ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: shield tunneling; mining method; empty pushing; structural stress; deformation characteristics; numerical simulation
Online: 14 June 2023 (14:52:30 CEST)
In the construction of shield crossing existing mined tunnel without load, it is imperative to develop corresponding design standards that reflect actual engineering force characteristics to ensure the successful completion of tunnel construction. This research uses The MIDAS-GTS finite element software to facilitate the creation of a numerical model of the shield structure for an air-push-over mine tunnel project in Changsha, China, investigating the stress field’s evolution during shield construction, and calculating the maximum positive and negative bending moments and maximum axial forces for different structures and other force states under various construction conditions. This study's findings informed the design and construction optimisation of the shield tunnelling empty-push method. The outcomes of this numerical simulation led to several key findings: (1) The soil density exerted a significantly greater impact on the internal forces of the initial support structure than both the tunnel depth and soil Poisson's ratio. Additionally, a sudden shift in internal forces occurred within the 300-350 mm range when the lining thickness was altered. (2) Factors such as the tunnel depth, soil density, soil Poisson's ratio μ, and lining thickness have a similarly influenced internal forces of the segment and the initial support. Notably, the backfill layer thickness significantly affected the segment’s maximum axial force causing an abrupt change of approximately 300 mm. (3) Under the shield machine equipment’s weight constraint, it is essential to control the guide rail’s thickness, to prevent it from becoming overly large.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: shield tunneling; kirchhoff plate; space effect; ground heave; diaphragm wall deformation; field monitoring
Online: 19 September 2023 (07:36:11 CEST)
The ground surface deformation induced by shield tunnels passing through enclosure structure of existing tunnels is a particular underground construction scenario, which is encountered in Wuhan metro line 12 engineering cases in China. The classic ground deformation theory is difficult to accurately predict this ground deformation. This paper develops a semi-analytical method to predict ground heave considering space effect in this engineering condition. Based on improved ground deformation theory, a novel deformation prediction method of ground and enclosure structure is derived combined with Kirchhoff plate theory. Comparing with field deformation measurements, the maximum difference between measured and calculated deformation is 14.6%, which demonstrating that the proposed method can be used to predict the ground heave induced by shield tunnels passing through the enclosure structure of existing tunnels. The parameters of underground diaphragm wall used in Wuhan metro line 12 are further studied in detail. The results show that the ground heaves have positive correlation with embedded ratio of diaphragm wall, but negative correlation with its elastic modulus and thickness. But the thickness and embedded ratio has a limited effect on ground heaves. This study provides a technical reference for optimization setting of enclosure structure in protecting existing building.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: socket shield; dental Implants; root membrane; buccal shield; aesthetic zone
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:45:00 CET)
There are different treatment options in modern dentistry for the replacement of lost dentition. Of these the most upcoming and acceptable treatment option is Dental implants. The common problem usually with immediate implant placement in the anterior region is the post-operative soft tissue contour as a part of the bone modelling during healing. Hurzeler et al in 2010 introduced a new technique called the “socket shield technique”. This technique has been used as an alternative treatment modality for immediate implant placement in the aesthetic zone.This review articles provides a detailed information regarding the clinical concept of Root membrane technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: silicon pressure sensor; shield layer; stability
Online: 13 August 2016 (10:47:16 CEST)
This paper presents a piezoresistive pressure sensor with a shield layer for improved stability. Compared with the conventional piezoresistive pressure sensors, p-type piezoresistors are covered by an n-type shield layer, which is formed by ion implantation. The proposed pressure sensors have been successfully fabricated by bulk micromachining techniques. The impact of electrical field on piezoresistors is studied by simulation. The temperature drift of the pressure sensor has been investigated by both simulation and experimental measurement. Characteristics of developed pressure sensors are tested from -40 C to 125 C. A sensitivity of 0.022 mV/V/KPa and a maximum non-linearity of 0.085% FS are measured for the fabricated sensor in a pressure range of 1 MPa. The temperature coefficients of resistance of shielded piezoresistors are found to be smaller than those of un-shielded ones. It is demonstrated that the shield layer is able to reduce the drift caused by electrical field and ambient temperature variation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Arduino; data logger; reliability; monitoring; sensors; custom expansion shield
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:42:36 CEST)
This contribution shows the possibilities of a low-cost multipurpose data logger that was built around an Arduino Mega 2560 single board computer. To transform the Arduino Mega into such a data logger, a sensor shield was designed that contains an SD-card, real-time clock, and different kinds of connectors so that sensors can easily be attached to the device. The software considers a wide range of predefined sensors from which a user can choose. To assess the performance of such a device, short-term monitoring campaigns in relation to outdoor air quality, human activity in an office, motion of a journey on a bike, and exhaust gas monitoring of a diesel generator were realized. Besides the possibilities to apply the data logger in different kinds of applications, a method is proposed to assess the credibility of such a system. The assessment based on the various short-term campaigns showed that the system scores positively on most of the performance indicators, but that unexpected (black swan) events affect the assessment over the longer term. This makes the development of low-cost scientific instruments harder than expected. The stability and long-term performance of this type of design requires continuous evaluation and engineering correction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0510.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: vanadium mineralization, mineralogy, Paleoproterozoic, Kola region, Arctic zone, Fennoscandian Shield
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:29:00 CEST)
In the northern Fennoscandian Shield, a vanadium mineralization occurs in the Paleoproterozoic Pechenga–Imandra-Varzuga (PIV) riftogenic structure. It is localized in sulfide ores hosted by sheared basic and ultrabasic metavolcanics in the Pyrrhotite Ravine and Bragino areas and was formed at the latest stages of the Lapland-Kola orogeny 1.90–1.86 Ga ago. An additional formation of vanadium minerals derived from contact metamorphism and metasomatism produced by the Devonian Khibiny alkaline massif in the Pyrrhotite Ravine area. Vanadium forms its own rare minerals (karelianite, coulsonite, kyzylkumite, goldmanite, mukhinite, etc.), as well as it can be an isomorphic admixture in rutile, ilmenite, crichtonite group, micas, chlorites, etc. Vanadium originated from two sources: (1) basic and ultrabasic volcanics initially enriched in vanadium and (2) metasomatizing fluids that circulated along shear zones. The crystallization of vanadium and vanadium-bearing minerals was accompanied by chromium and scandium mineralization. Vanadium mineralization in Paleoproterozoic formations throughout the world is briefly considered. The simultaneous development of vanadium, chromium and scandium mineralizations is a unique feature of the Kola sulfide ores. In other regions sulfide ores contain only two of these three mineralizations produced by one ore-forming process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0813.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: shield subway tunnel; surface defects; 3D laser scanning; defect association analysis
Online: 24 April 2023 (03:53:13 CEST)
The surface defects of shield subway tunnel can significantly affect the serviceability of the tunnel structure and may compromise the operation safety. To effectively detect the multiple surface defects, this research employs a tunnel inspection trolley (TIT) based on the mobile laser scanning technique. By conducting the inspection of the shield tunnel on a metro line section, various surface defects are identified by the TIT, including water leakage defect, dislocation, spalling, cross-section deformation, etc. To explore the root causes of the surface defects, the association rules between different defects are calculated via an improved Apriori algorithm. Results show that: i) there are significant differences in different association rules of various surface defects of the shield tunnel; ii) the average confidence of the association rule “dislocation & spalling → water leakage” is as high as 57.78%, indicating that most of the water leakage defects are caused by dislocation and spalling of the shield tunnel in the sections being inspected; iii) the weakest rule appears at “water leakage → spalling”, with the average confidence of 13%. The association analysis can be used in predicting the critical defects influencing the structural reliability and operation safety, such as water leakage, and optimizing the construction and maintenance work for the shield subway tunnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0470.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Malyy (Little) Murun massif; Aldan Shield; Siberian Craton; 40Ar/39Ar dating
Online: 19 November 2018 (12:45:06 CET)
The Malyy (Little) Murun massif of the Aldan Shield of the Siberian Craton has long been a kind of the geologists’ Siberian Mecca. It attracted thousands of geologists, prospectors and mineral collectors despite of its remote location. It is famous for a dozen of new and rare minerals, including gemstones charoite and dianite (the latter is the market name for strontian potassicrichrerite), as well as for specific alkaline igneous rocks. Despite of this, the age of the Malyy Murun igneous complex and associated metasomatic and hydrothermal mineral associations remained poorly constrained. In this paper, we provide extensive 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data to reveal its age and temporal history. It appeared that being unique in terms of rocks and constituent minerals, the Malyy Murun is one of multiple alkaline massifs and lavas emplaced in Early Cretaceous (~137-128 Ma) within a framework of extensional setting of the Aldan Shield and nearby Transbaikalian region. The extension has occurred 40-60 million years after the supposed closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk Ocean and peak of orogeny in Early-Middle Jurassic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0323.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: face shield; goggles; safety glasses; cough; droplets; virus transmission; COVID 19; exposure
Online: 25 February 2022 (06:52:12 CET)
Face shields (also referred to as visors), goggles and safety glasses have been worn during the COVID-19 pandemic as one measure to control transmission of the virus. However, their effectiveness in controlling facial exposure to cough droplets is not well established and standard tests for evaluating eye protection for this application are limited. A method was developed to evaluate face shields, goggles and safety glasses as a control measure to protect the wearer against cough droplets. The method uses a semi-quantitative assessment of facial droplet deposition. A cough simulator was developed to generate droplets comparable to those from a human cough. The droplets consisted of a UV fluorescent marker (fluorescein) in water. Fourteen face shields, four pairs of goggles and one pair of safety glasses were evaluated by mounting them on two different sizes of breathing manikin head and challenging them with the simulated cough. The manikin head was positioned in seven orientations relative to the cough simulator to represent various potential occupational exposure scenarios, for example, a nurse standing over a patient. Droplet deposition in the eyes, nose and mouth regions were visualised following three ‘coughs’. Face shields, goggles and safety glasses reduced, but did not eliminate exposure to the wearer from droplets such as those produced by a human cough. The level of protection differed based on the design of the personal protective equipment and the relative orientation of the wearer to the cough. For example, face shields and goggles offered the greatest protection when a cough challenge was face on or from above and the least protection when a cough challenge was from below. Face shields were also evaluated as source control to protect others from the wearer. Results suggested that if a coughing person wears a face shield, it can provide some protection from cough droplets to those standing directly in front of the wearer.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Eclogite xenolith; kimberlite; zircon; U-Pb age; Hf isotopes; Ukrainian Shield; Devonian; East European Platform.
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:43:55 CEST)
The results of an LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and Hf isotope study of zircon crystals separated from small eclogite xenoliths found in Devonian kimberlites within the Prypyat horst, Ukraine, are reported. The studied area is located in the Central Belarusian Suture Zone, which represents a Paleoproterozoic belt extending along the boundary between the Sarmatian and Fennoscandian segments of the East European Platform. Four laser ablation sites on two zircon grains yielded Paleoproterozoic U-Pb ages between 1954 ± 24 Ma and 1735 ± 54 Ma. In contrast, three of four Hf sites revealed negative εHf values and Paleoarchean to Mesoarchean model ages, excluding the possibility that the eclogite xenoliths represent segments of a Paleoproterozoic subducted slab or younger mafic melts crystallized in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. A single laser ablation Hf spot yielded a positive εHf value (+3) and a Paleoproterozoic model age. Two models for eclogite origin can be proposed. The first foresees the extension of the Archean lower-crustal or lithospheric roots beneath the Central Belarus Suture Zone for over 200 km from the nearest known outcrop of Archean rocks. The second model is that the Central Belarus Suture Zone represents a rifted-out fragment of the Kola-Karelian craton that was accreted to Sarmatia before the actual collision of these two segments of Baltica.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Shaft boring machine; slurry shield machine; slurry system; vertical pipe; ballast pick-up velocity; CFD; DEM
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:30:10 CEST)
Abstract：Ballast pick-up velocity is a crucial parameter in the design of a slurry system in excavating devices, it influences transportation stability, safety, and economy of the system. In this study, a vertical pipe hydraulic experiment with different ballast sizes under water condition was conducted to investigate the ballast pick-up velocity in the shield slurry system. Thereafter, the coupling method of computational fluid dynamics and the discrete element method (CFD-DEM) was employed to establish a numerical model of the ballast pick-up velocity in the shield slurry system, and its applicability was verified by comparing the experiment results. Additionally, the ballast pick-up process under actual working conditions was studied, and the influence of ballast size and concentration on pick-up velocity was investigated. Overall, the primary findings of the study are as follows: 1) The numerical method can be applied to predict both the single ballast and ballast group pick-up velocity. 2) The pick-up process of the ballast group can be divided into four stages. 3) The conveying velocity of the ballast should be higher than the pick-up velocity of the single ballast to facilitate smooth discharge. 4) For a certain increase in ballast concentration, the pick-up velocity tends to be stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0329.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: face shield; facial protective equipment; SARS-CoV-2; phi 6; MRSA; MRSE; polyethylene terephthalate; benzalkonium chloride; COVID-19; multidrug-resistant bacteria
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:38:49 CEST)
Transparent materials used for facial protection equipment provide protection against microbial infections caused by viruses and bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. However, transparent materials used for this type of application are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. They just avoid direct contact between the person and the biological agent. Therefore, healthy people can get infected through contact of the contaminated material surfaces and this equipment constitute an increasing source of infectious biological waste. Furthermore, infected people can transmit microbial infections easily because the protective equipment do not inactivate the microbial load generated while breathing, sneezing, or coughing. In this regard, the goal of this work consisted of fabricating a transparent face shield with intrinsic antimicrobial activity that could provide extra-protection against infectious agents and reduce the generation of infectious waste. Thus, a single-use transparent antimicrobial face shield composed of polyethylene terephthalate and an antimicrobial coating of benzalkonium chloride has been developed for the next generation of facial protective equipment. The antimicrobial coating was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis. This is the first facial transparent protective material capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 in less than one minute of contact, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial infections contribute to severe pneumonia associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Our extra protective broad-spectrum antimicrobial composite material could also be applied for the fabrication of other facial protective tools such as such as goggles, helmets, plastic masks and space separation screens used for counters or vehicles. This low-cost technology would be very useful to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic and protect health care workers from multidrug-resistant infections in developed and underdeveloped countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1814.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Shield construction safety risks assessment; subway undercrossing a bridge; safety risk factors list; safety assessment model; confirmatory factor analysis, fuzzy evidence reasoning.
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:21:48 CEST)
The city administration of China planned numerous metro projects and more metros can hardly avoid undercrossing a bridge. While metro shield construction when undercrossing a bridge (MSCUB) is frequently located in complicated natural and social context, which made the construction process more susceptible to safety accidents. Therefore, it is crucial to look into safety risk of MSCUB. The paper identified the safety risk factors during SSCUR by using literature review and experts’ evaluation, proposed a novel safety risk assessment model by integrating CFA and FER, and then selected a project case to test the validity of the suggested model. Research results show that (a) a safety risk factors list of MSCUB was identified, including 4 first-level safety risks and 37 second-level safety risk factors; (b) the proposed safety risk assessment model can be used to measure the risk values of the overall worksite safety risk, the first-level safety risks and the safety risk factors of MSCUB; (c) environment-type safety risk and personnel-type safety risk have higher risk values when shield construction undercrossing a bridge; (d) when compared to worker-type safety risk, manager-type safety risk is the higher risk value. The research can enrich the theoretic knowledge of MSCUB safety risk assessment and provide references to safety managers for conducting scientific and effective safety management on the construction site when subway undercrossing a river.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0011.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: ultraviolet shield; protocell; fatty acid vesicles; origin of life; dissipative structuring; prebiotic chemistry; abiogenesis; non-equilibrium thermodynamics; thermodynamic dissipation theory; Mie scattering.
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:34:19 CET)
Theories on life’s origin generally acknowledge the advantage of a semi-permeable vesicle (protocell) for enhancing the chemical reaction-diffusion processes involved in abiogenesis. However, more and more evidence indicates that the origin of life concerned the photo-chemical dissipative structuring of the fundamental molecules under UV-C light. In this paper, we analyze the Mie UV scattering properties of such a vesicle made from long chain fatty acids. We find that the vesicle could have provided early life with a shield from the faint, but dangerous, hard UV-C ionizing light (180-210 nm) that probably bathed Earth’s surface from before the origin of life and until perhaps 1,500 million years after, until the formation of a protective ozone layer as a result of the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis.