REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0342.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Anthocyanin biosynthesis; biosafety regulations; colored vegetables; crossbreeding; gene editing; human health; transgenes
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:38:22 CET)
Malnutrition, unhealthy diets, and lifestyle changes have become major risk factors for non-communicable diseases while ad-versely impacting economic growth and sustainable development. Anthocyanins, a group of flavonoids that are rich in fruits and vegetables, contribute positively to human health. This review focuses on genetic variation harnessed through crossbreeding and biotechnology-led approaches for developing anthocyanins-rich fruit and vegetable crops. Significant progress has been made in identifying genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in various crops. Thus, the use of genetics has led to the development and release of anthocyanin-rich crop cultivars in Europe and USA. Such a trend is emerging in the developing world. The purple pota-to “Kufri Neelkanth” has been released for cultivation in northern India, and a few colored grain wheat lines, developed through crossbreeding, are being tested for their productivity and adaptation. Although tomato is deficient in anthocyanins, some of its wild relatives are known to accumulate anthocyanins in their sub-epidermal fruit tissue. In Europe, anthocyanin-rich tomato cul-tivar ‘Sun Black’ developed via the introgression of Aft and atv genes has been released. The development of anthocyanin-rich food crops without any significant yield penalty has been due to the use of genetic engineering involving specific transcription factors or gene editing. The anthocyanin-rich food ingredients have the potential of being more nutritious than those devoid of anthocyanins. The inclusion of anthocyanins as a target characteristic in breeding programs can ensure the development of culti-vars to meet the nutritional needs for human consumption, particularly in the developing world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Frequency estimation; compressive covariance sensing; linear sparse ruler; least squares; colored noise.
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:30:21 CEST)
Frequency estimation of a single sinusoid in colored noise has received a considerable amount of attention in the research community. Taking into account the recent emergence and advances in compressive covariance sensing (CCS), the aim of this work is to combine the two disciplines by studying the effects of compressed measurements of a single sinusoid in moving-average (MA) colored noise on its frequency estimation accuracy. CCS techniques can recover the second-order statistics of the original uncompressed signal from the compressed measurements, thereby enabling correlation-based frequency estimation of single tones in colored noise using higher-order lags. Acceptable accuracy is achieved for moderate compression ratios and for a sufficiently large number of available compressed signal samples. It is expected that the proposed method would be advantageous in applications involving resource-limited systems such as wireless sensor networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: asphalt binder; transparent binder; nanomaterials; TiO2; viscoelastic properties; FTIR; photocatalytic asphalt; light-colored asphalt; self-cleaning
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:15:37 CEST)
Transparent binder is used to substitute conventional black asphalt binder and to provide light-colored pavements, whereas nano-TiO2 has the potential to promote photocatalytic and self-cleaning properties. Together, these materials provide multifunction effects and benefits when the pavement is submitted to high solar irradiation. This paper analyses the physicochemical and rheological properties of a transparent binder modified with 0.5%, 3.0%, 6.0%, and 10.0% of nano-TiO2 and compares it to the transparent base binder, and conventional and polymer modified binders (PMB) without nano-TiO2. Their penetration, softening point, dynamic viscosity, master curve, black diagram, Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR), and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were obtained. The transparent binders (base and modified) seem to be workable considering their viscosity and exhibited values between the conventional binder and PMB regarding rutting resistance, penetration, and softening point. They showed similar behavior as the PMB, demonstrating signs of polymer-modification. The addition of TiO2 seems to reduce fatigue life, except for the 0.5% content. Nevertheless, its addition in high contents increases the rutting resistance. The TiO2 modification seems to have little effect on the chemical functional indices. The best percentage of TiO2 was 0.5%, considering fatigue and 10.0% concerning permanent deformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: radar; transmit signal waveform design; doubly spread; extended target; fluctuation; Kullback-Leibler divergence; locally most powerful detector; colored noise
Online: 12 December 2017 (08:48:57 CET)
Radar transmit signal design is a critical factor for the radar performance. In this paper, we investigate the problem of radar signal waveform design under the small signal power conditions for detecting a doubly spread target, whose impulse response can be modeled as a random process, in a colored noise environment. The doubly spread target spans multiple range bins (range-spread) and its impulse response is time-varying due to fluctuation (hence also Doppler-spread), such that the target impulse response is both time-selective and frequency-selective. Instead of adopting the conventional assumption that the target is wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering,we assume that the target impulse response is both wide-sense stationary in range and in time to account for the possible correlation between the impulse responses corresponding to close range intervals. The locally most powerful detector, which is asymptotically optimal for small signal cases, is then derived for detecting such targets. The signal waveform is optimized to maximizing the detection performance of the detector or equivalently maximizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Numerical simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed waveform design for the small signal power conditions and performance of optimum waveform design are shown in comparison to the frequency modulated waveform.