stakeholders are often found too. Some worst culture-integration cases even destroyed the original natural landscape and local cultures. While culture integration is complicated, injustice and preserve effects do not have to be a consequence of integrating cultures into rural tourism. Two-way communication among tourism provider, managers and demanders can mitigate disruptive outcomes and unlock positive social outcomes.
Mon, 19 September 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Drive tourism; Routes; Sustainable; Systematic Literature Review; PRISMA.
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:37:29 CEST)
Drive tourism (DT) have become an attractive way of tourist destination for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for local communities and preserves local identity, along the route, without compromising the environmental resources. Many studies focused the topic of DT, mainly the analysis of a particular angle, either be economic sustainability, e.g., advantages of the ones related to economic and environment sustainability [e.g., 2,4,5,10], such as the impact of tourists along the route environment. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the social consequences of DT in the local entrepreneurial environment and ensuing over enhancing of their cultural representativeness in terms of authenticity. Our aim is to summon these points of view and achieve, through a systematic literature review, a clear and integrative picture of the driving tourism impacts in terms of sustainability along the routes throughout local communities. A systematic literature review was performed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. This systematic literature review sought to consolidate knowledge on the subject. In order to illustrate the link between major categories and their corresponding trends, authors used VOSviewer scientific software. The gathering of existing knowledge around the three components of sustainability highlighted the importance of community involvement and collaboration among DT stakeholders to ensure a trade-off between the protection and promotion of DT routes. Opportunities for future studies are suggested.
Wed, 7 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: conservation; sacred groves; natural sites; heritage tourism; local communities
Online: 7 September 2022 (03:30:51 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of the sacred groves and natural sites for tourism in local communities in Nigeria. Three communities in Inyi town were chosen as case studies: Umuome, Enugwu-Inyi, and Alum, using a purposive sampling technique. An ethnographic data collection method was adopted, using in-depth interviews and direct observation. Grove locations were located and mapped using a geographic information system (GIS) throughout the research area. The secondary data was obtained from scholarly journals. The findings showed that the sacred groves and natural sites had exceptional value for cultural and eco-tourism. There are not many works that have studied the tourism dimension of the sacred groves in the study domain. The implication of the study is that tourism aids in the preservation of the sites' integrity. The research helps the government and policymakers to adopt a policy that promotes tourism in the sacred groves. This research is important to researchers at the universities and research institutions that are seeking to carry out a related research. Conclusively, utilizing the area for tourism is a superior conservation alternative.
Wed, 24 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Smartphone Apps; Trip Planning; App Usage; Travel Outcomes
Online: 24 August 2022 (03:55:53 CEST)
With considerable growth in the Information & Communication Technologies, several smartphone-based mobility platforms have already sprung up and they have the potential of transforming the mobility ecosystem completely. However, mobility-based smartphone app usage pattern across various user groups in Indian cities is unknown, and this knowledge is vital for introducing new consolidated apps-based services. Therefore, using primary data from a survey carried out in Bhopal (India), this article analyses the usage pattern of smartphone apps for trip planning activities and travel outcomes across various user groups at the personal and household level. The research offers empirical indication of relationships between smartphone app usage for trip planning (like departure time, choosing a destination, choosing the mode, se-lecting route, communicating, and coordinating trips, and performing tasks online instead of visiting) and resulting travel outcomes including vehicle kilometers travelled (for purposes like work/education, shopping, and recreation), social gathering, new place visits and group trips. The chi-square test has been used to test and interpret several socioeconomic variables that could in-fluence this relationship, such as gender, age, income, etc. This study's findings provide important behavioral insights that may be useful in policy discussions.
Fri, 10 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0155.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: word segmentation; word cloud analysis; TF-IDF weight analysis; co-word analysis; network analysis
Online: 10 June 2022 (08:18:59 CEST)
A digital text abstract presents the essential information of an article, and we can find the trend and value of the research by analyzing it rigorously and digging up knowledge. Therefore, this study focuses on the abstracts of index journals in China and Taiwan from July 2010 to June 2020 (a total of 3,283 abstracts). Through the concepts of text mining and natural language processing (NLP), it constructs processes such as text retrieval, text segmentation and word cloud analysis, TF-IDF weight analysis, co-word analysis, network analysis, and trend analysis, and analyses a large amount of text data. The results show that the scope of research in China covers the fields of social sports and sports science, and research in Taiwan covers both natural and social sciences. The network diagram highlights the richness of sports-related research fields in the two regions, but research on sports philosophy is relatively rare. It is suggested that all disci-plines/departments should re-allocate the same resources, so as to show a balanced development trend and help expand a new chapter in the sports academic field.
Fri, 13 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Tourism; Measuring sustainability; Tourist satisfaction; E-reputation; Sustainable development; Sentiment analysis; ETIS; Open data; Geospatial Index
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:58:47 CEST)
The importance of measuring sustainability in tourism has been significantly advancing in recent years, following the need to manage the impact of tourism on territories and hosting communities. It was further boosted by the pandemic, where sustainability has been defined as one of the central elements to restart global tourism. The ETIS model, developed by the European Commission, is a point of reference based on self-assessment, data collection and analysis by the destinations themselves. The application of ETIS toolkit has faced many challenges, especially at sub-national level, mostly related to the lack of available and updated data to feed the model. The hypothesis explored by the authors is to solve the implementation issues, developing an indicator based on the use of the Sentiment Analysis to frame e-reputation and tourism satisfaction, and further combining it with other open data sources. The Tourism Sustainability Index (TSI) can provide a scalable and geo-referenced evaluation of tourism sustainability, measuring the four pillars and sub-components referenced to ETIS criteria, applicable to any tourism destination. Results show that the TSI can be seen as a consistent and valid tool for destinations to analyze sustainability, monitor its evolution through time periods and sub-areas, and compare it to other benchmark or competitive areas.
Thu, 10 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0146.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: leisure; recreation; gardening; physical activity; natural landscapes
Online: 10 February 2022 (10:33:35 CET)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived benefits of community gardening. A garden colony is a collection of adjacent plots of land primarily for the purpose of gardening. The methodology of this research consists of observations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus group. As a result of this research we found that gardening is a natural and safe way to meet the lifelong demands for a healthy life. We found specific mental and physical benefits as a result of this community gardening. We encourage communities to allow people to buy plots of land away from their homes to promote this healthy activity. The garden colony provides a place for individual renewal and restoration; this urban oasis offers a way to maintain and promote lifelong healthy living, and they are an important contribution to one’s life by adding a sense of meaning and purpose.
Mon, 27 September 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) 229
Online: 27 September 2021 (16:32:04 CEST)
Khabib Nurmagomedov versus Conor McGregor Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) 229 battle was among the most controversial mixed martial art fights of the past decade. In this study, the author examined how the various popular media outlets from the Eastern and Western world portrayed Khabib Nurmagomedov after UFC 229. The author used Huntington’s (1993) clash of civilization thesis by grounding it in the Orientalism and Occidentalism paradigms to examine the phenomenon. Fairclough’s (1989, 1995) model for critical discourse analysis was employed to investigate the various Western and Eastern popular press and digital media platforms (i.e., newspapers, blogs, and sporting news websites). The author analyzed 57 (Western n = 38, Eastern n = 19) media reports per the inclusion criteria. The study results unveiled conflicting predispositions present in the Western and Eastern media for Khabib Nurmagomedov. This study contributes to the limited knowledge about how a Muslim man athlete with diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds is seen contrarily in the Western and Eastern media. The author discusses the theoretical implications of the study.
Tue, 14 September 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0630.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: tug of war; anthropometrics; physical capacities; physiology; injuries; kinetics.
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:34:06 CEST)
Tug-of-war (TOW) is an internationally played activity including professional and amateur athletes and defined as early (4000 years ago as a rope less version) in the artwork on Egyptian tomb engravings and is played as per the rules laid out by TWIF, which has 73 member countries and administrative headquarters in the USA. Typically, two teams of “pullers” participate and apply enormous contra directional forces on the pulling rope. Originally, two types of competition are used: knockout and points. This narrative review describes the scientific state of the art about of TOW. For the best of the author’s knowledge no previous information has been published. Anthropometric parameters are near 83.6, lean body mass 69.4, and body fat 16. The VO2MAX is 55.8 ml/kg/min. Relative strength, the dynamic leg power was 4659.8 N. Endurance TOW elicits minimal muscle damage. The injured strains and sprains comprised over half of all injuries: back (42%), shoulder–upper limb (23%) and knee (17%). Pulling movement in TOW contests can be divided into three phases: namely "Drop", "Hold" and "Drive" phase. The maximal pulling forces was 1041.6 ± 123.9 N. The percentage of dynamic pulling force in static maximal pulling force was 75.5 ± 14.4% and the dynamic ranged from 106.4 to 182.5%. There are two gripping styles, indoor and outdoor. The friction characteristics between surface and shoe in TOW is important to determine a suitable shoe for indoor TOW. Waist Belt might be a useful piece of equipment for TOW sport. The EMG technique in Tow described a high activity of dorsal muscle during the pulling. The factor of force vanishing was the coordination among athletes. The force vanishing percentage goes from 8.82±5.59 for 2 contenders to 19.74±2.22 for 8 athletes, 6.4 % in the sum of 2 pullers. However, in the drop phase, for female elite TOW team, only the 0.5 % of them pulling force was wasted. Future studies are need in order to understand better this historical sport activity.
Fri, 30 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0684.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: human-wildlife interactions; non-human primates; zooanthropology; primate sanctuary; Lemur catta
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:18:23 CEST)
The aim of the present study is to investigate themes related to visitors’ perceptions of captive wildlife in particular, attitudes towards non-human primates (henceforth, primates). This research took place in free-roaming, multi-species primate sanctuary, Monkeyland (South Africa), where 400 visitors were interviewed using an anonymous survey both before and after attending a guided tour. The answers were divided into different categories, in order to standardize the motivations behind tourists’ choices. The results of the survey demonstrated that most visitors agree that a primate would not be a good companion animal. Visitors’ desire to touch primates was found to be positively correlated with desire for companion primates and inversely associated with visitor age. In response to: “would you like to touch a monkey?”, the majority of tourists who expressed this desire seemed aware that such interactions are not appropriate, with concern for animal welfare and human health. Of the various primate species present in the sanctuary, visitors preferred the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and, generally speaking, expressed appreciation for primates’ “cuteness”. Our results indicate a general awareness by the visitors on the importance of animal welfare in the human interactions with captive wildlife, in agreement with the “hands-off” policy of Monkeyland primate sanctuary. We discuss the findings from a general to zooanthropological point of view, proposing some reflections on the attitudes of visitors toward non-human primates.
Fri, 7 May 2021
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Covid-19; social distancing; route planning inside a destination; urban tourism; backtracking algorithm; Brașov, sustainable development; tourist route optimization
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:00:17 CEST)
he paper presents an innovative method for tourist route planning inside a destination. The necessity of reorganizing the tourist routes within a destination comes as an immediate response to the Covid-19 crisis. The implementation of the method inside tourist destinations can bring an important advantage in transforming a destination into a safer destination in times of Covid-19 and post-Covid-19. The existing trend of shortening the tourist stay length has been accelerated while the epidemic became a pandemic. Moreover, the wariness for future pandemics has brought into spotlight the issue of overcrowded attractions inside a destination at certain moments. The method presented in this paper proposes a backtracking algorithm, more precisely an adaptation of the travelling salesman problem. The method presented is aimed to facilitate the navigation inside a destination and to revive certain less-visited sightseeing spots inside a destination while facilitating conformation with the social distancing measures imposed for Covid-19 control.
Mon, 19 April 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Balawista; coastal tourist nursing; safety; tourist, POSKESPAN
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:22:45 CEST)
Coastal tourist nursing is intended for coastal tourists related to the risk of accidents that may occur during the coastal activity. The risk of accidents in tourists can occur due to bad weather, lack of rescue equipment, and the limited ability of the coast guard to perform first aid and emergency treatment. This study described the relationship between coastal tourist nursing with the prevention of injuries and the first aid of coastal accidents, as well as the working procedures and obstacles that might occur during the rescue. The research was conducted by the qualitative method through in-depth interviews with respondents consisting of tourists, Balawista, and health workers. The data is analyzed with qualitative descriptive analysis. The interview generates 14 themes related to activities on coastal such as the duties of Balawista, warning signs, means of communication, improvement of ability, accident cases, accident treatment, referral of cases, needs of infrastructure facilities, human resources needs, health care needs, infrastructure factors, human factors, situation factors, and how to cope with the problem. Those themes can be used as a reflection in following up the safety service efforts to coastal tourists.
Wed, 17 February 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Seasonal Variance; Pedestrians Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET); Adaptive Thermal Comfort
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:14:58 CET)
Season plays a key role in the development of outdoor spaces for pedestrians in hot humid cities. This research studies the influence of seasonal variations on pedestrian thermal comfort on the pedestrian level by means of meteorology and field observations of selected footpaths in the major tourist area of Malacca. This experiment was carried out on selected clear calm days indicative of each season during the development of a research project, and hourly meteorological transects from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm and questioned 200 respondents on their thermal awareness, comfort, and preferences were conducted. Adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, age, season and hour of the day were significant non-meteorological factors, apart from meteorological information. The findings of analyzes showed that the thermal experience and expectation existed and in different seasons people changed perceptions for the outside thermal environment. Almost 80% local tourist and 55 % international tourist was accepted Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) range affected by the local climate and thermal adaptation. The subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature generated an acceptable physiological equivalent temperature of 32.6°C to 36.8°C based on the seasonal variations for Malacca tourist zone in Malaysia. These findings shed light on the optimal design of outdoor spaces for increasing the utilization rate. The seasonal variation must be taken into account so that the outdoor landscape design provides more opportunities for different seasons to communicate with the atmosphere and so enhance thermal comfort and utilization.
Fri, 8 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Island nations, Tourism, Small Island Nations, economic development, tropical islands
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:29:52 CET)
In the past few decades, the tourism sector has emerged as a significant economic activity in island nations, particularly in tropical regions. However, most of the tropical islands face similar constraints. National and international tourists visit the SIDS including A & N Islands and contribute to the GDP to significant share. The Covid-19 outbreaks in SIDs including A & N islands shows that number of people infected were less as compared to metros or big cities. However, tourism activities completely stopped due to lockdown resulting in decreasing tourist’s arrival, declined GDP and per capita income of SIDs to greater extent. The information gathered from various sources, mass media and net analysed and interpreted in this chapter. Due to Covid-19 tourist’s arrival declined which has serious consequences on the livelihood of islander. Our analysis revealed A&N Islands deficit in energy available at from different sources by 18.26%. However, they are surplus in protein. The burden of high expenditure coupled with poor infrastructure makes them more vulnerable in the circumstance of pandemic outbreaks. This outbreak has created the question of survival due to loss of jobs, halted economic activates, psychological, health unrest and livelihood threats among the depending people of these Island nations. Therefore, government interventions and subsidized package is very much essential to revive the tourism industry.
Mon, 16 November 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0403.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Sustainability; Travel Supply Chain; Tourism Intermediaries; SME; Large Corporations; Motivations
Online: 16 November 2020 (08:59:03 CET)
Traditional travel agencies and tour operators are recognized as relevant stakeholders in the tourism distribution chain, even though their role as transforming agents in the achievement of more sustainable tourism is beginning to be accepted. This document collects the main topics and the most recent approaches from the academic literature in its analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices developed by these intermediaries. The work has been structured around six recurring themes in most of the studies carried out: the new intermediaries that operate on the Internet; the role of travel agencies and tour operators in tourism sustainability; the influence of the size of the company; CSR as a disruptive innovation in this sector; the potential of the sustainable tourism supply chain; and the motivations and attitudes of the managers of these businesses when they engage with responsibility. This last topic is developed in greater detail since it is closely linked to the previous ones and dictates in most cases the meaning and function of the sustainable performance.
Tue, 10 November 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0317.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Eurocentric, autobiography, travel writing, travel writing, culture, diplomatic
Online: 10 November 2020 (13:54:41 CET)
Considered one of the finest first-generation Nigerian writers, John Pepper Clark-Bekederemo, who passed away on 13th October, 2020, had been categorised as a Eurocentric writer. This work assesses the authenticity or otherwise of this critics’ perception of Clark by critiquing his America, their America. By analysing this autobiography vis-à-vis the notion of self and other which is a theoretical concern in contemporary travel writing, it was established, among other things, that every culture has its dark sides which it must not feel too proud to change as time and situation demand; that Clark vehemently rejects the Americans’ claim of sophistication and superiority of their culture over African culture. The paper concludes that contemporary travel writing should be a rightful site for negotiating cultural, political and diplomatic compromises between the Self and the Other since the gulf may be difficult to close altogether.
Fri, 23 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0487.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Tourists; Tourism industry; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Pandemic
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:52:13 CEST)
Taking advantage of tourists’ intensive flow, the SARS-CoV-2 virus rapidly spread causing thousands of deaths globally. Trying to contain the already pandemic virus, government travel restrictions were suddenly imposed. Consequently, the tourism industry, which at that moment employed one in ten workers globally, suddenly collapsed. Hundreds of thousands of workers immediately lost their income. Flights were cancelled, and thousands of tourists were stuck abroad with no means to return to their home countries. The gravity of the situation raised the question of whether there was scholarly knowledge that could have helped manage tourism during the current pandemic. To answer this question, a methodical literature review was performed, allowing for up to 900 publications to be analysed. Keywords used were pandemic, tourism, tourist and travel. Based on this process, 63 publications were selected for further analysis. Among these, less than 5% were focused on the tourism side of the problem. As such, this research concludes that, by the time the novel coronavirus emerged, there was, virtually, no scholarly knowledge on how to manage tourism during pandemic times so as to avoid chaos, and that the scholarly community studying related issues is very small. Moving forward, this article recommends that research funding agencies and universities encourage the sound development of this area of knowledge. Aspects that should be investigated include when, how and by whom should tourism be halted, as well as the feasibility of a Tourism World Fund for supporting related costs.
Wed, 19 August 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: COVID-19; Economic; Environment; Development; Social; Tourism
Online: 19 August 2020 (17:22:04 CEST)
The Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic situation has posed significant effect on tourism industry. Tourism destinations have embraced emergency health care measures and restrictions imposed on human movement around the world. Beaches and resorts are empty, peoples’ movements are stopped and travelling between territories is strictly controlled. The COVID-19 lockdown around the world has imposed negative impact on the livelihood of people and world economy as well. The present study attempts to find out the scopes for sustainable tourism development in near future from the consequences of social, economic, and environment in COVID-19 pandemic situation.
Mon, 17 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Museums; special events; late opening; visitors' motivations; sustainability, touristic attractions
Online: 17 August 2020 (12:11:29 CEST)
The urban museum has become a multi-functional institution that transcends the functional display of artifacts. The museum has become, in cities, a hybrid institution that keeps its doors open late to support a wide variety of special events. This study explored London’s ‘Museum Lates’ programs and event characteristics, using museums’ theoretical views as cultural tourism attractions. Furthermore, the study applied the contextual model of learning to understand visitor attendance motivations. Authors employed an interpretive approach using interviews with two types of participants, event visitors, and event coordinators. Findings suggested that attendees possess a complex of personal, physical, and socio-cultural motivations for participating in museum lates events. The characteristics of late events – extraordinary quality and evening time atmosphere – produce different effects than current museum exhibitions held during regular operating hours. Museum lates events can contribute to achieving cultural sustainability, adding cultural construct to the traditional three-pillars of sustainability. Keywords: Museums; special events; late opening; visitors' motivations; sustainability, touristic attractions
Wed, 13 May 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: androgens; athletic performance; cross-hormone therapy; gender dysphoria; muscle; sex hormones; sporting policies; strength; transgender men; transgender women
Online: 13 May 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
Sex dimorphism starts during early embryogenesis and is further manifested in response to hormones during puberty. As this leads to physical divergence that is measurably different between sexes, males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. While this advantage is the underlying basis of the segregation into male and female sporting categories, these sex-based categories do not account for transgender persons who experience incongruence between their biological sex and their experienced gender identity. Accordingly, the International Olympic Committee determined criteria by which a transgender woman may be eligible to compete in the female category, requiring total serum testosterone levels to be suppressed below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to and during competition. Whether this regulation removes the male performance advantage has not been collectively scrutinized. Here, we aim to review how differences in biological characteristics between biological males and females affect sporting performance and assess whether evidence exists to support the assumption that testosterone suppression in transgender women removes the male performance advantage. In this review, we report that the performance gap between males and females amounts to 10-50% depending on sport. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and strength, particularly in the upper body. Longitudinal studies examining the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 1 year of treatment. Thus, current evidence shows that the biological advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is suppressed. Sports organizations may therefore be compelled to reassess current policies regarding participation of transgender women in the female category of sport.
Sun, 29 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0421.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: urban morphology; physical activities; health; public health; public space; urban health
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:02:59 CEST)
Along with environmental pollutions, urban planning has been connected to public health. The research indicates that the quality of built environments plays an important role in reducing mental disorders and overall health. The structure and shape of the city are considered as one of the factors influencing happiness and health in urban communities and the type of the daily activities of citizens. The aim of this study was to promote physical activity in the main structure of the city via urban design in a way that the main form and morphology of the city can encourage citizens to move around and have physical activity within the city. Functional, physical, cultural-social, and perceptual-visual features are regarded as the most important and effective criteria in increasing physical activities in urban spaces based on literature review. The environmental quality of urban spaces and their role in the physical activities of citizens in urban spaces were assessed by using the questionnaire tool and analytical network process (ANP) of structural equation modeling. Further, the space syntax method was utilized to evaluate the role of the spatial integration of urban spaces on improving physical activities. Based on the results, the consideration of functional diversity, spatial flexibility and integration, security, and the aesthetic and visual quality of urban spaces plays an important role in improving the physical health of citizens in urban spaces. Further, more physical activities, including motivation for walking and consequently, the sense of public health and happiness, were observed in the streets having higher linkage and space syntax indexes with their surrounding texture.
Tue, 3 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0015.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: school sports facility; assessment; t-sne; fuzzy c mean; unsupervised learning
Online: 3 December 2019 (05:24:26 CET)
The aim of this study is (a) to develop, test, and employ a combined method of unsupervised machine learning to objectively assess the condition of sports facility in primary schools (PSSFC) and (b) examine the examine the geographical and typological association with PSSFC. Based on the Sixth National Sports Facility Census (NSFC), six PSSFC indicators (indoor and outdoor facility included) were selected as the measurements and decomposed by using the t-stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE). Thereafter, the Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm was used to cluster the same type of PSSFC with selecting the optimum numbers of evaluation level. Overall 845 primary schools in Shanghai, China were recruited and tested by this combined approach of unsupervised machine learning. In addition, the two-way analysis of covariance was used to examine the location and types of school associated with PSSFC variables in each level. The combined method was found to have acceptable reliability and good interpretability, differentiating PSSFC into five gradient levels. The characteristics of PSSFC differ by the location and school type of individual school. Our findings are conducive to the regionalized and personalized intervention and promotion on the children’s physical activity (PA) upon the practical situation of particular schools.
Mon, 8 July 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0116.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: environmental benefits and costs, revealed preference, hedonic pricing, travel cost, trade-off game, opportunity cost
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:32:10 CEST)
The objective of this paper was to give an overview of the expressed preference (EP) techniques of environmental valuation. These methods offer estimation of the value of a resource not necessarily willingness to pay (WTP) or willingness to Accept (WTA) compensation rather upper and lower values. The method of measuring individuals’ willingness to pay is usually based on contingent valuation method (CVM). This research focuses on defining, categorizing, and applicability of various environmental valuation techniques that have been and can be applied in attaching value to a given resource using expressed/Revealed preference methods. The study serves as a supplementary synthesis and discussion to the board of knowledge of resource valuation methods. More specifically, selected methods to discussed herein include; contingent valuation method, hedonic pricing model, travel cost method, trade-off game method, the costless-choice method, Delphi method, Replacement Cost Method, Relocation Cost Method, Opportunity cost method, and Cost-benefit Method. In the last part, applicability of the methods is fully illustrated to support future studies on resource valuation.
Fri, 3 May 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: hiking; trekking tours; engagement; outdoor leadership; soft skills; informal learning
Online: 3 May 2019 (16:20:03 CEST)
Organised hiking and trekking tours are promoted by many providers in adventure travel. Such guided tours shall be engaging for the tourists and evoke positive attitudes towards enjoying nature. We present the Trekking Engagement Profile as a tool to evaluate engagement factors of such guided tours, based on engagement research performed in a different domain, namely evaluating engagement in museums and science centres. This tool shall strengthen guides’ soft skills and enable them to increase engagement during an ongoing arrangement. For instance, the Trekking Engagement Profile can be applied when tourists indicate that the quality of a guided tour is not entirely to their liking. We show the viability of using the Trekking Engagement Profile in a small study with guides and participants of trekking tours offered by the Norwegian Trekking Association. Further, we offer guidance and charts to promote its practical use.
Tue, 30 April 2019
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: definition of agritourism; comparative studies; rural development; sustainable tourism; mountain development; alpine regions, Chinese mountains
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:25:21 CEST)
After World War II, the economic recovery of Western Europe implied a swift economic transition for all regions, including the area of the Alps, although affecting various parts at different pace and stages. The resulting out-migration led to population decline in some mountain valleys and regions already since the 1950s. A similar out-migration movement began in China after its rural reform started in the 1970s. The effect was in some cases even more significant than in the Alps, with the first village being deserted in the 1980s. Current estimations report of about 380,000 abandoned rural villages in China between 2000 and 2016, particularly in its mountain regions. While lower population densities might alleviate the pressures on ecology and contribute to environmental benefits, these movements aggravate a spiraling-down process of local economies and culture. In the Alps many regions facing challenges of out-migration and economic changes elaborated agritourism schemes that provided both economic incentives and stability to involved mountain farmers, and continuation of local land management systems. In contrast, in China hardly any comparable trends of rural tourism developed. However, in recent years China's interest for tourism-oriented farm diversification increased and a range of rural tourism and agricultural tourism initiatives emerged. This paper focuses on the analysis of successful initiatives, problems and development prospects in the Alps and China's rural areas, redefining agritourism as a systematic integrated activity. Agritourism might therefore be assessed as a core element of the future sustainable development of the Alps and the Chinese countryside.
Fri, 18 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Serious game; free play; hybrid game
Online: 18 January 2019 (12:15:17 CET)
Considering Games with the broad definition proposed by Juul (Juul, 2010), consequences outside of the magic circle can be negotiated. This definition opens up the possibility to define serious games, games developed with an utilitarian goal in mind, in addition to fun. The entertaining and utilitarian objectives may however be contradictory, leading serious games to be, more often than not, less than optimal in at least one of the two dimensions. Another way to play with the boundaries of games is to consider pervasive games, which include alternate reality games, and crossmedia games (Montola, 2005). We question here the limit between game, play and toy in the context of a mixed reality serious game. ‘Pangu’ is a game designed for bachelor students, with biochemistry as the utilitarian objective, and the origin of life as a game theme. The students are asked to play the game on their smartphone, which in turn ask them to build molecules with a tangible balls-and-sticks model typically used in chemistry classes. Pictures taken from the models allow users to ‘scan’ these models and progress in the game. The use of the game was observed in four opportunities. An unanticipated observation is that, in addition to expected behaviors, some students used briefly the models like a toy rather than in the context of the game. It is therefore tempting to speculate that the pervasive nature of the game is blurring the game/non game boundary and, in the context of this serious game, opens a door for fun.
Tue, 6 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: volunteer tourism; development; participation; commodification
Online: 6 November 2018 (12:58:59 CET)
Volunteer tourism or ‘voluntourism’ packages development and poverty as culturally exotic and ethical experiences for tourists from industrialized countries. In the university sector study abroad tours network voluntourism agencies, local actors, e.g. NGOs, universities and government funding to offer students ‘life changing’ experiential and community development learning. Recent criticism of the commodification of development and poverty through such tours points to multiple pernicious effects of such travel, especially the failure to deliver community impact. Following review of current criticism of voluntourism, this illustrative case study of a purported sustainable housing project in rural Maharashtra employs multiple data sources and covert research to explore the multiple gaps between participatory community sustainable development and voluntourism. The study finds signal lack of financial transparency, incompetent assessment of material needs, and limited local participation and control, failure to deliver on objectives, and recommends that socially responsible short term international exchanges should be carefully monitored and prefer knowledge exchange.
Mon, 13 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: network analysis; attractions network; gangneung; mega event; 2018 winter olympic; host city
Online: 13 August 2018 (08:49:26 CEST)
One of the most serious concerns about mega event-related changes to small cities is how to effectively utilize newly developed public attractions after the Olympic Games. Making connections with existing local amenities and forming attraction networks can be effective strategies for continuing a city’s revitalization. However, despite the expected benefits, attraction network research shows that these benefits often fail to materialize. With the case of Gangneung, a 2018 winter Olympic hosting city, this study investigated visitation patterns to nineteen selected attractions using network analysis. The results indicate that the most influential nodes are located on the northern coast, the eastern coast, and in the south downtown area, those nodes being the central locations where the strongest of connections are made. New attractions such as the Olympic Park and Walwha Linear Park were rather isolated. While seasonal and periodic variations, visitors’ residences, and destination choice attitudes had a significant effect on visitation patterns, the attraction networks, modes of transportation, proximity to region, and type similarity were not significant factors in the forming of visitation patterns. The results make a methodological contribution to tourist behavior and network research. In addition, beyond individual attraction development, the results provide practical implications in regard to networking and cooperation between multiple attractions using temporal and spatial strategies such as management/investment prioritizing, travel route development, and program scheduling.
Wed, 6 September 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0019.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Educational Tourism; Tourism Supply and Demand; Experience; Tourism Activities
Online: 6 September 2017 (11:58:11 CEST)
The Smart Park (well-known as Taman Pintar) as a major educational tourism destination in Jogjakarta offers a variety of tourism attractions that are very interesting for tourists. The main purpose of tourists visiting Smart Park is to get an educational tourism experience. A subjective experience raises a specific challenge for Smart Park toward the status of competitive destination. The purpose of this study is to analyze the aspects of educational tourism experience that are affected by tourism demand and supply. Data were collected by survey technique to 150 respondents and analyzed using path analysis. The results of analysis show that tourism demand and supply contributed to the variation of tourism activities by 45.1%, while the remaining was explained by other variables, such as National Budget, Local Budget, ticket sale, and cooperation with some stakeholders. Tourism supply had a higher effect than tourism demand. Tourism demand did not partially affect tourism experience. However, the results of the path analysis indicate that tourism supply had direct and indirect effects on tourism experience through the variation of tourism activities with indirect effect being dominant. In the management of Smart Park, there is still a gap between tourism demand and supply, so that the environment of tourism experience has not been created maximally.
Tue, 29 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Genius Loci; place-making; landscape; Land of Limestone and Levels; West of England; Mendip Hills; Cotswold Hills; Bristol, Bath; environmental psyche; Severn Estuary
Online: 29 August 2017 (03:42:37 CEST)
The County of Avon in England was abolished in 1996 and replaced by four unitary planning authorities. Recently the authorities have been working closely to develop a West of England Joint Spatial Plan to facilitate better integration of policies on transport, housing, the environment etc. The Joint Spatial Plan team commissioned a multidisciplinary study to investigate whether the West of England has special characteristics of 'place' that engender shared interest and regional affinity, i.e. ‘sense of place’, to which emerging planning policies might positively respond. In this regard the present article is particularly focused on identifying whether the West of England has unique and unifying landscape characteristics, relating to topography, rural scenery, and flora and fauna, which combine with human experiences to distinguish the Region from adjoining areas. It is concluded that the West of England does indeed have real geographical integrity, being bound on all sides by attractive and prominent landscape features - the Mendip Hills, Cotswold Hills and Severn Estuary – that contribute to a sense of identity and belonging among its inhabitants. The alternating limestone ridges and broad clay vales that prevail across the Region’s heart, combined with low lying flatlands on the Region’s western fringe, provide further contrast with neighbouring regions, reinforcing the emotional bond to the landscape. Furthermore, it is suggested that the inhabitants of the West England show a particularly special environmental consciousness that sets them apart from neighbouring populations, complementing the influence of the physical environment in making the Region a special place to live.
Thu, 3 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Water Framework Directive; ecological and microbiological water quality; choice experiment; willingness to pay for river water quality; conditional logit; latent class analysis; nonmarket benefits
Online: 3 August 2017 (05:52:45 CEST)
One important motivation for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive is the creation of non-market environmental benefits such as improved ecological quality, or greater opportunities for open-access river recreation via microbial pollution remediation. Pollution sources impacting on ecological or recreational water quality can be uncorrelated but non-market benefits arising from riverine improvements are typically conflated within benefit valuation studies. Using stated preference choice experiments, we seek to disaggregate these sources of value for different river users, thereby allowing decision makers to understand the consequences of adopting alternative investment strategies. Our results suggest anglers derive greater value from improvements to the ecological quality of river water, in contrast to swimmers and rowers for whom greater value is gained from improvements to recreational quality. We also find three distinct groups of respondents: a majority preferring ecological over recreational improvements, a substantial minority holding opposing preference orderings and a small proportion expressing relatively low values for either form of river quality enhancement. As such, this research demonstrates that the non-market benefits which may accrue from different types of water quality improvements are nuanced in terms of their potential beneficiaries and, by inference, their overall value and policy implications.
Wed, 26 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0071.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: social exchange theory; structural equation modeling; tourism development
Online: 26 July 2017 (06:32:58 CEST)
Background: Tourism is one of the prominent industry that has a capability to generate handsome income for developed as well as developing countries. However, the study to investigate specifically the perception of local residents towards tourism is still lacking. The perception of the locals is important since it could determine the extent of their support for tourism development. Plus, previous research found that male residents are more support better towards the tourism development. Thus, this factor is adapted as well in this study to examine whether this gender may influence to the tourism industry. 2) Methods: This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique for determining the structural estimates between constructs. 3) Results: The respondents agree that positive perception, negative perception and tourism impact has a significant impact on support for tourism development in which has been recognized as Social Exchange Theory model. Moreover, the finding also revealed that gender has a potential to moderates the causal effect of tourism impact on tourism development. 4) Conclusion: The resident understand the tourism sector could strengthen economic nation but they also want the natural resources should be protected.