ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0327.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: REDD+; amazon fund; results-based funding; benefit distribution; resource allocation; climate change funding; effectiveness.; forest conservation funding
Online: 13 February 2019 (09:59:35 CET)
Results-Based Funding (RBF) for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) has become an important instrument for channeling financial resources to forest conservation activities. At the same time, much literature on conservation funding is ambiguous about the effectiveness of existing RBF schemes. Many effectiveness evaluations follow a simplified version of the principal-agent model, although in practice the relation between aid providers and funding recipients is much more complex. As a consequence, intermediary steps of conservation funding are often not accounted for effectiveness studies. This research paper aims to provide a nuanced understanding of conservation funding by analyzing the allocation of financial resources for one of the largest RBF schemes for REDD+ in the world: the Brazilian Amazon Fund. As part of this analysis, this study has built a dataset of information on Amazon Fund projects at unprecedented detail in order to accurately reconstruct the allocation of financial resources across different stakeholders (i.e. governments, NGOs, research institutions), geographies and activities. The results show that stakeholders seem to hold preferences with respect to the type of activities that they support, thereby suggesting that project owners exert much influence on how deforestation reduction is to be attained. There are evidences that governmental organizations lack financial additionality of their projects, which renders the growing share of funding to this type of stakeholder particularly worrisome. By contrast, the geographical distribution of financial resources seemed to follow a more focused rationale as financial support tends to concentrate in areas where deforestation threats are highest. Overall, the allocation of the financial resources from the Amazon Fund reflects an arbitrary support of different projects that adopt very diverging theories of change that are not primarily concerned with attaining further deforestation reductions. As projects owners exert influence on funding effectiveness to some extent, the Amazon Fund may either seek to regulate the allocation of financial resources more actively or adopt funding effectiveness evaluations that account for this influence more comprehensively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0500.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: INGOs; democratization; funding; developing-countries; better-living
Online: 22 July 2020 (05:49:17 CEST)
The paper examines the impact of INGOs on the democratization of developing countries. Following the ‘end of history,’ the INGOs multiplied globally, and the number of aids to developing countries was given through them in billions of dollars in the past three decades. It is envisaged that with the increase in their population, the developing countries will be better off with a standard form of living that is attributable to standard democratization. However, despite the billions of dollars spent, the citizens of the developing countries are still worse in poverty, poor leadership, and corruption. On the contrary, some countries, including Nigeria, are threatening legislation that will curtail the INGOs, sighting their opacity and lack of tangible results as reasons. The research used Nigeria as a case study to analyze the methods, approaches, and the capacity of these INGOs and how they affect the democratization of their host countries. Through a review of existing records, non-participatory observations, and reviews of conference proceedings. The paper analyzed the parallel gaps that exist by arguing that, taking a broad, multi-disciplinary method from the various works of literature studied will provide essential conceptual and practical insights that can inform current debates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Assistive Technology; Accessible Technology; Consumer Technologies; Provision, Policy; Funding
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:57:38 CEST)
Estimates by the World Health Authority suggest that 1 billion people do not have access to the assistive technologies they require. Over the past decade, the design of products that empower people with a disability has shifted from specialised and dedicated products designed only for those with a disability to features and functions integrated into cost-effective consumer technologies for the benefit of all. The opportunity for expansion of the availability of such technologies is at risk of being ignored as a result of models of delivery that are founded in medical devices and which have failed to reflect trends in our understanding of technology and the choices and preferences expressed by persons with a disability. This research undertaken suggests that the opportunities of such expansion offer significant benefits to people with a disability and better both economic and social return on investment for authorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1747.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: Efficacy; alumni crowdfunding; strategic investments; funding challenges; French language education
Online: 28 November 2023 (03:49:33 CET)
The number of new financing options has increased quickly, including alumni crowdfunding and strategic investments. The antecedents and consequence of these funding mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied in research yet. In this study, the efficacy of leveraging alumni crowdfunding and strategic investments to overcome the perennial funding challenges in French language education was rigorously examined. The study examined the funding challenges plaguing French language education, casting a spotlight on the urgency of creative financial solutions and the strategic provisions of alumni engagements. The study further covered the various roles of strategic investments, synergy of alumni crowdfunding and investments. The analysis proffers a balanced perspective, delving into challenges and concerns that can potentially hinder the smooth operation of these innovative funding channels. Practical recommendations for successful alumni crowdfunding and effective strategic investments were provided. A synthesis of the key findings reveals profound implications for the future of French language education. It was concluded that effective fundraising for French language education relies on well-structured policy and institutional guidance. With these policies in place, educational institutions can navigate the complexities of funding French language programs and secure their future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education policy; funding allocation; higher education; HESP; neoliberalism; public goods
Online: 2 November 2023 (16:28:42 CET)
Allocations of funding for higher education have typically focused on competition in neoliberal mechanisms. Surprisingly, much less attention has been paid to considering the effect of fund allocations for public goods purposes in neoliberal contexts. This study aims to examine specific funding schemes and determine the influential factors impacting the funding for teaching, research, and public goods intention. Taking Taiwan's Higher Education Sprout Project (HESP) as a unique example, we explored the effect of policy initiatives on public goods transformation. The data was collected from the Ministry of Education and Scopus database. First, the t-test and ANOVA were used to detect the differences between the system and sector; Second, regression analysis was used to determine influential factors for funding allocations; Final, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the causal effects among the selected variables. The study found that only diversity was shown in private technology groups receiving less HESP funding. The findings suggest that the funding allocation may not affect teaching and research based on sectors and systems. In contrast, this study demonstrates that transforming the public good through special funding can play a critical role in policy intention in neoliberal higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0215.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corona; Covid-19; Pandemic; Business; Affected business; Social; Operations; Funding
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:57:43 CEST)
Social enterprises are very common in Birmingham having the largest concentrations of social enterprises in the United Kingdom. With the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the operations and management of social enterprises in Birmingham has been greatly affected. This study seeks to analyse the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the operations and funding of social enterprises in Birmingham UK. In order to achieve this, the study is going to carry out a qualitative methodology in order to analyse the impact Covid-19 has had on social enterprises. The research is going to select relevant stakeholders through a non-purposive sampling criteria identifying individuals who have direct interest in the functioning of social enterprises. The relevant stakeholders will be expected to respond to semi structured interviews that are structured to evoke responses relevant to this area of research. The research realized that Social enterprises in Birmingham are a critical player in the economy of UK with many individuals depending on the social enterprise industry. In addition to that, the study realised that the Covid-19 pandemic exposed social enterprises to various financial and market risks. Moreover, social enterprises were forced to make a change in their organizational structure through cost management changes and offering alternative services. However, the government came in support through provision of grants and funding to boost the social enterprise economy.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: organic rice; agricultural research; participation; public funding; scientists; monitoring and evaluation
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:57:32 CET)
This paper reports on the conception and implementation of a participatory approach within an agricultural research project aimed at fostering the transition towards organic in the Italian rice district. We investigate the relationships among scientists and stakeholders, exploring researchers’ attitudes, barriers, and potential in relation to participatory research. We use participant observation, in-depth interviews, and systematic cataloguing of communication documents, from the beginning to two years into project implementation, for a total period of three years. The results of the analysis show that, despite a high level of authoritative commitment to participation, scientists reveal a scarcity of knowledge and skills, and poor attitudes that come from a negative perception of participatory research. They engage in various forms of collaboration with stakeholders, as long as decision-making remains essentially in their hands. With the deep analysis of a case study, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on the quality of participatory agricultural research, in particular presenting evidence on the key role of researchers and their attitudes. The paper also contributes to the development of a culture of learning by doing, through honest monitoring and evaluation, and the capacity to learn from failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Peanut; plant breeding; research; funding; genomics; INERA; cultivar; selection; Arachis hypogaea
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:07:38 CET)
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major food and cash crop in Burkina Faso. Due to growing demand for raw oilseeds, there is an increasing interest in groundnut production from traditional rain-fed areas to irrigated environments. However, despite implementation of many initiatives in the past to increase groundnut productivity and production, the groundnut industry still struggles to prosper, due to several constraints including minimal development research and fluctuating markets. Yield penalty due to drought and biotic stresses continue to be a major drawback for groundnut production. This review traces progress in the groundnut breeding that started in Burkina Faso before the country’s political independence in 1960 through to present times. Up to the 1980s, groundnut improvement was led by international research institutions such as IRHO (Institute of Oils and Oleaginous Research) and ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics). However, international breeding initiatives were not sufficient to establish a robust domestic groundnut breeding programme. This review also provides essential information about opportunities and challenges of groundnut research in Burkina Faso, emphasising the need for institutional attention to genetic improvement of the crop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1858.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Weighted student funding; School financial management; Principal leadership; School innovations; Failing school
Online: 27 June 2023 (08:25:25 CEST)
Weighted Student Funding (WSF) systems have been implemented in various countries to give schools more autonomy over how to allocate their funding. School principals use funding to maintain school operations and foster innovation for achieving educational goals. However, despite the importance of this process, scholarly research has largely overlooked how principals make decisions about their financial resources. Accordingly, this study seeks to provide practical insights into the strategies used by one school by highlighting their staff’s perceptions about using their WSF to maintain school operations and spur innovation. Using a case study approach, we investigated a principal who effectively used a school’s WSF to transform a failing school into an innovative one. The findings revealed that the principal strategically implemented financial management mechanisms in a way that inspired teachers to deeply consider how a school's WSF can help achieve educational goals. The principal fostered consensus on the school's direction, encouraged innovation through hands-on experiential learning and strategic planning, and facilitated funding for innovative teachers by guiding proposal development. Insights into the shifting cultural and practical landscape of financial resource utilization within schools are discussed.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: ARISE; research funding; early-career research support; African research; research for development
Online: 23 February 2023 (11:18:22 CET)
Through an ambitious development blueprint called Agenda 2063, Africa is on a mission to creating the ‘Africa We Want’ by the year 2063, centred on science, technology, and innovation. While the 2063 development agenda portends attainment of socio-economic development and prosperity in Africa, it brings with it an enormous need for strategic investment in research to ensure that no one is left behind. This paper presents insights from the African Research Initiative for Scientific Excellence (ARISE) programme on inclusive research capacity strengthening investment in Africa. The insights are drawn from a comprehensive candidate selection process for ARISE, from which 45 researchers (from a pool of 929 applicants) are recruited for ARISE Fellowships. The 45 early-to-mid-career researchers, 37% of which are women, are hosted in 45 institutions of higher learning located in 38 countries across Africa, conducting 5-year research fellowships with grants of up to €500,000 each. The insights from the ARISE programme contribute to the debate on effective approaches to programme scoping, design, and delivery, underscoring the need for consideration of scientific excellence in the context of diversity in research support capacity and investments across Africa.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: early-career research; institutional capacity strengthening; research; funding; research capacity strengthening; SSHA
Online: 22 February 2023 (02:46:29 CET)
Global and human development and freedoms increasingly thrive on robust and policy-oriented research and related activities. Yet, the African research landscape faces a myriad of challenges, resulting in a very unequal continent in terms of research and research capacity. The prevailing research inequities and challenges in Africa are even more pronounced in the social sciences, humanities, arts, and related fields (SSHA). Here, the strengths and impact of scholarship in SSHA fields are often overshadowed by deficits and apparent preferential investment in research in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related fields. In response, the African Academy of Sciences commissioned a study in 2020 to generate evidence on the SSHA research support landscape in Africa. This paper summarizes findings from the literature review, key informant interviews, a bibliometric analysis, a survey with a sample of 670 respondents from SSHA communities in Africa, and a series of focus group discussions. We highlight key messages and make recommendations focussing on lessons learnt opportunities, and priorities for intervention to enhance significant SSHA research leadership capacity strengthening and, ultimately, minimize research inequalities in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0493.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: HIV; HIV at workplace; District Implementation Plan; HIV and AIDS; Stakeholders; Funding
Online: 28 April 2020 (09:51:15 CEST)
The evaluation was conducted to find out whether the stipulated objectives of the policy are being followed, and at the same time find out whether the envisioned results of implementing such policy system have been achieved so far. The evaluation was expected to provide an opportunity for mending shortfalls of the whole system that would affect its sustainability and usefulness.A total of 33 participants were interviewed in this study and came from the study area (Nkhotakota District Council Office). Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. All study respondents were purposively selected where respondents considered having relevant information and they were interviewed to obtain wide range of perspectives.Seven themes were identified; knowledge on policy, limited stakeholder involvement, poor HIV and AIDS programming, ethical issues, future perspective of the policy, Other Recurrent Transaction (ORT) allocation, and availability of HIV and AIDS Committee. On knowledge on policy, the sub-themes included; objectives well outlined, and poor updates on the policy. On limited stakeholder involvement, the sub-themes were; lack of ownership, ignorance of involvement, and not involved/limited involvement. On the Poor HIV and AIDS programming theme, sub-themes identified were; exclusion of activities in the District Implementation Plan (DIP) and lack of funds. There was one sub-theme on ethical issues and future perspective.We found that the Nkhotakota District Council HIV and AIDS at workplace policy is not functioning properly due to poor coordination and lack of funding. However, there are some positives identified such as existence of the coordinating committee and allocation of funds through ORT. Although the system has been functional for some years in well-established structures, lack of participation by some stakeholders, non-inclusion of HIV and AIDS activities in the DIPs underpin its sustainability
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0221.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: PUI (primarily undergraduate institution); laboratory; start-up; negotiation; undergraduate; support; funding; equipment; mentorship; community
Online: 9 December 2020 (11:16:48 CET)
Scientists who are interested in building research programs at primarily-undergraduate institutions (PUIs) have unique considerations compared to colleagues at research-intensive (R1) institutions. Maintaining a research program at a PUI holds unique challenges that should be considered before prospective faculty go on the job market, as they negotiate a job offer, and after they begin a new position. In this article we describe some of the considerations that aspiring and newly hired faculty should keep in mind as they plan out how they will set up a laboratory as a new Principle Investigator (PI) at a PUI. Anyone hoping to start a research program at a PUI should understand both the timeframe of interviews, job offers, and negotiations and the challenges and rewards of working with undergraduate researchers. Once a job is offered, candidates should be aware of the range of negotiable terms that can be part of a start-up package. Space and equipment considerations are also important, and making the most of shared spaces, existing infrastructure, and deals can extend the purchasing power of start-up funds as a new PIs builds their lab. PUIs’ focus on undergraduate education and mentorship leads to important opportunities for collaboration, funding, and bringing research projects directly into undergraduate teaching laboratories. A major focus of any new laboratory leader must be on building a productive, equitable, and supportive laboratory community. Equitable onboarding, mentorship plans, and formalized expectations, can all help build a productive and sustainable laboratory research program. However, important considerations about safety, inclusion, student schedules, and a PI’s own professional commitments are also extremely important concerns when working with undergraduates in research. A successful research program at a PUI will bring students into meaningful scientific inquiry and requires insights and skills that are often not the focus of scientific training. This article aims to describe the scope of setting up a new laboratory as a way to alleviate some of the burden that new and prospective faculty often feel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0845.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: funding; ex situ; education; EAZA; European Association of Zoos and Aquaria; EUAC; European Union of Aquarium Curators
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:10:30 CEST)
The European Union of Aquarium Curators (EUAC) includes 150 members and is an important association for the European public aquarium community. Since 2004, over one quarter of a million euros were awarded by the EUAC Conservation Fund to approximately 50 projects, which spanned across the globe. While projects varied greatly in content and scope, several achieved a significant impact in local populations and/or their focus species. This paper reports on results achieved by these conservation efforts and what improvements can be made, to ensure that the funding is indeed invested in conservation efforts per se. Perhaps the most valid conclusion to be drawn from the list of projects covered in this work is the fact that, regardless of the outcome, as far as preservation of the species are concerned, local communities were actively engaged in a subject that would, otherwise, remain unknown to them. Additionally, these EUAC funded projects highlight how public aquarium activities reach far beyond the acrylic panels surrounding the tanks and indeed the walls of the institution, as they spread around the world and raise awareness within local communities to preserve biodiversity. These results further suggest that a future direction for EUAC, as well as the public aquaria it consists of, could – indeed should - include more strenuous lobbying with legislating bodies, to ensure more adequate – and stronger – in situ conservation measures. In conclusion, with so many doubts being raised by different movements about the existence of aquaria and zoos, it is important that the public is aware that it is their visit to see the ambassadors of different species of animals that supports the funding of many of these pilot projects that aim to preserve species in their natural environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: church closures; gentrification; socioeconomic outcomes; social capital theory; faith and African Americans; poverty gap; scholarship and grant funding
Online: 4 May 2023 (05:45:31 CEST)
The closure of Black churches raises concerns about the socioeconomic impact on African American communities. This pilot study uses Social Capital theory to highlight the relationship between the Black church and socioeconomic outcomes within the community. Based on survey responses from approximately 60% of African American participants, it was revealed that religious communities have a positive impact on their socioeconomic status. These findings have reinforced the strong connection between faith and success, noting that active involvement in religious services or activities could lead to higher annual incomes. Individuals who earned a higher income also reported more frequent participation in weekly religious services and activities. Furthermore, a chi-square test of independence showed a significant relationship between the frequency of religious participation and the likelihood of receiving a scholarship or grant funding from religious organizations. Therefore, the study provides evidence highlighting the church's critical role in fostering positive economic outcomes and social networks within African American communities. These findings provide a framework for additional research in this field to explore further the impact of religious communities on various aspects of African American life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: kidney health; population health; social determinants; sociopolitical context; environment; advocacy; interstitial nephritis; conservative care; dialysis; funding; kidney failure
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:41:49 CEST)
Statistical data extracted from national databases demonstrate a continuous growth in the incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the ineffectiveness of current policies and strategies based on individual risk factors to reduce them, as well as their mortality and costs. Some innovative programs, telemedicine and government interest in the prevention of CKD, did not facilitate timely access to care, continuing the increased demand for dialysis and transplants, high morbidity and long-term disability. In contrast, new forms of kidney disease of unknown etiology affected populations in developing countries and underrepresented minorities, who face socioeconomic and cultural disadvantages. With this background, we analyze in the existing literature the effects of social determinants in CKD, concluding that it is necessary to strengthen current kidney health strategies, designing in a transdisciplinary way, a model that considers demographic characteristics integrated into individual risk factors and risk factors population, incorporating the population health perspective in public health policies to improve results in kidney health care, since CKD continues to be an important and growing contributor to chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0262.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: alternative funding mechanisms; innovation; digital rra; alternative finance platforms; crowdfunding; entrepreneurs; investors; venture capital; angel investors; corporate venture capital (CVC)
Online: 3 November 2023 (15:48:27 CET)
Innovation has emerged as a critical driver of economic growth in the digital era, revolutionizing industries and reshaping economies worldwide. As traditional funding avenues continue to be dominated by risk-averse lenders and investors, entrepreneurs are increasingly turning to alternative funding mechanisms to fuel their innovative ideas and ventures. This article delves into the evolving landscape of financing innovation in the digital era, with a primary focus on the role of alternative funding mechanisms. By drawing on a comprehensive review of existing literature and empirical evidence, we aim to provide a conceptual framework that elucidates the interplay between alternative finance platforms, innovation ecosystems, and entrepreneurial activities. Moreover, this article examines the unique characteristics and challenges associated with financing innovation through crowdfunding, venture capital, and angel investing. The insights from this research contribute to a better understanding of how these alternative funding mechanisms can effectively support and catalyze innovation across industries and economies.