ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: parental warmth; gratitude; prosocial behavior; school climate; adolescent
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:09:26 CEST)
Parental warmth plays an important role in the development of adolescents’ physical and mental health. There are numerous empirical studies indicating a relationship between parental warmth and prosocial behavior among adolescents, although the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Adopting a longitudinal design across two time points, the present study proposes a moderated mediation model to explore the mediating role of gratitude and the moderating role of the school climate between parental warmth and prosocial behavior. The sample consisted of 943 participants (483 boys and 451 girls) who participated in the second assessment and completed questionnaires assessing gratitude, school climate, and prosocial behavior in April 2019. Their parents participated in the first assessment and completed a questionnaire pertaining to parental warmth in October 2018. After controlling for the gender and age of the adolescents, the results showed that the positive association between parental warmth and prosocial behavior is mediated by gratitude, and school climate does play a moderating role in the second half of the mediating path. Specifically, the school climate can play a protective role in adolescents with low levels of gratitude. For adolescents with less gratitude, a strong school climate can promote more prosocial behaviors and can effectively alleviate the negative prediction of low levels of gratitude. This study provides a theoretical explanation for the generation of adolescents’ prosocial behavior, and provides theoretical guidance for the interventions of schools and parents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0156.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Mindfulness; Autism Spectrum Disorders; Parental Stress; Parent Anxiety
Online: 4 March 2021 (12:26:04 CET)
This study aims to develop a clinical trial to test the efficacy of a Mindfulness Based Stress Re-duction (MBSR) and Self Compassion (SC) Program on self-reported values of anxiety, depres-sion, and stress in parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in primary school, in order to assess their integration into the framework of community intervention programs in Spain. Methods: A brief 8-week training program using Mindfulness based intervention (MBSR) and self-compassion (SC) has been applied to ten parents from the Valencian ASD parents’. Partici-pants were assigned to two groups, both groups received the same treatment but at two different measurement moments. Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Satisfaction with Life and Mindful Atten-tion Awareness measurements were assessed, in all participants, in three testing moments. Results: Analysis of Variance results suggested that MBSR and SC training reduces stress and anxiety and increases Mindful Attention Awareness. No significant changes were found in Life Satisfaction measurements. Conclusions: The small number of participants prevents us from generalising the results found. More MBSR and SC clinical trials are needed in parents of ASD with results on anxiety, depression and stress in order to demonstrate the relevance of the inclusion of these programmes in community-based early intervention services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0047.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: psychopathy; Machiavellianism; parental style; gender differences; socialization theories
Online: 6 October 2017 (15:23:37 CEST)
Recent findings support an association between childhood maltreatment and the presence of elevated psychopathic traits in adulthood. Using a community sample recruited online (N = 210), we sought to (1) confirm the relationship between childhood traumas and psychopathic traits, and (2) investigate the role of parenting styles in psychopathic traits. Consistent with our predictions, we found an association between all types of childhood traumas and disinhibition. Age and gender moderated the relations between psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatments. Parental rejection and overprotection were positively correlated with the presence of psychopathic traits, while parental emotional warmth was negative correlated. Although our results converge with previous findings, the strength of the correlations observed was not as compelling as in research on undergraduate students. We discuss the numerous interpretations for our findings, and highlight the limitations of research in the field of psychopathy and childhood trauma in the general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Adult children's education; parental longevity; truncated regression; emotional support.
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:18:44 CEST)
Background: Some developing countries, such as China, population is aging rapidly, meanwhile, the average years of schooling for residents is constantly increasing. However, the question of whether adult children’s education has an effect on the longevity of older parents, remains inadequately studied. Methods: This paper uses China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) data to estimate the causal impact of adult children's education on their parents' longevity. Identification is achieved by using the truncated regression model and using historical education data as instrument variables for adult children’s education. Results: For every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father’s and mother’s longevity increased by 0.89 years and 0.75 years, respectively. Mechanism analysis shows that adult children's education has a significant positive impact on parents' emotional support, financial support and self-reported health. Further evidence shows that for every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father-in-law’s and mother-in-law’s longevity increased by 0.40 years and 0.46 years, respectively. Conclusions: It is conclusion that improving the level of adult children’s education can increase parents’ and parents-in-law’s longevity. Adult children’s education might contribute to the longevity of older parents by three channels that providing emotional, economic support and affecting parents’ health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0166.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Epigenetics; Toxicant exposure; Maternal stress; Parental smoking; Offspring health
Online: 9 August 2022 (03:27:22 CEST)
Background: The trends in the role of the germline in epigenetic transgenerational inheritance starts with the environmental factors acting on the first generation of a gestating mother. These factors influence the developing second-generation fetus by altering gonadal development, thereby reprogramming the primordial germ cell DNA methylation and leading to consequences that would be seen along generations. Objective: Despite these epigenetic factors now surfacing, the few available studies are on animal-based experiments and to make follow up on human intergenerational trials might take decades. To this response, this study aimed to determine the influence of parental energy, toxicant exposure, age and nutrient restriction on the early life of offspring growth in Gambia. Method: The study was on population-based observational study on parental energy influence, toxicant exposure, age, and nutrient restriction on offspring growth in Gambia. Results: This study showed that parents who worked in industrial areas were more likely to have offspring with poor psychosocial skills. In addition, mothers who are exposed to oxidative stress and high temperature are more likely to have offspring with poor psychosocial skills. Mothers who consumed a high protein diet were almost three more likely to have infants with good psychosocial skills in their offspring. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between maternal stress during pregnancy and psychosocial skills of offspring. Conclusion: This study was able ascertain if maternal diet during gestation, toxicant exposure, maternal stress and parental smoking habits have influence on the early life of offspring. While the study is recommending a large sample size study to eliminate selection bias, there should be an increased level of awareness of mothers on their offspring's health and their husbands' lifestyles that might influence the adulthood health of offspring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: parental presence; alcohol and drug consumption; deviant behaviours; adolescents
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:52:00 CEST)
The study is based on wide international research, the International Self-report Delinquency Study 3 (ISRD-3) and it analyses the relationship between parental presence, juvenile delinquency, and the consumption of psychotropic substances in adolescents. The data have been collected by a questionnaire ISRD-3 administered to 6021 students from 7th to 9th grade from 24 countries. The results confirmed the protective effect of dual-parent families on alcohol and drug use and committing illicit behaviours. Monoparental families and families without parents are associated with higher levels of alcohol, drug use, and deviant behaviors by young people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0209.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Rpi-genes; parental lines; hybrid progeny; dRenSeq; SCAR markers.
Online: 14 October 2021 (08:38:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Although resistance to pathogens and pests has been researched in many potato cultivars and breeding lines with DNA markers, there is scarce evidence as to the efficiency of the marker-assisted selection (MAS) for these traits when applied at the early stages of breeding. A goal of this study was to estimate the potential of affordable DNA markers to track Rpi disease resistance genes, that are effective against the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, as a practical breeding tool on a progeny of 68 clones derived from a cross between the cultivar Sudarynya and 13/11-09. (2) Methods: this population was studied for four years to elucidate the distribution of LB resistance and other agronomical desirable or simple to phenotype traits such as tuber and flower pigmentation, capacity and structure of yield. LB resistance was phenotypically determined through natural and artificial infection and the presence/absence of nine Rpi genes was assessed via 11 sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. To aid this analysis, the profile of Rpi genes in the 13/11-09 parent was established using diagnostic resistance gene enrichment sequencing (dRenSeq) as a gold standard. (3) Results: at the early stages of a breeding program, MAS can halve the workload when screening the segregation of F1 offspring and selected SCAR markers for Rpi-genes provide useful tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0361.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: parental care system; intergroup bias; infant exposure; social vigilance
Online: 27 March 2020 (03:51:50 CET)
Among humans, simply looking at infants can activate affiliative and nurturant behaviors. However, it remains unknown whether mere exposure to infants also activates other aspects of the caregiving motivational system, such as generalized defensiveness in the absence of immediate threats. Here, we demonstrate that simply viewing faces of infants (especially from the ingroup) may heighten vigilance against social threats and support for institutions that purportedly maintain security. Across two studies, participants viewed and rated one among several image types (between-subjects design): infants, adult males, adult females, and puppies in Study 1, and infants of varying racial/ethnic groups (including one's ingroup) and puppies in Study 2. Following exposure to one of these image types, participants completed measures of intergroup bias from a range of outgroups that differed in perceived threat, belief in a dangerous world, right-wing authoritarianism and social-political conservatism (relative to liberalism). In Study 1 (United States), stronger affiliative reactions to images of infants (but not adults or puppies) predicted stronger perceptions of a dangerous world, endorsement of right-wing authoritarianism, and support for social-political conservatism (relative to liberalism). Study 2 (Italy) revealed that exposure to images of ingroup infants (compared to outgroup infants) increased intergroup bias against outgroups that are characterized as threatening (immigrants and Arabs) and increased conservatism. These findings suggest a predisposed preparedness for social vigilance in the mere suggested presence of infants e.g., viewing images, even in the absence of salient external threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0141.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: externalizing problems; internalizing problems; parental depression; prosocial behavior; self-compassion
Online: 15 April 2022 (09:11:15 CEST)
Building on a framework of risk transmission to children of depressed parents, the present study investigated the associations between parents’ self-compassion, parent’s depressive symptoms, and child adjustment. A total 189 Chinese parents (101 mothers) whose children were 2-8 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire, including measures of self-compassion, depressive symptoms and children’s prosocial behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Findings indicated mediation effects, in that parents’ depressive symptoms mediated the associ-ation between their self-compassion and child adjustment outcomes, namely children’s internal-izing and externalizing problems, after controlling the effects of monthly family income, child gender, and parent gender. Competing hypothesis suggested that parents’ self-compassion did not moderate between parents’ depressive symptoms and child adjustment outcomes. Hence, the association between parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment was not dependent on the level of parents’ self-compassion. As an implication, researchers and practitioners should be made aware of the protective role of parents’ self-compassion in the family context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0468.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorders; Early Intervention; Parent mediated intervention; Parental Training
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:04:07 CET)
The aim of this article is to analyze the evidence against the effectiveness of intervention programs based on the participation of parents of children with autism. To obtain the data, a systematic search was carried out in four databases (ProQuest-PsychArticles, ProQuest-ERIC, ProQuest-PubMed, and Scopus). These documents were refined under the inclusion/exclusion criteria and a total of 51 empirical studies were selected. They were classified, first, according to the function of the intervention objective and, later, by the methodology applied (19 studies based on comprehensive interventions, 11 focused on the nuclear symptoms of ASD, 12 focused on the promotion of positive parenting and 9 interactions focused on children play). Once all the documents have been analyzed, the evidence indicates scientific efficacy in most studies, mainly in those based on child development and the application of behavioral analysis principles. Also, the positive influence of parent participation in such programs was demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0264.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: feeding behavior; Peripatidae; invertebrate behavior; undescribed Costa Rican onychophorans; parental investment
Online: 12 November 2018 (04:51:33 CET)
We report, for the first time in onychophorans, food hiding, parental feeding investment and an ontogenetic diet shift, from adhesive to prey, after their first two weeks of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0612.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Medial Preoptic Area; MPOA; Parental behavior; Scientometry; Systematic Review; CiteSpace; Document Co-Citation Analysis; Keyword Analysis
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:52:17 CEST)
Research investigating the neural substrates underpinning parental behaviour has recently gained momentum. Particularly, the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) has been identified as a crucial region for parenting. The current study conducted a scientometric analysis of publications from 01 January 1972 to 19 January 2021 using CiteSpace software to determine trends in the scientific literature exploring the relationship between MPOA and parental behaviour. In total, 677 scientific papers were analysed, producing a network of 1509 nodes and 5498 links. Four major clusters were identified: "C-Fos Expression'', "Lactating Rat'', "Medial Preoptic Area Interaction'' and "Parental Behavior''. Their content suggests an initial trend in which the properties of the MPOA in response to parental behavior were studied, followed by a growing attention towards the presence of a brain network, including the reward circuits, regulating such behavior. Furthermore, while attention was initially directed uniquely to maternal behavior, it has recently been extended to the understanding of paternal behaviors as well. Finally, although the majority of the studies were conducted on rodents, recent publications broaden the implications of previous documents to human parental behavior, giving insight into the mechanisms underlying postpartum depression. Potential directions in future works were also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Fear of missing out (FOMO), Parental control, Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU), Social Media Addiction, Social Media Intrusion
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:23:46 CEST)
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). The perception of the possible role of parental supervision on online activities is also investigated. Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media. The results additionally demonstrate that students aged 30 and older believe more in the requirement of parental control than those aged 17-22.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0685.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: gene-environment; serotonin transporter gene; 5HTTLPR; attachment; parent-infant interaction; parental bonding; maternal overprotection; close relationship; anxiety; avoidance
Online: 26 April 2021 (17:30:58 CEST)
Humans are evolutionary-driven to adult mating and conceive social expectations on the quality of their affiliations. The genetic susceptibility to adverse environments in critical periods can alter close relationships. The current research investigates how the promoter region of the Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR) and perceived caregiving behavior in childhood could influence the social expectations on close adult relationships. For this purpose, 5-HTTLPR data was collected from the buccal mucosa of 65 Italian individuals (33 males). The participants filled a) the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) to provide the levels of care and overprotection from mother and father, and b) the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) to report the social expectations on the intimate relationship assessed in terms of anxiety and avoidance from the partner. An interaction effect between 5-HTTLPR and PBI dimensions on the ECR-R scores was hypothesized. Results confirmed that the interplay between the genetic groups and history of maternal overprotection predicted avoidance experienced in romantic relationships in adulthood. Moreover, both adult anxiety and avoidance felt in an intimate relationship were found to covary as a function of maternal overprotection. The present work proposes further evidence of the genetic and parental mechanisms regulating social expectations involved in close relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0322.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Parentalstress; Maternal stress; Heart rate variability as an index of parental stress; Socio-economic; demographic; environmental and gender factors associated with maternal stress
Online: 28 October 2019 (12:06:26 CET)
Parental stresses are normal responses to raising children. They are affected by stresses parents and children accumulate and bring to their interrelations. Background factors like economic difficulties or the relations between the parents may affect parental stresses as well as demographic and environmental factors like noise and access to urban parks. Most studies on parental stress are based on a verified psychological questionnaire. We suggest using frequency domain heart rate variability index (HRV) to measure parental stress enabling, by thus, the measurement of physiological aspects of stress and risk to health. Parental stress is measured as the difference between HRV accumulated at home while staying with the children and without the husband and HRV measured in the neighborhood while staying without the children and the husband. We use the index to compare differences among Muslim and Jewish mothers in exposure to maternal stress at their homes and to expose the factors that predict differences in maternal stress. We found that Muslim mothers suffer from home-related maternal stress while Jewish mother do not. Number of children and ethnically related environmental aspects predict differences in maternal stress between Muslim and Jewish mothers. Muslims' lower access to parks stems from lack of home garden and parks in their neighborhoods in the Arab towns but mainly by restrictions on Muslim women's' freedom of movement to parks. Despite differences in levels of noise at home and in the status of the mother in the household, these factors did not predict differences in parental stress. Instead, the study highlights the crucial role of greenery and freedom of movement to parks in moderating home-related maternal stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0397.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: flax; genome-wide association study (GWAS); selective sweep; genotyping by sequencing (GBS); bi-parental population; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); seed yield; plant height; maturity; fatty acid composition
Online: 3 August 2018 (15:34:24 CEST)
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on a set of 260 lines which belong to three different bi-parental flax mapping populations. These lines were sequenced to an averaged genome coverage of 19× using the Illumina Hi-Seq platform. Phenotypic data for 11 seed yield and oil quality traits were collected in eight year/location environments. A total of 17,288 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which explained more than 80% of the phenotypic variation for days to maturity (DTM), iodine value (IOD), palmitic (PAL), stearic, linoleic (LIO) and linolenic (LIN) acid contents. Twenty-three unique genomic regions associated with 33 QTL for the studied traits were detected, thereby validating four genomic regions previously identified. The 33 QTL explained 48-73% of the phenotypic variation for oil content, IOD, PAL, LIO and LIN but only 8-14% for plant height, DTM and seed yield. A genome-wide selective sweep scan for selection signatures detected 114 genomic regions that accounted for 7.82% of the flax pseudomolecule and overlapped with the 11 GWAS-detected genomic regions associated with 18 QTL for 11 traits. The results demonstrate the utility of GWAS combined with selection signatures for dissection of the genetic structure of traits and for pinpointing genomic regions for breeding improvement.