REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0476.v1
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:23:23 CEST)
Background: Nearly two-thirds of acute stroke patients have dysphagia. Dysphagia is difficulty to swallow food or liquids. Early detection of dysphagia is crucial in stroke patients as a result of increased morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition and respiratory tract infections. Aim: Our purpose was to conduct a literature review of dysphagia screening for stroke patient. Methods: We used the bolean operator to search articles of “or” and “and” with the key words were "Dysphagia" or “Screening”, AND "Stroke" or Acute Stroke” AND "Nursing". Data based used were Scopus, Proquest and Science Direct with inclusion criteria using full text in English which published from 2019 to 2021. We obtained 240 articles and then we screened by reading the main focus of articles with paying attention to the topics and the suitability of article content.Result: Twenty five publications relating to dysphagia screening met the inclusion criteria. There are five methods of dysphagia screening performed by nurses or other health workers: 1) a simple Questionnaire Test (4QT) method; 2) Water Swallow Test (WST) method; 3) Bed Side Screening Tool for Dysphagia (BSTD) method; 4) Volume Viscosity Swallow Test (V-VST) method; 5) EAT-10 method.Conclusion: screening is the first step in the identification of swallowing impairment or dysphagia of stroke patient. Dysphagia is an independent predictor of poor patient outcome and prolonged recovery time. Nurse has an important role to conduct a screening and must ensure that the selected tools has high reliability and concurrent validity. Key Words: Dysphagia, Nursing, Screening, Stroke
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0197.v1
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:45:33 CEST)
ABSTRACT Background: Nearly two-thirds of acute stroke patients have dysphagia. Dysphagia defined as difficulty in swallowing of liquids or food, vary in severity with symptoms ranging from mild throat discomfort to inability to eat. It’s well known that dysphagia is associated with aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, malnutrition, prolonged length of stay, and increased mortality. Early screening reduces pneumonia rates in stroke and it is usually performed by nurses. Dysphagia screening is recommended but no protocol or tool is pointed.Aim: the aim of this study is to conduct a literature review of dysphagia screening for stroke patient Methods: Literature search three databases (Scopus, Proquest, and Science Direct), with the keywords "Dysphagia" AND "Stroke" AND "Nursing", published in English between 2019 and 2021. Result: Twenty five publications relating to dysphagia screening met the inclusion criteria. There are five methods of dysphagia screening performed by nurses or other health workers: 1) a simple Questionnaire Test (4QT) method, which is by asking the following four questions: does the patient cough or choke while eating or drinking; whether the patient takes longer than usual to eat; does the patient change the thickness of the food to be able to swallow, and whether the voice turns hoarse after eating or drinking; 2) Water Swallow Test (WST) method; 3) Bed Side Screening Tool for Dysphagia (BSTD) method; 4) Volume Viscosity Swallow Test (V-VST) method, namely modification of feeding with first pudding, nectar and finally water; 5) Simplified Cough Test Method. The five screening methods for dysphagia above have been tested for sensitivity and specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive valuesConclusion: screening is a first step in the identification of swallowing impairment or dysphagia of stroke patient. Dysphagia is an independent predictor of poor patient outcome and prolonged recovery time. Nurse has an important role to conduct a screening and must ensure that the selected tools has high reliability and concurrent validity. Key Words: Stroke, Dysphagia, Screening, Nursing
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0246.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: swallowing; tracheostomy; dysphagia; TLI; COVID-19; ARDS; rehabilitation; physiotherapy
Online: 15 August 2022 (03:50:23 CEST)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, percutaneous tracheostomy proved to be an effective option in the management of patients with prolonged periods of intubation; in fact, among other things, it allowed early discharge from ICUs and contributed to reducing overcrowding in intensive care settings, a central critical point in the COVID pandemic. As a direct consequence, the management and the weaning of frail, tracheostomized and ventilated patients was diverted to sub-intensive or normal hospitalisation wards. One central challenge in this setting is the resumption of swallowing and oral feeding, which needs an interdisciplinary management involving Phoniatrician, ENT, Pneumologist and Speech Therapist. With this article, we aim to share the experience of a Swiss COVID-19 Center and to draw up a narrative review on the issues concerning the management of the tracheostomy cannula during swallowing resumption, integrating the most recent evidence from the literature with the clinical experiences of the professionals directly involved in the management of tracheostomized COVID-19 patients. In view of the heterogeneity of COVID-19 patients, we believe that the procedures described in the article are applicable to a larger population of patients undergoing tracheostomy weaning.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Miller Fisher Syndrome; Guillain Barré Syndrome variant; Dysphonia; Dysphagia
Online: 30 August 2020 (14:41:29 CEST)
Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a rare variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). It is largely a clinical diagnosis based on the classical features of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia. Its clinical evolution is most often favorable. However, other neurological signs and symptoms may also be present. Supportive laboratory studies (positivity of antibodies, CSF albumin-cytological dissociation and nerve conduction studies) are useful especially in uncommon presentations. We report a case of a 74-year-old patient who exhibited dysphonia and difficulty to swallowing previously to the classic triad of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia, characteristic of MFS. CSF analysis demonstrates an albumin-cytological dissociation but anti-GQ1b antibody were negative. The patient has spontaneously and completely recovered after several weeks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: dysphagia; FEES; Parkinson’s disease; swallowing speed; screening; water test
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:32:41 CEST)
There is still a lack of a clinical test to reliably identify patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) being at risk for aspiration. In this prospective, controlled, cross-sectional study we assessed if swallowing speed for water is a useful clinical test to predict aspiration proven by flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Due to this we measured the swallowing speed for 90 ml water in 115 consecutive and unselected PD outpatients of all clinical stages and 32 healthy controls. Average swallowing speed was lower in patients compared with controls (6.5 ± 3.9 ml/s vs. 8.5 ± 3.2 ml/s; p < 0.01). The disease-independent widely used threshold of < 10 ml/s showed insufficient sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 19% with unacceptable false-positive rates of 63% for patients and 69% for controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to define a suitable cut-off value for detection of aspiration of water (area under the curve 0.72, p < 0.001) in PD patients. The optimized cut-off value was 5.5 ml/s with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 64%. Overall, measuring swallowing speed is prone to methodological errors and not suitable as a screening instrument to predict aspiration in PD patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: acupuncture; dysphagia; post-acute stroke; overview; systematic reviews; meta-analyses; rehabilitation
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:31:46 CEST)
Background: Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews (SRs) on acupuncture treatment for post-acute stroke dysphagia have been published. Due to conflicting results an overview of SRs to summarize and assess the quality of this evidence to determine whether acupuncture is effective for this disease was conducted. Methods: Seven databases were searched for SRs and/or Meta-analysis of RCTs and quasi-RCTs on acupuncture for post-acute stroke dysphagia. Two authors independently identified SRs and meta-analyses, collected data to assess the quality of included SRs and meta analyses according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR 2). Results: 31 SRs were identified. Quality of 22 SRs was critically low, 5 SRs were low, and 4 Cochrane SRs were moderate when evaluated by AMSTAR2. 17 SRs reported 85.2-96.3% items of PRISMA. Five SRs included explanatory RCTs, 16 SRs included pragmatic RCTs, and 10 SRs included both. Conclusion: Currently evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture on post-acute stroke dysphagia is low quality. Type of study appeared to have no direct influence on the result, but the primary outcome measures showed a relationship with the quality of SRs. High quality trials with large sample sizes should be the focus of future research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019134163
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0497.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: food thickener; flow behavior; tapioca starch; hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate; xanthan gum; dysphagia
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:39:06 CET)
The flow behavior of the administrated fluid matrices demands careful assessments for stability as consumed by individuals with dysphagia. In the present study, we incorporate tapioca starch (TS), hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (HDP), and xanthan gum (XG) as thickeners into different nectars (300±20 mPa.s) undergoing thermal processing and evaluated their stability. The thickened nectars presented better water holding and oil binding capacities at 25 ℃ than 4 ℃, and the nectars with TS provided the best results for both capacities as well as the highest solubility index and swelling power (p<0.05). All prepared nectars appeared to be shear-thinning fluids with yield stress closely fitting the power law and Casson models. XG-contained nectars presented a higher yield stress and consistency index. Matrices thickened by HDP exhibited a higher viscoelastic property compared to those thickened by TS during thermal processing. TS nectars presented viscous behavior, whereas HDP and XG nectars presented elastic behavior at 80 ℃ processing. The 3-min thermal processing HDP-nectars remained stable and met dysphagia-friendly requirements under 4 ℃ storage for 28 days regardless of the types of fluid bases (distilled water, sport drink, or orange juice). The employed thickeners present adequate physicochemical properties to be potentially utilized for producing dysphagia-friendly formulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dysphagia; swallowing impairment; videofluorographic swallowing study; literature review; procedures; indications; normal and critical findings; interfering factors; complications; clinical significance
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:55:05 CET)
The videofluorographic study is indicated for diseases potentially causing dysphagia and aspiration, such as gastrointestinal reflux disease, cancers of the oropharynx and esophagus, and certain neurologic diseases needing swallowing assessment. The study is designed to survey the anatomy and physiology of swallowing to diagnose any swallowing impairment and is standardized using scales such as the Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImP). The procedure requires the patient to swallow a barium contrasted bolus which helps to visualize and obtain a real-time result. There are certain complications of the procedure including radiation exposure which requires necessary safety protocols to be followed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: SMA; spinal muscular atrophy type 1; SMN1; nutritional management; enteral nutrition; pediatric gastroenterology; dysphagia; neurological disability; endocrine disorders; precocious pubarche
Online: 7 June 2021 (13:14:37 CEST)
The management of patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1) is constantly evolving. In just a few decades the medical approach has switched from an exclusively palliative therapy to a targeted therapy, transforming the natural history of the disease, improving survival time and quality of life, and creating new challenges and goals. Many nutritional problems, gastrointesti-nal disorders and metabolic and endocrine alterations are commonly identified in patients af-fected by SMA1 during childhood and adolescence. For this reason, a proper pediatric multidis-ciplinary approach is then required in the clinical care of these patients, with a specific focus on the prevention of most common complications. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide the clinician with a practical and usable tool about SMA1 patients care, through a comprehensive insight into the nutritional, gastroenterological, metabolic and endocrine management of SMA1. Considering the possible horizons opened thanks to new therapeutic frontiers, a nutritional and endo-metabolic surveillance is a crucial element to be considered for a proper clinical care of these patients.