ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nonionic polyacrylamide; gelation time; plugging capacity; water shutoff
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:52:57 CEST)
A delayed crosslinked polymer gel was developed for indepth water control in mature oilfields. The thermal gelation behavior of nonionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) and PEI was investigated, and sodium citrate (NaCit) was selected as a new retarder to prolong the gelation time. The gelation performance of NPAM/PEI gel system can be adjusted by the variation of NPAM or PEI concentration, and a quadratic model was developed by statistical analysis, which predict the gelation time of NPAM/PEI gel system. The obtained model showed high significance and good reliability as suggested by the F-ratio of 175.16 and high adjusted R-square value (0.9732). The decrease of the initial pH value of gelling solution leads to the weaker gel viscosity and longer gelation time due to the protonation of amine groups on the PEI chains. Increasing temperature resulted in higher gel viscosity but shorter gelation time. The addition of NaCit showed a good delayed gelation effect on the NPAM/PEI gel system, and the gel system in the presence of NaCit exhibited a good compatibility with injected and formation water. A dense three-dimensional structure was observed in matured NPAM/PEI/NaCit gel, and it could keep stable below 150℃. The gel system could effectively reduce the permeability (>95%) and restricted the flow of water after matured in natural cores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: hyperbranched polyester; functional polymer; chemical evolution; wet-dry cycle; gelation prevention; condensation polymer; origin of life
Online: 26 April 2019 (10:46:40 CEST)
In extant biology, biopolymers perform multiple crucial functions. The biopolymers are synthesized by enzyme-controlled biosystems that would not have been available at the earliest stages of chemical evolution and consist of correctly sequenced and/or linked monomers. Some of the abiotic “messy” polymers approximate some functions of biopolymers. Condensation polymers are an attractive search target for abiotic functional polymers since principal polymers of life are produced by condensation and since condensation allows for the accurate construction of high polymers. Herein the formation of hyperbranched polyesters that have been previously used in the construction of enzyme-like catalytic complexes is explored. The experimental setup compares between the branched polyesters prepared under mild continuous heating and the wet-dry cycle conditions. The results reveal that period wetting during which partial hydrolysis of the polyester occurs, helps control the chain growth and retards the gel transition. It is significant to the origin of life studies that environmental, prebiotically plausible conditions could achieve such control without enzymes or a skilled chemist. As expected in marginally controlled systems, the identification of each component of the heterogeneous system has proved challenging, but it is not crucial for drawing the conclusions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0419.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Microgel; Janus particle; ionotropic gelation; crosslinking; cell encapsulation; enzymatic cross-linking; photopolymerization; hierarchical microgels; composite microgels; microfluidics.
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:05:01 CEST)
This article provides a systematic review of the crosslinking strategies used to produce microgel particles in microfluidic chips. Various ionic crosslinking methods for gelation of charged pol-ymers are discussed, including external gelation via crosslinkers dissolved or dispersed in the oil phase, internal gelation methods using crosslinkers added to the dispersed phase in their non-active forms, such as chelating agents, photo-acid generators, sparingly soluble or slowly hydrolyzing compounds, and methods involving competitive ligand exchange, rapid mixing of polymer and crosslinking streams, and merging polymer and crosslinker droplets. Covalent crosslinking methods using enzymatic oxidation of modified biopolymers, photo-polymerization of crosslinkable monomers or polymers, and thiol-ene “click” reactions are also discussed, as well as the methods based on sol-gel transitions of stimuli responsive polymers triggered by pH or temperature change. In addition to homogeneous microgel particles, the production of structurally heterogeneous particles such as composite hydrogel particles entrapping droplet interface bi-layers, core-shell particles, organoids, and Janus particles are also discussed. Microfluidics offers the ability to precisely tune chemical composition, size, shape, surface morphology, and internal structure of microgels by bringing in contact multiple fluid streams in a highly controlled fashion using versatile channel geometries and flow configurations and allowing controlled crosslinking.