ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0231.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: domain walls, magnetic force microscope; magnetoresistance; permalloy wire.
Online: 25 February 2019 (14:39:55 CET)
Domain walls were studied for permalloy wires with different depth trenches (500 nm wide, 30 nm thick, 7.5 µm long, the depth of the trench was 0, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 15nm). Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) wires were fabricated by electron beam lithography and Ar ion milling. When the depth of trench is smaller than 12 nm, the switching field (Hs) is increasing with the deeper trench. However, the depth of trench is bigger than half depth of thickness, the Hs is decreasing with the deeper trench. We believed that Hs increased as the trench depth increased was because the magnetic diploes force increased between the magnetic poles on two sides of the trench. The domains of the wires were divided by the trenches and the domain walls were pinned on the trenches these were confirmed by magnetic force microscopy images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0095.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: anisotropic magnetoresistances; domain wall; magnetoelectronic devices.
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:35:58 CET)
Six Half-ring with varying linewidth from 120nm to 370nm were connected in series on five corners. The magnetization reversal processes were investigated by the measurement of anisotropic magnetoresistances (AMR). The number of switching jumps in the AMR loops, from zero to five, varied with the longitudinal applied field. These discrete jumps result from domain wall nucleating and depinning on the corners. The larger external field applied the fewer number of jumps in the MR curve. This reproducible and particular-respondence of domain wall device in pattern of half-ring wire might be the new promising magnetoelectronic devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Urothelial carcinoma; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; tumor microenvironment; metabolic pathway
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:00:41 CEST)
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has long been viewed as the first-line chemotherapy for advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, many patients with UC have been classified as “cisplatin-ineligible patient”, which requires alternative chemotherapy due to their poor responses. In fact, vast majority of those who initially responded to cisplatin-based chemotherapy eventually progressed. Understanding of UC tumor immunology provided an immunopathogenic bases for immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4, to treat cisplatin ineligible metastatic UC and patients with platinum-refractory metastatic UC. In 2020, data from the trail further showed that PD-L1 inhibitors benefit prolonged survival and progression-free survival as maintenance therapy. Besides immune-targeting therapies, manipulation of tumor microenvironment via metabolic pathways alternation, such as inhibiting tumor glycolysis, lactate accumulation and exogenous glutamine uptake, has been investigated in the past few years. In this comprehensive review, we started by introducing traditional chemotherapy of UC, and summarized current evidences supporting the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and highlighted ongoing clinical trials. Lastly, we reviewed the tumor metabolic characteristic and the anti-tumor treatments targeting metabolic pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patient; Low-phosphate meal; CKD-MBD (chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder); Proinflammatory cytokine; TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)
Online: 24 November 2021 (15:27:03 CET)
High dietary phosphate intake and poor adherence to phosphate-binding-therapy elevate the risk of hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (HD; MHD) patients. Therefore, chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) indicators increase; consequently, risks of CKD-MBDs and inflammation are elevated. This double-blind, randomized control trial intervention study was designed to investigate the possibility of reducing blood CKD-MBD indicators and modulating inflammatory indicators by consuming low-phosphate (LP) meals accompanied by a minimum dose of a calcium-based phosphate binder (CaCO3). MHD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to an LP meal group (LP group) or a control group. After initial data collection, blood collection, and dietary counseling, subjects were asked to consume a washout diet for 1 week. During the washout diet period, subjects consumed their usual diet but took 1 tablet of calcium carbonate (1CaCO3) as a phosphate binder with each meal. After the washout diet period, subjects in the LP group and control group respectively consumed LP meals and regular meals twice a day for 1 week. Meat in the LP meals was boiled before the regular cooking process, but meat in control meals was not. All meals were supplied by a central kitchen so that the contents of phosphate and other nutrients could be identified. In total, 40 MHD patients completed the study program. After 1 week of the dietary intervention, the blood Ca x P product and dietary phosphate had significantly decreased in the LP group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The LP group had significantly lower variations in dietary phosphate intake, blood calcium, Ca x P product, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α than the control group by comparing differences between after the dietary intervention and the baseline (△after intervention - baseline, p<0.05). The increase in dietary phosphate intake (△3rd - 2nd dietary phosphate intake) augmented the increase in the TNF-α level by 6.24-fold (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 6.24 [1.12~34.92], p<0.05). These results highlighted the conclusion that LP meals accompanied by a minimum dose of CaCO3 downregulated pro-inflammation by reducing CKD-MBD indicators which was triggered by decreasing dietary phosphate intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0081.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Berberine; Lipophilic substituent; Anti-cancer activity; Photocytotoxicity; Reactive oxygen species
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:30:40 CET)
The objective of this study was to synthesize 9-/13-position substituted berberine derivatives and evaluated their cytotoxic and photocytotoxic effects against three human cancer cell lines. Among all the synthesized compounds, 9-O-dodecyl- (5e), 13-dodecyl- (6e) and 13-O-dodecyl-berberine (7e) exhibited stronger growth inhibition against three human cancer cell lines, (HepG2, HT-29 and BFTC905), in compare with structurally related berberine (1). These three compounds also showed the photocytotoxicity in human cancer cells in a concentration-dependent and light dose-dependent manner. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found out a lipophilic group at 9-/13-position of berberine may have facilitated its penetration into test cell and hence enhanced its photocytotoxicity on human liver cancer cell HepG2. Further, in cell cycle analysis, 5e, 6e and 7e induced HepG2 cells to arrest at S phase and caused apoptosis upon irradiation. In addition, photodynamic treatment of berberine (1) and its derivatives 5e, 6e and 7e again showed a significant photocytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells, induced remarkable cell apoptosis, greatly increased intracellular ROS level and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results over and again confirmed that berberine derivatives 5e, 6e and 7e greatly enhanced photocytotoxicity. Taking together, the test data led us to conclude that berberine derivatives with a dodecyl group at 9-/13-position could be great candidates for the anti-liver cancer medicines developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0605.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: arrayed flexible chloride sensor; wireless sensing system; hysteresis voltage; selectivity coefficient; dynamic microfluidic
Online: 31 July 2018 (05:16:24 CEST)
Water quality monitoring was an important objective in the surroundings. In this study, we investigated the sensing characteristics of the arrayed flexible chloride sensor with XBee wireless sensing system. The sensitivity and linearity of the wireless chloride sensing devices were 91.6 mV/pCl and 0.988, respectively. The hysteresis voltages were 50.14 mV and 36.71 mV during the cycles of 1 M → 10−1 M → 1 M → 10−3 M → 1 M and 1 M → 10−3 M → 1 M → 10−1 M → 1 M, respectively. The selectivity coefficients of the ClO− ion, ClO4− ion, NO3− ion and I− ion for Cl− ion were 5.0 × 10−2, 1.0 × 10−1, 5.9 × 10−3 and 5.6×10−1, respectively. The sensing characteristics of real time measurement were investigated for dynamic microfluidic. The arrayed flexible chloride sensor was integrated with the microfluidic device, syringe pump and wireless sensing system. The sensitivity and linearity were 273.1 mV/pCl and 0.978 at 35 μL/min, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dry eye disease; meibomian gland; tear stability; tear film lipid layer; interferometry; OSDI; intense pulse light; IPL
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:45:51 CET)
Background: Inadequate meibomian glands (MGs) secretion can lead to dry eye signs and symptoms. Tear film lipid layer (TFLL) secreted by MGs protects and prevents rapid evaporation of tear film. Our purpose was to assess TFLL alteration and function in patients with evaporative dry eye (EDE) using tear interferometry after optimal pulse light technology (OPT) intense pulsed light (IPL). Methods: This prospective randomized examiner-masked sham- controlled study included 86 participants (142 eyes) with DED. IPL or sham procedure was performed on day 0, 21, and 42. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), non-invasive breakup time (NITBUT), interferometric fringe pattern determined TFLL quality, fluorescein staining (FS), and meibum gland (MG) were assessed at day 0, 21, 42 and 3-month. Results: At 3-month, TFLL, NITBUT, MG drop-out, MG quality, MG expressibility, FS and OSDI improved significantly (P<0.05) in the IPL group, while the sham group had no significant improvements. All DE parameters significantly correlated with the improvement in TFLL following IPL treatment. Additionally, artificial tears usage was significantly less in the IPL group from D-42 onwards. Conclusion: IPL treatment demonstrated the ability to improve TFLL quality and clinically reduced sign and symptoms of DED thereby reducing the frequency of artificial tears usage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pioglitazone; DPP4-inhibitor; ESRD; Cardiovascular outcome; Mortality
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:41:50 CEST)
While pioglitazone reduces insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis effectively in patients with T2DM, these benefits remained controversial in patients with ESRD. We compared MACCEs and mortality (overall, infection-related, and MACCE-related) of pioglitazone to that of DPP4-inhibitors in patients with T2DM and ESRD. From Taiwan’s national health insurance database, 647 pioglitazone users and 6080 DPP4-inhibitors users between April 1st, 2006 and December 31th, 2016 were followed from the 91th date after the ESRD certification till study outcomes, independently; withdraw from the NHI program, death, or Dec. 31th, 2017. After weighting, risks of MACCEs (10.48% vs 12.62% per person-years, [HR]: 0.85, 95% [CI]: 0.729–0.985) and all-cause mortality (12.86% vs 13.22% per person-years, [HR]: 0.88, 95% [CI]: 0.771–0.995) are significantly lower in pioglitazone group. Subgroup analysis found lower MACCEs risk in the pioglitazone users without insulin therapy (6.44% vs 10.04% [HR]: 0.59, 95% [CI]: 0.42–0.82) and lower MACCEs related death (2.76% vs 3.84% [HR]: 0.61, 95% [CI]: 0.40–0.95) in the pioglitazone group with dyslipidemia, when comparing with DPP4-inhibitors users. Pioglitazone is associated with lower all-cause mortality and MACCEs in diabetic patients with ESRD, compared to DPP4-inhibitors. These benefits were further significant in the non-insulin users and patients with dyslipidemia.