ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1191.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hydrogen; H2-ICE; Decarbonization; Public transport
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:25:11 CET)
The H2-ICE project aims at developing, through numerical simulation, a new generation of hybrid powertrains featuring a hydrogen fueled Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) suitable for 12-meter urban buses, in order to provide a reliable and cost-effective solution for the abatement of both CO2 and criteria pollutant emissions. The full exploitation of the potential of such a traction system requires a substantial enhancement of the state of the art since several issues have to be addressed. In particular, the choice of the more suitable fuel injection system, as well as the control of the combustion process, are extremely challenging. Firstly, a high-fidelity 3D-CFD model will be exploited to analyze the in-cylinder H2 fuel injection through supersonic flows. Then, after the optimization of the injection and combustion process, a 1D model of the whole engine system will be built and calibrated allowing the identification of a “sweet spot”, in the ultra-lean combustion region, characterized by extremely low NOx emissions and, at the same time, high combustion efficiencies. Moreover, to further enhance the engine efficiency well above 40 %, different Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems will be carefully scrutinized, including both Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)-based recovery units as well as electric turbo-compounding. A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system will be developed to further reduce NOx emissions to near-zero levels. Finally, a dedicated torque-based control strategy for the ICE coupled with the Energy Management Systems (EMS) of the hybrid powertrain, both optimized by exploiting Vehicle-To-Everything (V2X) connection, allow targeting an H2 consumption of 0.1 kg/km. Technologies developed in the H2-ICE project will enhance the know-how necessary to design and build engines and after-treatment systems for the efficient exploitation of H2 as a fuel, as well as for their integration into hybrid powertrains.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0856.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: cement; decarbonization; oxygen enrichment; hydrogen; electrolysis
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:37:55 CEST)
The Paris Agreement aims to limit global warming, and one of the most pollutant sectors is heavy industry, where cement production is a significant contributor. This work briefly explores some alternatives: recycling, reducing clinker content, waste heat recovery, and carbon capture, discussing their advantages and drawbacks. Then, it examines the economic viability and benefits of increasing oxygen concentration in the primary burning air from 21% to 27%, which could improve clinker production by 7%, and the production of hydrogen through PEM electrolysis to make up 5% of the fuel thermal fraction, both on a cement plant producing 3000 tons of clinker per day. It is concluded that oxygen enrichment can provide substantial fuel savings for a relatively low cost despite a possible significant increase in NOx emissions. By opposition, hydrogen production at this scale does not appear economically viable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0312.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: green business models; decarbonization; SMEs; Size
Online: 23 May 2018 (05:36:46 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze how Green Business Models (BMs) established by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can incorporate product and process decarbonization in their components (value proposition, creation and capture) and to what extent this incorporation is affected by SME size. We use a database comprising 1,161 observations of SMEs, 466 in 2014 and 695 in 2016. The results show that SMEs’ value propositions give an intermediate valuation to both legally required and voluntary reduction of environmental impact, irrespective of SME size and the year analyzed. Regarding value creation, SMEs adopt practically no environmental practices, and there are significant differences according to size, with more difficulties than advantages stemming from small size. The study also shows that such environmental practices are not effective in reducing carbon. This diagnosis indicates that SMEs need help from the administration if they are to play a key role in the process of transformation toward a low-carbon economy. Legislative actions involving harsher environmental protection measures might help shape value propositions that place greater importance on reducing environmental impact, whereas training actions on available environmental techniques, promotion of research on how to adapt such techniques to SMEs and the development of specific practices for SMEs might enhance environmental value creation and capture in their BMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0365.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: carbon budget, greenhouse gases, decarbonization, climate change
Online: 16 November 2018 (14:23:30 CET)
The Global Carbon Budget is the cumulative carbon emissions that human activities can generate while limiting the global temperature increase to less than 2°C. On this basis, most countries ratified the Paris Agreement 2015, pledging to reduce national emissions and the impacts of climate change. The European Union has planned to reduce emissions by 80% of their 1990 value by 2050 but such a target needs to be coupled with a further constraint on the cumulative greenhouse gases released along the path to 2050. The aim and the novelty of this study are to propose, for the first time, a carbon budget for the European Union, which represents the most significant physical characteristic to assess the feasibility of current EU-28 greenhouse gas reduction objectives under the goals of the 2015 Paris treaty
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0453.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: CO2 emissions; hydrogen (H2) combustible; energy efficiency; decarbonization
Online: 24 November 2022 (06:17:11 CET)
Following the international trend of using hydrogen as combustible in many industry branches, this paper investigates the impact of mixing methane gas with 23% hydrogen (G222) on condensing boilers’ operation. After modeling and testing several boilers with heat exchange surface different designs, the authors gathered enough information to introduce a new concept, namely High-Performance Condensing Boiler (HPCB). All the boilers that fit into this approach have the same operational parameters at nominal heat load, including the CO2 concentrations in flue gases. After testing a flattened pipes condensing boiler, a CO2 emission reduction coefficient of 1.1 was determined, when converting from methane gas to G222 as combustible. Thus, by inserting into the national grid a G222 mixture, an important reduction in greenhouse gases can be achieved. For a 28 kW condensing boiler the annual reduction in CO2 emissions averages 1.26 tons, value which was experimentally obtained and is consistent with the theoretical evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: decarbonization; automotive vehicles; supply chains; energy efficiency; quantitative analysis
Online: 16 November 2023 (13:12:58 CET)
Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles contribute significantly to the global warming through their immense quantity of CO2 emissions and are on the way to be replaced by zero emission alternative solutions. Several replacement techniques with scientifically sound performances are proposed for the propulsion equipment including the related supply chains from renewable sources, but they often cannot fulfill the huge demand quantitatively. The paper discusses the quantitative aspects of the real demand with the example of the actual automotive park in Switzerland and analyses different alternatives like conventional EV’s, fuel-cell vehicles or energetic chains based on sustainable fuels like e-methanol or synthetic solar fuels. The analysis comprises energy efficiency considerations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0251.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: energy model; system dynamics; energy transition; decarbonization pathways; benchmarking
Online: 13 January 2021 (13:05:36 CET)
In the present study, we compare energy transition scenarios from a new set of Integrated Assessment Models, the suite of MEDEAS models, based on a systems dynamic modelling approach, with scenarios from two already well know structurally and conceptually different Integrated Assessment Models, the Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES) and the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP). The investigation was carried out to cross-compare and benchmark the response of MEDEAS models with TIMES and LEAP in depicting the energy transition in two different countries, Austria and Bulgaria. The preliminary results show a good agreement across all the models in representing scenarios projecting historical trends, while a major discrepancy is detectable when the rate of implementation of renewable energy is forced to increase to achieve energy system decarbonization. The discrepancy is mainly traceable to the differences in the models’ conception and structures rather than in a real mismatch in representing the same scenarios. The present study is put forward as a guideline for validating new modelling approaches that link energy policy decision tools to the global biophysical and socioeconomic constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0255.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Climate Change, Healthcare Sustainability, Carbon Emissions, Planetary Health, Telementoring, Decarbonization
Online: 6 October 2023 (11:21:10 CEST)
Climate Change is the most serious planetary emergency of our time. Carbon emissions secondary to the healthcare industry account for about ten percent of all emissions in the United States. Health professionals, therefore, need to understand how they can make a difference in their profession, by understanding the health-related impacts of climate change and the importance of healthcare sustainability. An 8-week telementoring Climate Change Healthcare Sustainability ECHO series was developed to educate healthcare professionals in these topics such as the health-related effects of climate change, healthcare sustainability, quality healthcare and carbon accounting. A total of 376 participants from throughout the US and 16 other countries- completed this 8-week series and received no-cost continuing medical education credits. The evaluation consisted of pre and post Zoom polls, weekly post-session surveys and the registration demographics. Participants were primarily physicians and public health professionals who significantly improved their knowledge and communication skills after the course as compared to starting the training.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0361.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: renewable energy; decarbonization; fossil fuels; energy transition; COVID-19; sustainability
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:41:22 CEST)
The measures for tackling the COVID-19 may shrink the global GDP by approximately 6% in 2020, the deepest post-war recession. As a result, the global energy demand declined by 3.8% in the first quarter of 2020. Concerning fossil fuels, this conjuncture reduced the demand drastically and collapsed the prices to historic levels. Despite the general market disruptions, renewable energy sources (RES) seem to be more resilient to the crisis because they are the only sources that will grow in demand in 2020, driven by priority dispatch. The RES´s significant growth in cumulative installed capacity in the last two decades and the significant cost reductions of RES and energy storage technologies are positive signs towards better market conditions for the global energy transition. Currently, the crisis is seen by international agencies and transition scholars as an opportunity to advance a renewable-based energy transformation. Nevertheless, this article aims at caution about another possibility: if societal changes are not urgently implemented, the crisis may weaken the global energy transition. This article examines this last possibility from a three-level perspective: 1) post-COVID economic recovery, 2) low oil and natural gas prices and competitiveness of alternative sources and, 3) reorganization of the world energy market and the OPEC+. This paper exists to stimulate debate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0497.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: CO2 Capture Technologies; CO2 Adsorption; Porous Silica; Amine Functionalized Porous Silica; Decarbonization.
Online: 7 June 2023 (07:19:33 CEST)
As the major greenhouse gas, CO2 gas emission has been noticeably increased over the past decades resulting in global warming and climate change. As a result, it is imperative to reduce the excess CO2 in the atmosphere to hold “the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C (ideally 1.5°C) above pre-industrial levels set by the Paris Agreement on climate change. Among many ways, CO2 capture technology is considered as the most promising technology among the available technologies. Porous materials such as carbons, silica, zeolites, hollow fibers, and alumina are widely used as CO2 sorbents. However, among the available porous sloid sorbents, porous silica-based materials grabbed a significant attention due to their unique properties including high surface area, pore volume, good thermal and mechanical stability, and low cost. Therefore, development of porous silica materials as a promising CO2 absorbent is a continuously expanding research area in the current moment. Herein, we aim to visualize a full picture of the porous silica-based materials for CO2 capture. This review presents a comprehensive study of existing CO2 capture techniques and highlights the recent progress of different porous silica materials and synthesis processes. CO2 adsorption capacities of unmodified porous silica materials are less effective as compared with functionalized silica materials. Various research activities have been reported about functionalization of pours silica using amine groups. Therefore, in this review, different synthesis routes of amine-functionalized porous silica materials, CO2 adsorption capacities, gas selectivity and reusability were discussed. Moreover, the research challenges associated with the porous silica materials and future research directions are summarized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrogen; methane pyrolysis; direct reduced iron; industrial decarbonization; iron and steel; electric arc furnace
Online: 9 October 2019 (11:33:17 CEST)
Reducing emissions from the iron and steel industry is essential to achieve the Paris climate goals. A new system to reduce the carbon footprint of steel production is proposed in this article by coupling hydrogen direct reduction of iron ore (H-DRI) and natural gas pyrolysis on liquid metal surface inside a bubble column reactor. If grid electricity from EU is used, the emissions would be 435 kg CO2/tls without considering methane leakage from the extraction, storage and transport of natural gas. Solid carbon, produced as a by-product of natural gas decomposition, finds applications in many industrial sectors, including as a replacement for coal in coke ovens. Specific energy consumption (SEC) of the proposed system is approximately 6.3 MWh per ton of liquid steel(tls). It is higher than other competing technologies, 3.48 MWh/tls for water electrolysis based DRI, and, 4.3-4.5 MWh/tls for natural gas based DRI and blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) respectively. Utilization of large quantities of natural gas, where the carbon remains unused, is the major reason for high SEC. Preliminary analysis of the system revealed that it has the potential to compete with existing technologies to produce CO2 free steel, if renewable electricity is used. Further studies on the kinetics of the bubble column reactor, H-DRI shaft furnace, design and sizing of components, along with building of industrial prototypes are required to improve the understanding of the system performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1613.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy system; decarbonization; heating; cooling; buildings; industry; thermal energy storage; PCM; demand-side management; economics
Online: 25 October 2023 (09:04:49 CEST)
The transition of the energy system to renewable sources means the cheap energy storage in fossil fuels must be replaced by other options. A large part of the demand for useful energy is heat and cold, often produced from electric energy by a resistance heater, compression heat pump or cooler. The question is then to store the initial electric energy by electric energy storage (EES) or the useful energy by thermal energy storage (TES). In a desktop study both options were compared, by the choice made in existing applications, and also generally analyzing current technology data. For the latter, cost, round-trip efficiencies, life cycles and life time of EES, specifically for batteries, and of TES, specifically for hot and cold water, ice and other PCM were collected. Applications studied are heating and cooling in buildings and in industry. Application-typical conversion efficiencies were also collected and taken into account. The results show that in many existing installations TES, incl. by PCM, is already preferred, and that TES is advantageous in most investigated applications economically, in addition to technical advantages. Thus, TES has a large potential in the transition of the energy system to stabilize the electricity grid by demand side management.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0554.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: decarbonization; circular economy; recycled materials; demolition wastes; low-carbon construction; building with earth; compressed earth; rammed earth; sustainable construction
Online: 19 April 2023 (07:13:35 CEST)
An inter- and transdisciplinary concept has been developed, focusing on the scaling of industrial circular construction using innovative compacted mineral mixtures (CMM) derived from various soil types (sand, silt, clay) and recycled mineral waste. The concept aims to accelerate the systemic transformation of the construction industry towards carbon neutrality by promoting the large-scale adoption and automation of CMM-based construction materials, which incorporate natural mineral components and recycled aggregates or industrial by-products. In close collaboration with international and domestic stakeholders in the construction sector, the concept explores the integration of various CMM-based construction methods for producing wall elements in conventional building construction. Leveraging a digital urban mining platform, the concept aims to standardize the production process and enable mass-scale production. The ultimate goal is to fully harness the potential of automated CMM-based wall elements as a fast, competitive, emission-free, and recyclable alternative to traditional masonry and concrete construction techniques. To achieve this objective, the concept draws upon the latest advances in soil mechanics, rheology, and automation and incorporates open-source digital platform technologies to enhance data accessibility, processing, and knowledge acquisition. This will bolster confidence in CMM-based technologies and facilitate their widespread adoption. The extraordinary transfer potential of this approach necessitates both basic and applied research. As such, the proposed transformative, inter- and transdisciplinary concept will be conducted and synthesized using a comprehensive, holistic, and transfer-oriented methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: urban freight transport; multi agent; vehicle routing problem; decarbonization; fuel cell electricvehicles; well to wheel; total cost of ownership
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:58:43 CEST)
The option of decarbonizing urban freight transport using Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) seems promising.However, there is currently a strong debate whether Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) might be the bettersolution. The question arises as to how a fleet of FCEV influences the operating cost, the Greenhouse Gas(GHG) emissions and primary energy demand in comparison to BEVs and to Internal Combustion EngineVehicle (ICEV). To investigate this, we simulate the urban food retailing as a representative share of urbanfreight transport using a multi-agent transport simulation software. Synthetic routes as well as fleet size andcomposition are determined by solving a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). We compute the operating costsusing a total cost of ownership (Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)) analysis and the use phase emissions as wellas primary energy demand using the Well To Wheel (WTW) approach. While a change to BEV results in 17 -23% higher costs compared to ICEV, using FCEVs leads to 22 - 57% higher costs. Assuming today’s electricitymix, we show a GHG emission reduction of 25% compared to the ICEV base case when using BEV. Currenthydrogen production leads to a GHG reduction of 33% when using FCEV which however cannot be scaled tolarger fleets. Using current electricity in electrolysis will increase GHG emission by 60% compared to the basecase. Assuming 100% renewable electricity for charging and hydrogen production, the reduction from FCEVsrises to 73% and from BEV to 92%. The primary energy requirement for BEV is in all cases lower and forhigher compared to the base case. We conclude that while FCEV have a slightly higher GHG savings potentialwith current hydrogen, BEV are the favored technology for urban freight transport from an economic andecological point of view, considering the increasing shares of renewable energies in the grid mix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0474.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: decarbonization; sustainable alternatives; transformative business models (TBM); Sustainability Transitions Theory (STT); Strategic Niche Management (SNM); advanced technologies; start-ups; sustainable practices; carbon emissions; sustainable development goals (SDGs)
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:13:36 CEST)
The increasing social pressure for decarbonization has placed businesses under considerable scrutiny to actively reduce carbon emissions. A critical step towards achieving this objective is to shift conventional production and consumption systems to more sustainable alternatives. Thus, there is the emergent need to understand the patterns and drivers of the transformative business models (BMs) that underpin that shift. This study adopts a mixed-methods approach that integrates different literature streams--including Sustainability Transitions Theory (STT), Strategic Niche Management (SNM), and the Business Models approach--and stakeholders’ interviews to investigate the key elements of business models that lead towards sustainable practices. This research examines the organizational arrangements of European start-ups operating between 2014 and 2020. The transformation towards decarbonized production and consumption is characterized by efficient combination of business strategies that incorporate advanced technologies (ATs), such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML) and its algorithms, along with sustainable elements, resulting in transformative business models. By exploring the driving elements behind the transition to low-carbon approaches, this study fills a significant gap in the existing literature on business models. The findings from this research also hold relevance for policymakers to promote decarbonization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Decarbonization Methodology; Urban Traffic; Agent-Based Transport Simulation; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainability; Total Cost of Ownership; Charging Concepts; Conceptual Vehicle Design; Battery Electric Vehicles; Vehicle Routing Problem
Online: 6 December 2020 (18:16:16 CET)
This paper presents a new methodology to derive and analyze strategies for a fully decarbonized urban transport system which combines conceptual vehicle design, a large-scale agent-based transport simulation, operational cost analysis, and life cycle assessment for a complete urban region. The holistic approach evaluates technical feasibility, system cost, energy demand, transportation time and sustainability-related impacts of various decarbonization strategies. In contrast to previous work, the consequences of a transformation to fully decarbonized transport system scenarios are quantified across all traffic segments, considering procurement, operation and disposal. The methodology can be applied to arbitrary regions and transport systems. Here, the metropolitan region of Berlin is chosen as a demonstration case. First results are shown for a complete conversion of all traffic segments from conventional propulsion technology to battery electric vehicles. The transition of private individual traffic is analyzed regarding technical feasibility, energy demand and environmental impact. Commercial goods, municipal traffic and public transport are analyzed with respect to system cost and environmental impacts. We can show a feasible transition path for all cases with substantially lower greenhouse gas emissions. Based on current technologies and today’s cost structures our simulation shows a moderate increase in total systems cost of 13-18%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1269.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: energy usage; health issues; pro-environmental behavior; TPB framework; Kyrgyzstan; coal-based energy; renewable sources; decarbonization; Paris Agreement; Central Asia; energy costs; air pollution awareness; attitudes; sustainable energy sources; communication strategies; citizen action; Paris Agreement; Theory of Planned Behavior
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:20:58 CEST)
Background: This study examines the relationship between energy usage, health issues, and pro-environmental behavior (PEB) in Kyrgyzstan, amidst the country's commitment to transition from coal-based energy to renewable sources in line with the Paris Agreement. The purpose is to investigate citizens' attitudes towards PEB and their intentions to engage in environmentally friendly actions, focusing on gas, electricity, and coal. Methods: Drawing upon the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) framework, a survey was conducted among 1,455 respondents to explore attitudes towards PEB and energy sources' impact on health issues. Results: Decarbonization efforts in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia are in their early stages, with coal remaining a primary energy source. The study emphasizes the importance of governmental policies and citizen action in achieving decarbonization goals. Rising electricity costs outweigh the increase in indirect energy costs for food, posing challenges for households in adapting to changing energy dynamics. Conclusions: Targeted interventions and communication strategies are crucial to promote pro-environmental behavior and facilitate the transition to sustainable energy sources. Understanding the relationships between health concerns, air pollution awareness, PEB, and energy source choices can inform policymakers and organizations in their efforts to ensure a sustainable and healthy future for Kyrgyzstan and other Central Asian countries.