ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0314.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: political skill; job satisfaction; turnover intention; popularity; positive affect; negative affect
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:16:31 CET)
From the perspective of individual resource and social capital, this paper aims to explain how employees’ political skill affect their job satisfaction and turnover intention, through the mediating role of popularity. Using a sample of 237 dyad surveys from supervisors and employees in the Yangtze River Delta of China, we found that: 1) political skill is positively correlated with job satisfaction and negatively correlated with turnover intention, and that these correlations are partially mediated by individual popularity; 2) positive affect (PA) moderates the relationship between political skill and job satisfaction, and negative affect (NA) moderates the relationship between political skill and turnover intention. The implications of our findings and future research directions are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0340.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: savouring; affect; anxiety; mothers; autism spectrum disorder; ASD
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:22:26 CEST)
Savouring is an emotion regulation strategy and intervention that focuses on the process of attending, intensifying and prolonging positive experiences and positive affect associated with these memories. Personal savouring involves a reflection on positive memories that are specific to the individual and do not involve others. In contrast, relational savouring entails reflecting on instances when people were responsive to the needs of their significant others. Such interventions hold potential to benefit parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers of children with ASD tend to experience higher anxiety, lower positive affect (PA) and more negative affect (NA) compared to mothers of neurotypical children, leading to a diminished overall well-being. Moreover, ASD has multiplied by up to four times in the recent decade. Thus, this paper investigates whether savouring may enhance the overall well-being of mothers of young children with ASD by increasing positive affect and decreasing negative affect. 52 mothers of neurotypical children and 26 mothers of children with ASD aged 3-7 years old were given a series of questionnaires and randomly assigned to either relational savouring or personal savouring conditions. In relational savouring, mothers were asked to reflect upon a shared positive experience with their child while in the personal savouring condition, a personal positive experience was recalled. Across mothers of children with ASD and neurotypical children, findings suggest that savouring leads to a decrease in NA (p < .01) but not increases in PA. Similarly, mothers with higher levels of anxiety experience a greater decrease in NA (p < .001) compared to mothers with lower levels of anxiety post-savouring. This study proposes that a brief savouring intervention may be effective among mothers of preschoolers. As lower levels of negative affect is linked to healthier psychological well-being, mothers might be able to engage in more effective and warm parenting after savouring exercises, which would cultivate positive mother-child relationships that benefit their children in the long-term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0379.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: core affect; emotion; semantics; process cycle; quantum cognition; qubit
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:04:58 CET)
The paper describes model of human affect based on quantum theory of semantics. The model considers emotion as subjective representation of behavioral context relative to a basis binary choice, organized by cyclical process structure and an orthogonal evaluation axis. The resulting spherical space, generalizing well-known circumplex models, accommodates basic emotions in specific angular domains. Predicted process-semantic structure of affect is observed in the word2vec data, as well as in the previously obtained spaces of emotion concepts. The established quantum-theoretic structure of affective space connects emotion science with quantum models of cognition and behavior, opening perspective for synergetic progress in these fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: affect; pregnancy; food intake; body mass index; ecological momentary assessment
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:33:53 CEST)
Background: Affective states play a role in dietary behaviors. Yet, little research has studied within-subjects associations between affect and diet during pregnancy. We examined the acute bidirectional relationships between affect and food intake and moderation by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in low-income, Hispanic pregnant women using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Methods: Women (N=57) completed four days of EMA during their first trimester. Women responded to five random prompts per day about their current affect and past two-hour food intake. Results: Higher positive affect (PA) or lower negative affect (NA) predicted greater likelihood of fruit/vegetable consumption in the next two hours in women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and lower likelihood in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Higher PA predicted less likelihood of fast food consumption in the next two hours in women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and slightly higher likelihood in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI had higher PA when they reported consuming chips/fries in the past two hours, and women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI had lower PA when they reported consumption of chips/fries in the past two hours. Conclusions: Results showed differential relationships between affect and food intake as a function of pre-pregnancy BMI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0070.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: guilt; shame; emotion; functionalist; social-adaptive; test of self-conscious affect; TOSCA
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:50:39 CET)
Within the field of guilt and shame, two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the social-adaptive perspective, proposes that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion; thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should work to increase an individual’s guilt-proneness and decrease an individual’s shame-proneness. The functionalist perspective, in contrast, argues that both guilt and shame can serve a person adaptively or maladaptively—depending on the situational appropriateness, duration, intensity, and so forth. This paper reviews the research conducted supporting both positions, critiques some issues with the most widely used guilt- and shame-proneness measure in the social-adaptive research (the TOSCA), and discusses the differences in results found when assessing guilt and shame at the state versus trait level. The conclusion drawn is that although there is broad support for the functionalist perspective across a wide variety of state and trait guilt/shame studies, the functionalist perspective does not yet have the wealth of data supporting it that has been generated by the social-adaptive perspective using the TOSCA. Thus, before a dominant perspective can be identified, researchers need to (1) do more research assessing how the social-adaptive perspective compares to the functionalist perspective at the state level, and (2) do more trait research within the functionalist perspective to compare functionalist guilt- and shame-proneness measures with the TOSCA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0324.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Action Cycle Theory; perception; mental imagery; vividness; VVIQ; affect; schemata; action; individual differences; neuroscience
Online: 17 November 2022 (03:36:09 CET)
The Action Control Theory (ACT) is an enactive theory of perception and mental imagery with six components: Schemata, Objects, Actions, Affect, Goals and Others’ Behavior. The evidence support-ing these six connected processes is reviewed in light of research on mental imagery vividness. The six processes and their interconnections receive empirical support from a wide range of studies. All six domains of perception and mental imagery are influenced by individual differences in vividness. Real-world applications of ACT show interesting potential to improve human well-being in both healthy people and patients. Mental imagery can be applied in creative ways to make new collective goals and actions for change that are necessary to maximize the future prospects of the planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: perceiving campus non-physical bullying; Refusal parenting style; negative affect experiences; negative coping style; mediating effect
Online: 17 January 2022 (14:09:27 CET)
To explore the impact of parenting styles on the perception of campus non-physical bullying, 492 students in upper elementary school grades were surveyed by using the Delaware Bullying Victimization Scale, the Negative Coping Style Scale, the Negative Affect Scale, and the Egna Minnen Beträffende Uppfostran Questionnaire. The questionnaire survey was conducted in the fifth and sixth grades of eight primary schools in Zhejiang province. The results showed that cyberbullying was not significantly related to an anxious parenting style, but negative affect experiences, negative coping styles, negative family parenting styles, and the perception of campus non-physical bullying were all positively correlated with each other (p < 0.05). The refusal parenting style was shown to be an important factor that affected students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying; it was observed to directly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying and indirectly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying by influencing negative affect experiences and negative coping styles. In conclusion, negative affect experiences and negative coping styles had a chain-like mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perception of campus verbal bullying. Moreover, negative affect experiences had a partial mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perceptions of campus cyberbullying, relationship bullying, and non-physical bullying total scores. Implications and suggestions based on these results are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: affect; embodied ways of knowing; inter-corporality; interspecies intimacy; sensory ethnography; movement; rhythm; canine and equine interactions
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:22:40 CEST)
Children’s beneficial relationships with animals are well known. Companion animals, particularly dogs have become an integral part of family life and children’s material culture. Aside the proven physiological benefits there is little research about what children say about their relationships with animals and how they describe them. In this paper we bring together both horse-human and dog-human interactions, finding common ground for understanding the complexity of human development, well-being and flourishing. Dogs in schools are fast becoming a trend in helping support and enhance children’s learning as well as their social and emotional well-being. Studies have shown that the very presence of a dog can increase children’s concentration, executive function and behavior. Also, equine therapy is gaining momentum and empirical studies are showing noteworthy benefits to children and young people. However, the lack of children’s voices means that the mechanisms for these benefits are somewhat unknown and unclear. In seeking to explore this, the authors utilize a visual, sensory and diffractive ethnographic approach to illuminate and illustrate, experiment and re-enact, how the children relate, share spaces and multiple subjectivities with their classroom canine, “Ted” and companion horse “Henry”. ”Henry” is part of a programme in which youngsters care for and engage in activities with horses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Non-synaptic transmission, synapse, neurotransmitters, interoceptive nervous system, volume transmission, paracrine, myelin, blood-brain barrier, interoception, affect
Online: 24 January 2019 (10:09:50 CET)
Neuroscience has overwhelmingly and understandably focused on the synaptic modality of signal transmission. There is evidence, however, that from an evolutionary perspective, non-synaptic transmission (NST) preceded synaptic signaling. Moreover, in modern nervous systems, NST coexists and extensively interacts with synaptic transmission modifying neuronal dynamics. In fact, NST remains widespread in complex animals, especially within the interoceptive system where the dearth of insulating barriers such as myelin sheaths and the blood-brain barrier enhances the communication between neural and non-neural tissues mediated by NST. We suggest that this physiological arrangement makes a fundamental contribution to interoception¾the process of sensing visceral states¾which is an essential underpinning of the capacity to feel and the foundation of affective processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: deciduous forest; female; forest bathing; forest therapy; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Profile of Mood States; Restorative Outcome Scale; restoration; Shinrin-Yoku; snow covered forest; Subjective Vitality Scale; winter
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:56:32 CEST)
Forest recreation can be successfully conducted for the purpose of psychological relaxation, as has been proven in previous scientific studies. During the winter in many countries, when snow cover occurs frequently, forest recreation (walking, relaxation, photography, etc.) is common. Nevertheless, whether forest therapy conducted in a forest environment with a snow cover will also have a positive effect on psychological indicators remains unknown. Furthermore, male subjects frequently participate in forest therapy experiments, whereas females are rarely involved. Thus, in this study, the effectuality of forest recreation during winter and with snow cover was tested on 32 young females. For these reasons, the experiment involved 15-minute periods of relaxation in a forest environment or in an urban environment, in addition to a pre-test under indoor conditions. Four psychological questionnaires (POMS, PANAS, ROS, SVS) were administered to participants before and after interventions. Results showed that participants’ levels of negative mood, as measured by different aspects of the POMS questionnaire (tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-dejection, confusion, fatigue), decreased after exposure to the forest environment. In contrast, both tension-anxiety and anger-hostility increased in the urban environment. The indicator of negative affect from the PANAS questionnaire also increased after exposure to the urban environment, whereas the indicator of positive affect based on PANAS was higher in the forest environment than in the urban environment. Restorativeness and subjective vitality exhibited higher values after exposure to the forest environment in comparison to those from the control and pre-test. The changes in these indicators demonstrates that forest recreation in the snow during winter can significantly increase psychological relaxation in young females, as well as showing that recreation can be successfully conducted under these winter conditions.