REVIEW Download: 332| View: 261| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: sunscreen; sunburn; UV Radiation; melanoma; photoaging
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:18:23 CEST)
The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to define sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the many products currently available with numbers as high as 100. From a cosmetic formulation point of view, increasing the SPF number in a product is governed by simple chemical principles.
Fri, 21 December 2018
COMMUNICATION Download: 63| View: 149| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic; dermatitis; emollient; moisturizer; epidermal barrier; filaggrin
Online: 21 December 2018 (07:37:32 CET)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disorder, characterized by skin barrier disruption. Dermacare is a new cosmetic formulation which enhances moisturization, reinforces and repairs the skin barrier and prevents cutaneous microbiota imbalance. To demonstrate its safety and efficacy a prospective, open-label and multicenter study was carried out on patients diagnosed with mild to moderate AD. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), clinical severity, Desquamation Index, Patient/Investigator Global Assessments, quality of life index and tolerance were assessed. Adverse events were recorded. Daily application of the new treatment was well tolerated, and adverse events were absent. After 14 days, TEWL showed a 36.7% significant decrease (p = 0.035). At the end of the 28-day Dermacare treatment, the Desquamation Index showed a reduction in 70% of patients; Eczema Area and Severity Index were reduced by 70.4% (p = 0.002); and skin irritation showed a significant reduction (p = 0.024). Likewise, Patient and Investigator Global Assessments reported a significant improvement in conditions and an overall global worsening when patients restarted their normal treatment. Parent’s Index of Quality of Life Index significantly increased by 36.4% (p < 0.05) with Dermacare. In conclusion, Dermacare’s regular use helped reduce the risk of relapse and extend the steroid-free treatment periods.
Wed, 12 December 2018
REVIEW Download: 44| View: 168| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: acne; polymorphism; genetics; CYP17; ethnicity
Online: 12 December 2018 (05:30:43 CET)
Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin diseases and genetic relationships have been documented. The aim was to evaluate the association of CYP17 (T-34C) polymorphism related to the risk of acne in a meta-analysis study. The databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Cochrane Library) were searched until September 2018 to check the relationship between acne risk and CYP17 (T-34C) polymorphism and impact of this polymorphism on severity of acne. We used Review Manager 5.3 software to analyze the data using OR and 95% CI to check this relationship. Four studies were included and analyzed in the meta-analysis. The OR in analysis of C versus T in acne patients compared to the healthy controls was 1.42 (P=0.02), in CC vs. TT was 1.54 (P=0.04), in TC vs. TT was 1.46 (P=0.12), in TC + CC vs. TT was 1.55 (P=0.04), and in CC vs. TT + TC was 1.39 (P=0.06). There was no acne risk related to CYP17 (T-34C) in none of genetic models in Caucasian ethnicity, whereas in Asian ethnicity, there was higher acne risk related to CYP17 (T-34C) without heterogeneity. The results of the present meta-analysis showed the presence of C allele and CC genotype of CYP17 polymorphism can be risk factors for acne, mainly in the Asian ethnicity.
Thu, 1 November 2018
REVIEW Download: 105| View: 63| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Marine algae; Carbohydrates; Oligosaccharides; Monosaccharides; Skin health; Cosmeceuticals
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:19:37 CET)
Marine algae have been considered as abundant source of bioactive compounds with cosmeceutical potential. Recently, a great deal of interest has focused on the health-promoting effects of marine bioactive compounds. Carbohydrate is a major and abundant constitute of marine algae that have been utilized in cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents. In addition, marine carbohydrates have been suggested as promising bioactive biomaterials for various skin beneficial properties, such as anti-oxidant, anti-melanogenic and anti-skin aging. Therefore, marine algae carbohydrates have potential of skin health benefits for value-added cosmeceutical application. The present review focused on the various biological capacities and potential skin health benefits of bioactive marine carbohydrates.
Mon, 29 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 54| View: 85| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0667.v1
Online: 29 October 2018 (09:54:28 CET)
Visfatin, a member of the adipokine family, plays an important role in many metabolic and stress responses. The mechanisms underlying the direct therapeutic effects of visfatin on wound healing have not been reported yet. In this study, we examined the effects of visfatin on wound healing in vitro and in vivo. Visfatin enhanced the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and keratinocytes, and significantly increased the expression of wound healing-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of HDFs with visfatin induced activation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2 (JNK1/2) in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 led to a significant decrease in visfatin-induced proliferation and migration of HDFs. Importantly, blocking VEGF with its neutralizing antibodies suppressed the visfatin-induced proliferation and migration of HDFs and human keratinocytes, indicating that visfatin induces the proliferation and migration of HDFs and human keratinocytes via increased VEGF expression. Moreover, visfatin effectively improved wound repair in vivo, which was comparable to the wound healing activity of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Taken together, we demonstrate that visfatin promotes the proliferation and migration of HDFs and human keratinocytes by inducing VEGF expression and can be used as a potential novel therapeutic agent for wound healing.
Tue, 25 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 124| View: 137| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0490.v1
Online: 25 September 2018 (15:43:11 CEST)
Background: Melatonin is a potent mitochondrial, cytoprotective and antioxidant molecule with potentially strong anti-aging properties. Topical melatonin has shown to improve the clinical signs of skin aging. Melatosphere™ is a new lipid-based delivery system able to improve stability and skin penetration of melatonin when used in topical formulations. No clinical studies, using objective instrumental data, are available so far regarding the positive effect of Melatosphere™ in improving wrinkles in women with mild-to-moderate skin aging. Study Aim: We evaluate, in an open prospective, evaluator-blinded trial, the effects on skin texture of 2 months treatment with a Melatosphere™ based cream. Subjects and Methods: 15 women aged >45 years with mild to moderate facial skin aging (Glogau score ≥2) participated in the trial, after their informed consent. An ANTERA 3D computer-assisted skin analysis evaluation for the assessment of coarse and fine wrinkles of the periorbital area and melanin content was performed at baseline and after two months of treatment. An evaluator-blinded Investigator Global assessment of skin elastosis, roughness, level of dyscromia, skin dryness and presence of actinic damage was also performed at the same time points using a 4-grade score from 0 (no sign) to 3 (severe sign). Results: At baseline the mean (SD) IGA score was 8.2(1.0). After 2 months the IGA score significantly decrease to 4.2(1.4) (49% reduction) (P=0.0007). ANTERA 3D evaluations showed a significant reduction in skin coarse and fine wrinkles volume in the target area of -31% and -18%, respectively. Melanin content was reduced significantly by -17%. Conclusion: Topical melatonin carried in Melatosphere improves in the short-term signs of skin aging evaluated clinically and by ANTERA 3D device in women with mild to moderate skin aging.
Wed, 12 September 2018
REVIEW Download: 223| View: 144| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: gut microbiota; skin microbiota; inflammation; psoriasis; psoriatic arthritis; dysbiosis
Online: 12 September 2018 (07:49:33 CEST)
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by skin lesions. Psoriasis development has been associated both with genetic and environmental factors. Though skin and gut microbiota has been implicated in number of pathologies including atopic dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, allergy, obesity, its role has been poorly studied in psoriatic disease, which incorporates both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. This literature review summarizes the most recent and major findings on microbiota features in psoriatic disease as well as gives immune system role in the given condition. Despite conflicting findings, psoriasis patients were frequently found to have distinct microbial composition in both skin and guts especially in the major bacterial phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Akkermansia. Furthermore, bacterial DNA has been found in psoriatic patients both locally and systemically, and altogether suggesting role of bacteria in the chronic disease and future studies in this field.
Tue, 31 July 2018
REVIEW Download: 200| View: 142| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0615.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: onchodermatitis; onchocercal skin disease; onchocerciasis; ivermectin
Online: 31 July 2018 (09:47:34 CEST)
Onchocerciasis causes debilitating pruritus and rashes as well as visual impairment and blindness . Prior to control measures, eye disease was particularly prominent in savanna areas of sub-Saharan Africa whilst skin disease was more common across rainforest regions of tropical Africa. Mass drug distribution with ivermectin is changing the global scene of onchocerciasis. There has been successful progressive elimination in Central and Southern American countries and the World Health Organization has set a target for elimination in Africa of 2025. This literature review was conducted to examine progress regarding onchocercal skin disease. PubMed searches were performed using keywords "onchocerciasis", "onchodermatitis" and "onchocercal skin disease" over the past eight years. Articles in English, or with an English abstract, were assessed for relevance, including any pertinent references within the articles. Recent progress in awareness of, understanding and treatment of onchocercal skin disease is reviewed with particular emphasis on publications within the past 5 years. The global burden of onchodermatitis is progressively reducing and is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci.
Mon, 23 July 2018
REVIEW Download: 340| View: 166| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: hyperpigmentation; palpebral region; geographic skin differences; ethnic predisposition; skin disorder;
Online: 23 July 2018 (12:56:47 CEST)
POH (Peri Orbital Hyperpigmentation) represents a minor clinical entity that attracts immense aesthetic damages and it generates social integration difficulties. This review focuses on the etiopathogenic causes of this entity, differentiating and reclassifying this defect as having, on the one hand, genetic causes of melanic hyperproduction – for Fitzpatrick cutaneous phototypes IV and V – and, on the other hand, both genetic and acquired vascular causes, in individuals with light-coloured skin phototypes. Hence, there is a big difference in the field of pathogenic treatment, for the two entities. In addition, this study notes the direct relationship between skin aging and POH, especially for aquired vascular causes. In this reasoning, other aesthetic deficiencies of the skin in the palpebral area should be also considered, like: blepharochalasis, wrinkles, the anatomical causes of the lower eyelid shading, symmetrical or asymmetric suborbital oedema. All of these issues will complicate the therapeutic decision and subsidiary, the pharmaceutical advice. In this context, the review shows the guidelines for a honest councelling of the patients, pointing the efficiency limit for the topical pharmaceutical medication (depigmentants, exfoliants) versus the necessity of minimally invasive or/ and surgical treatments (in blefarochalasis).
Fri, 1 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 364| View: 810| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Annona muricata; apoptosis; basal cell carcinoma; cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma; graviola; Hedgehog signaling pathway; natural products chemistry; non-melanoma skin cancer
Online: 1 June 2018 (13:00:02 CEST)
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the leading cause of skin cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Effective strategies are needed to control NMSC occurrence and progression. Non-toxic, plant-derived extracts have been shown to exert multiple anti-cancer effects. Graviola (Annona muricata), a tropical fruit-bearing plant, has been used in traditional medicine against multiple human diseases including cancer. The current study investigated the effects of graviola leaf and stem extract (GLSE) and its solvent-extracted fractions on two human NMSC cell lines, UW-BCC1 and A431. GLSE was found to: i) dose-dependently suppress UW-BCC1 and A431 cell growth, motility, wound closure, and clonogenicity; ii) induce G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by downregulating cyclin/cdk factors while upregulating cdk inhibitors, and (iv) induce apoptosis as evidenced by cleavage of caspases-3, -8 and PARP. Further, GLSE suppressed levels of activated hedgehog (Hh) pathway components Smo, Gli 1/2, and Shh while inducing SuFu. GLSE also decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax while decreasing the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. We determined that these activities were concentrated in an acetogenin/alkaloid-rich dichloromethane subfraction of GLSE. Our data identify graviola extracts and their constituents as promising sources for new chemopreventive and therapeutic agent(s) to be further developed for the control of NMSCs
Fri, 18 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 329| View: 297| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: melatonin; UVB; HaCaT keratinocytes; collagen; ROS; Hedgehog; Cox-2; MMP-1
Online: 18 May 2018 (08:51:37 CEST)
Though melatonin is known to improve ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory conditions via blockade of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, interleukin (IL)-6, there is no report on anti-wrinkle effect of melatonin to date. Hence in the present study, anti-wrinkle mechanism of melatonin was elucidated in UVB treated HaCaT keratinocytes and hairless mice. Herein melatonin protected against a radical initiator tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP-1) and cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes. Also, melatonin suppressed the expression of sonic hedgehog (SHH) and GLI for hedgehog signaling, p-NF-kB, cyclooxygenase (COX-2), p-ERK for inflammatory responses in UVB treated HaCaT keratinocytes. Furthermore, melatonin protected skin from wrinkle formation, transdermal water loss in hairless mice irradiated by UVB for 8 weeks. Notably, melatonin prevented against epidermal thickness and dermal collagen degradation in UVB irradiated hairless mice by Hematoxylin & Eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining. Taken together, these findings suggest that melatonin reduces wrinkle formation via inhibition of ROS/SHH and inflammatory proteins such as NF-kB/COX-2/ERK/MMP1.
Thu, 10 May 2018
REVIEW Download: 388| View: 250| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: celiac disease; dermatitis herpetiformis; alopecia areata; cutaneous vasculitis; urticaria; atopic dermatitis; psoriasis; recurrent aphtous ulceration; chronic ulcerative stomatitis; gluten-free diet
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:04:40 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated gluten-induced enteropathy that affects predisposed individuals of all ages. Many patients with CD do not report gastrointestinal symptoms making it difficult to reach an early diagnosis. On the other hand, CD is related to a wide spectrum of extra-intestinal manifestations, being dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) the best characterized. These associated conditions may be the clue for reaching the diagnosis of CD. Over the last years, there have been multiple reports of the association between CD and several cutaneous manifestations that may improve with a gluten-free diet (GFD). The presence of some of these skin diseases, even in absence of gastrointestinal symptoms, should give rise to an appropriate screening for CD. The aim of this paper is to describe the different cutaneous manifestations that have been associated to CD and the possible mechanisms involved.
Fri, 20 October 2017
ARTICLE Download: 317| View: 374| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: keloids; fibroproliferative disorder; HtrA1; inflammation
Online: 20 October 2017 (06:22:35 CEST)
1) Background: Keloids occur after the failure during the wound-healing process, persist the inflammation and are refractory to various treatments. The pathogenesis of keloids is still unclear. We previously analyzed the gene expression profiles in keloid tissue using microarray and Northern blot analysis and found that HtrA1 was markedly upregulated in the keloid lesions. HtrA1 is a member of the HtrA family of serine protease, has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of various diseases including age-related macular degeneration and osteoarthritis by modulating proteins in extracellular matrix or cell surface. We focused on HtrA1, analyzed the localization and the role in keloid pathogenesis. 2) Methods: Twenty seven keloid patients and seven unrelated patients were enrolled in this study. We performed in situ hybridization analysis, immunohistochemical analysis, western blot analysis and cell proliferation assay. 3) Results: First, the fibroblast-like cells expressed HtrA1 higher in the active keloid lesions than in the surrounding lesions in situ hybridization. Second, the proportion of HtrA1-positive cells in keloid was higher than that of in normal skin significantly in immunohistochemical analysis. Third, HtrA1 protein was up-regulated, relative to normal skin tissue samples in western blot analysis. Finally, silencing of HtrA1 gene expression suppressed the cell proliferation significantly. 4) Conclusion: HtrA1 was highly expressed in keloid tissues and the suppression of HtrA1 gene inhibited the proliferation of keloid-derived fibroblasts. HtrA1 may promote keloid development through accelerating cell proliferation and remodeling keloid-specific extracellular matrix or cell surface molecules. HtrA1 is suggested to have an important role in keloid pathogenesis.
Fri, 31 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 742| View: 1131| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: biodiversity; skin allergy; benchmark skin health values; effect of synthetic cosmetics on skin; 21st century skin ailments; measure skin health; healthy skin ecosystem; healthy skin bacteria; damaged skin bacteria; perfect skin
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:52:14 CEST)
There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5-10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise in the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics. Our challenge, therefore, was to find a mechanism to determine the effect these substances have on skin health, and whether they really are a primary cause of long term damage to the skin. The first problem is the lack of any definitive way to measure skin health. Motivated by the overwhelming evidence for a link between deficient gut flora and ill health, we decided to look at whether our skin microbiota could similarly be used as an indicator of skin health. Our research illustrates how it is microbiota diversity alone that can predict whether skin is healthy or not, after we revealed a complete lack of conclusive findings linking the presence or abundance of particular species of microbe to skin problems. This phenomenon is replicated throughout nature, where high biodiversity always leads to healthy ecosystems. ‘Caveman’ skin, untouched by modern civilisation, was far different to ‘western’ skin and displayed unprecedented levels of bacterial diversity. The less exposed communities were to western practices, the higher the skin diversity, which is clear evidence of an environmental factor in the developed world damaging skin. For the first time we propose benchmark values of diversity against which we can measure skin to determine how healthy it is. This gives us the ability to be able to predict which people are more likely to be prone to skin ailments, and start to test whether cosmetic ingredients and products are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic.
Fri, 23 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1158| View: 713| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: antibacterial activity, cinnamon, honey, checkerboards method, synergistic activity
Online: 23 December 2016 (18:37:59 CET)
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were performed using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction combination between extract of cinnamon bark and honey was determined by using a checkerboards method. The results showed that he MIC of extract of cinnamon bark and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of extract of cinnamon against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, showed additive activity with the FICI value 0.625. Therefore, the combination of extract of cinnamon bark and honey has potential activity against acne causing bacteria.
Tue, 30 August 2016
COMMUNICATION Download: 1188| View: 1142| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0228.v1
Online: 30 August 2016 (04:27:17 CEST)
Anderson-Fabry disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient or absent activity of the enzyme alfa-galactosidase A. This defect enzyme leads to accumulation of glycolipids, primarily globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in the vascular endothelium of several organs, including the skin, kidneys, nervous system, and heart. The characteristic early clinical features of Fabry disease include acroparaesthesia, angiokeratoma, heat intolerance, hypohidrosis, cornea verticillata and gastrointestinal symptoms. Later complications occur with the disease progression and include progressive renal failure, hypertrofic cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular disease and reduced life expectancy. Anderson Fabry disease is therefore a disabling and systemic disease which requires a timely diagnosis. The purpose of our study is to define sweat glands morphological abnormalities in children and adolescents with Fabry disease with minimal symptoms and in patients affected by variants of Fabry disease in which biopsy is essential, to establish a baseline morphological diagnosis of the disease before to undergo to kidney or endomyocardial biopsy or when the classical approach is not possible because of some complications, with minimal discomfort for patients.