COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: microglia; pioglitazone; TSPO-PET
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:56:28 CEST)
Neuroinflammation is one disease hallmark on the road to neurodegeneration in primary tauopathies. Thus, immunomodulation might be a suitable treatment strategy to delay or even prevent the occurrence of symptoms and thus relieve the burden for patients and caregivers. In the last years, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) received increasing attention as it is immediately involved in the regulation of the immune system and can be targeted by the anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone. Previous studies have shown significant immunomodulation in amyloid-β (Aβ) mouse models by pioglitazone. In this study, we performed long-term treatment over six months in P301S mice as a tauopathy model with either pioglitazone or placebo. We performed serial 18 kDa translocator protein positron-emission-tomography (TSPO-PET) imaging and terminal immunohistochemistry to assess microglial activation during treatment. Tau pathology was quantified via immunohistochemistry at the end of the study. Long-term pioglitazone treatment had no significant effect on TSPO-PET, immunohistochemistry read-outs of microglial activation, or tau pathology levels in P301S mice. Thus, we conclude that pioglitazone modifies the time course of Aβ-dependent microglial activation, but does not significantly modulate microglial activation in response to tau pathology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0425.v1
Online: 20 August 2020 (05:13:23 CEST)
The translocator protein (TSPO) is a transmembrane protein present in the three domains of life. Its functional quaternary structure consists of one or more subunits. In mouse, the dimer-to-monomer equilibrium is shifted in vitro towards the monomer by adding cholesterol, a natural component of mammalian membranes. Here, we present a coarse-grained molecular dynamics study on the mouse protein in the presence of a physiological content and of an excess of cholesterol. The latter turns out to weaken the interfaces of the dimer by clusterizing mostly at the inter-monomeric space and pushing the contact residues apart. It also increases the compactness and the rigidity of the monomer. These two factors might play a role for the experimentally observed incremented stability of the monomeric form with increased content of cholesterol. Comparison with simulations on bacterial proteins suggests that the effect of cholesterol is much less pronounced for the latter than for the mouse protein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Glioblastoma; biomarker; TSPO; single nucleotide polymorphism; survival.
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:22:34 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, with few available therapies and a 5-year survival rate of 7.2%. Hence, strategies for improving GBM prognosis are urgently needed. The translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) plays crucial roles in essential mito-chondria-based physiological processes and is a validated biomarker of neuroinflammation, which is implicated in GBM progression. The TSPO gene has a germline single nucleotide pol-ymorphism, rs6971, which is the most common SNP in the Caucasian population. High TSPO gene expression is associated with reduced survival in GBM patients; however, the relation between the most frequent TSPO genetic variant and GBM pathogenesis is not known. The present study ret-rospectively analyzed the correlation of the TSPO polymorphic variant rs6971 with overall and progression-free survival in GBM patients using three independent cohorts. TSPO rs6971 poly-morphism was significantly associated with shorter overall survival and progression-free survival in male GBM patients but not in females in one large cohort of 441 patients. We observed similar trends in two other independent cohorts. These observations suggest that the TSPO rs6971 pol-ymorphism could be a significant predictor of poor prognosis in GBM, with a potential for use as a prognosis biomarker in GBM patients. These results reveal for the first time a biological sex-specific relation between rs6971 TSPO polymorphism and GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0548.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: microglia; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer’s disease; neurooncology; 4R-tauopathies; TSPO-PET
Online: 20 April 2021 (13:28:14 CEST)
TSPO-PET tracers are sensitive to a single-nucleotide-polymorphism (rs6971-SNP) resulting in low (LAB), medium (MAB) and high (HAB) affinity binders, but the clinical relevance for [18F]GE-180 is still unclear. We evaluate the impact of rs6971-SNP on in vivo [18F]GE-180 binding in healthy brain and in pseudo-reference tissue in neurooncological and neurodegenerative diseases. Standardized uptake values (SUV) of [18F]GE-180-PET were assessed using a manually drawn region of interest in the fronto-parietal and cerebellar hemisphere. SUVs were compared between LAB, MAB and HAB in controls, glioma, 4-repeat tauopathies (4RT) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) subjects. Second, SUVs were compared between patients and controls within their rs6971-subgroup. After exclusion of patients with prior therapy, n=24 LABs (n=7 controls, n=5 glioma, n=6 4RT, n=6 AD) were analysed. Age- and sex-matched MABs (n=38) and HABs (n=50) were selected. LABs had lower fronto-parietal and cerebellar SUVs when compared to MABs and HABs, but no significant difference was observed between MABs and HABs. Within each rs6971 group no SUV difference between patients and controls was detected in the pseudo-reference tissues. The rs6971-SNP affects [18F]GE-180 quantification, revealing lower binding in LABs when compared to MABs/HABs. Fronto-parietal and cerebellar ROIs were successfully validated as pseudo-reference regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: TSPO PET; amino acid PET; FET PET; glioma; contrast enhancement; spatial correlation
Online: 1 November 2021 (16:02:58 CET)
In this study dual PET and contrast enhanced MRI were combined to investigate their correlation per voxel in patients at initial diagnosis with suspected glioblastoma. Correlation with contrast enhancement (CE) as an indicator of BBB leakage was further used to evaluate whether PET signal is likely caused by BBB disruption alone, or rather attributable to specific binding after BBB passage. PET images with [18F]GE180 and the amino acid [18F]FET were acquired and normalized to healthy background (TBR). Contrast enhanced images were normalized voxel by voxel with the pre-contrast T1-weighted MRI to generate relative CE values (rCE). Voxel-wise analysis revealed a high PET signal even within the sub-volumes without detectable CE. No to moderate correlation of rCE with TBR voxel-values and a small overlap as well as a larger distance of the hotspots delineated in rCE and TBR-PET images were detected. In contrast, voxel-wise correlation between both PET modalities was strong for most patients and hotspots showed a moderate overlap and distance. The high PET signal in tumor sub-volumes without CE observed in voxel-wise analysis as well as the discordant hotspots emphasize the specificity of the PET signals and the relevance of combined differential information from dual PET and MRI images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0068.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: modulation of nuclear gene expression; mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO); TSPO ligand; PK 11195; 2-Cl-MGV-1; retrograde mitochondrial-nuclear signaling pathway; microscopy; mitochondria; cell nucleus
Online: 17 March 2017 (17:28:28 CET)
It is known that knockdown of the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) as well as TSPO ligands modulate various functions, including functions related to cancer. To study the ability of TSPO to regulate gene expression regarding such functions, we applied microarray analysis of gene expression to U118MG glioblastoma cells. Within 15 minutes, the classical TSPO ligand PK 11195 induced changes in expression of immediate early genes and transcription factors. These changes also included gene products that are part of the canonical pathway serving to modulate general gene expression. These changes are in accord with reverse transcriptase (RT) real-time -PCR. At the time points of 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, as well as 3 and 24 hours of PK 11195 exposure, the functions associated with the changes in gene expression in these glioblastoma cells covered well known TSPO functions. These functions included cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis. This was corroborated microscopically for cell migration, cell accumulation, adhesion, and neuronal differentiation. Changes in gene expression at 24 hours of PK 11195 exposure were related to downregulation of tumorigenesis and upregulation of programmed cell death. In the vehicle treated as well as PK 11195 exposed cell cultures, our triple labeling showed intense TSPO labeling in the mitochondria but no TSPO signal in the cell nuclei. Thus, mitochondrial TSPO appears to be part of the mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling pathway for modulation of nuclear gene expression. The novel TSPO ligand 2-Cl-MGV-1 appeared to be very specific regarding modulation of gene expression of immediate early genes and transcription factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Tspo; prostate cancer; stomach cancer; colon cancer; liver cancer; lung cancer; kidney cancer; breast cancer; brain cancer
Online: 31 May 2018 (10:59:31 CEST)
Tspo is a receptor involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial functions. Previous studies showed the expression of TSPO protein correlated positively with tumour malignancy and negatively with patient survival. The aim of this study was to determine the transcription of Tspo mRNA in various types of normal and cancer tissues. In situ hybridization was performed to localise the Tspo mRNA in various human normal and cancer tissues. The relative level of Tspo mRNA was quantified using fluorescent intensity and visual estimation of colorimetric staining. RT-PCR was used to confirm these mRNA levels in normal lung, lung cancer, liver cancer and cervical cancer cell lines. There was a significant increase in the level of transcription in liver, prostate, kidney and brain cancers while a significant decrease was observed in cancers of the colon and lung. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that the mRNA levels of Tspo are higher in a normal lung cell line than in a lung cancer cell line. An increase in the expression levels of TSPO makes it a good diagnostic biomarker and TSPO could serve as a target for anticancer drug development.