Online: 28 February 2023 (09:11:57 CET)
The juvenile criminal justice system is an important part of maintaining justice and protecting children's rights in criminal cases. Through literature study techniques, this paper aims to evaluate the juvenile justice system in Indonesia from the perspective of children in conflict with the law. The results of the study show that there are still some deficiencies in the juvenile justice system, such as the low quality of legal services and the minimal participation of children in the judicial process. Some efforts that can be made to improve the juvenile justice system include improving the quality of legal services, providing greater opportunities for children to be involved in the judicial process, and increasing alternative dispute resolution outside of juvenile justice. It is hoped that the results of this research can make a positive contribution to improving the juvenile justice system in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0652.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ytterbium trifluoride; structure; properties; solubility; dental cements; restorative materials
Online: 11 October 2023 (07:31:27 CEST)
(1) Background: The compound ytterbium trifluoride is used as a component of several dental materials, and this is reviewed in the current article. (2) Methods: Published articles on this substance were identified from PubMed, and showed that it has been included in a variety of dental restorative materials, including composite resins, glass polyalkenoate cements and calcium trisilicate cements. (3) Results: Ytterbium trifluoride is reported to be insoluble in water. Despite this, its presence is associated with fluoride release from dental materials. There is evidence that it reacts with the components of calcium trisilicate cements to form small amounts of a variety of compounds, including ytterbium oxide, Yb2O3, and calcium-ytterbium fluoride, CaYbF5. In nanoparticulate form, it has been shown to reinforce glass polyalkenoates and it also provides high contrast in X-ray images. (4) Conclusions: Ytterbium trifluoride is a useful component of dental materials, though some of the published findings suggest that there are aspects of its chemistry which are poorly understood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1781.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: behavior; emotion; forest management; Gephi; landscape; perception; restorative space; TEXTOM
Online: 25 May 2023 (09:32:03 CEST)
Since the COVID-19 pandemic, urban forest mountains have become important restorative environmental spaces, and demand-customized management based on users’ experiences is needed. We collected 21,557 data points from blogs from January 2020 to December 2021. For data analysis, keyword frequency, term frequency-inverse document frequency, and sentiment analyses were conducted using TEXTOM 4.0, and a semantic linkage network was established and analyzed using Gephi 0.92. In the analyses, the restorative environment components of “being away” “fascination,” “extent,” and “compatibility” were derived from users’ experiences. Fascination, which stems from natural objects such as rocks, valleys, and trails, was derived the most frequently, and being away and compatibility, representing leisure activities such as climbing and walking, formed the largest cluster in cluster analysis. Sentiment analysis revealed a high positive word rate of 91.6%, with favorable feelings accounting for 87.5%, whereas the proportions of joy and interest (12.5%) were relatively low. This study showed that leisure activities related to nature objects had a positive impact. However, joy and interest, which correspond to vitality, were relatively lacking in the restorative experience. To improve restorative experience quality, diversification of leisure activities should be promoted and customized management plans corresponding to restorative environment components developed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0323.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: biophilia; biophilic design; sustainability; sustainable architecture; built environment; well-being; restorative environment
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:24:11 CEST)
Can ‘restoration and therapy in design’ signify something more than the places like hospitals and healing gardens? Can those restorative environments be brought inside the working and living environments to mitigate the psychological problem at the source? The main objective of this paper is to look at the strategies and developments of Biophilic design with respect to therapy and restoration in order to achieve sustainability in terms of quality of life within the immediate built-environment. The paper explores the mental health issues under the domains of built-environment and indoor environment with respect to their connection with nature. Biophilic design has gained a favourable momentum within the last four decades and is now visualised as a medium that bridges the gap between humans and the nature. Out of a variety of measures of sustainable environmental design, biophilic design focuses on the end-results of naturally nurtured or inspired habitats and workplaces. It embodies strategies of Green and Intelligent buildings, works as a mitigation strategy for foul indoor environment and establishes the vision that veristic sustainability can only be achieved if there is qualitative control over human physiological prosperity and psychological health. In context of work efficiency, preference and productivity within the indoor environment, it is seen as a promoter of constructive thoughts and enhancer of creativity. The paper aims to enlist biophilic design and retrofitting strategies, which can improve cognitive function, reduce stress and provide mental peace within the built environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1854.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: laser dentistry; restorative dentistry; dentinal tubular occlusion; diode laser; dentinal hypersensibility; pain management
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:54:51 CET)
Dentinal Hypersensitivity (DH), a prevalent oral health issue affecting approximately one-third of adults. In this six-months retrospective study, a comparison was made to assess the effectiveness of two diode lasers with different wavelengths (980 nm and 1064 nm) in the treatment of tooth affected by DH. In total, 160 patients were divided into two treatment groups: one receiving treatment with a 980 nm diode laser (n=80) and the other with a 1064 nm diode laser (n=80). Pain was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline, immediately post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. Both groups followed the same treatment protocol, involving the application of a graphite paste to the exposed dentin before laser irradiation. Both lasers operated at an output power of 0.5 W in continuous and non-contact mode, with a 320 µm spot size. A significant reduction in mean VAS scores at all follow-up intervals compared to baseline was noted. 980 nm group had mean VAS scores of 7.9, 2.36, 2.31, and 2.38, while the 1064 nm group had scores of 8.01, 1.01, 1.16, and 1.13 at baseline, immediately post-treatment, and at 3 and 6 months, respectively. At all times of follow-up, the 1064 nm wavelengths showed a statistically significant reduction in mean values of VAS compared to the 980 nm. The findings may inform future research on optimizing laser-based treatments for DH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0049.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: spatial perception; Perceived Restorativeness Scale; urban greening; cognitive mapping; environmental restorative effect; perceptual range
Online: 8 November 2017 (03:11:06 CET)
In daily living environments, an individual’s state influences spatial perception. The current study, based on Attention Restoration Theory, aimed to explore differences in the health utility of nature according to individual differences in spatial perception. Cognitive mapping and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) were used to assess spatial perception ranges and the restorative effect of the environment. Two spatial perceptual groups were defined: one describing only the internal area of a green space, and another illustrating the external area of this green space on a larger scale. The former had higher overall PRS, Being Away, Fascination, and Compatibility scores. The latter had higher scores only on the Coherence subscale. These results illustrate that frequency of nature visits and time spent traveling to do so differently influence the two groups’ attentional restoration, which has great implications for landscape planning in highly stressful urban environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: deciduous forest; female; forest bathing; forest therapy; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Profile of Mood States; Restorative Outcome Scale; restoration; Shinrin-Yoku; snow covered forest; Subjective Vitality Scale; winter
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:56:32 CEST)
Forest recreation can be successfully conducted for the purpose of psychological relaxation, as has been proven in previous scientific studies. During the winter in many countries, when snow cover occurs frequently, forest recreation (walking, relaxation, photography, etc.) is common. Nevertheless, whether forest therapy conducted in a forest environment with a snow cover will also have a positive effect on psychological indicators remains unknown. Furthermore, male subjects frequently participate in forest therapy experiments, whereas females are rarely involved. Thus, in this study, the effectuality of forest recreation during winter and with snow cover was tested on 32 young females. For these reasons, the experiment involved 15-minute periods of relaxation in a forest environment or in an urban environment, in addition to a pre-test under indoor conditions. Four psychological questionnaires (POMS, PANAS, ROS, SVS) were administered to participants before and after interventions. Results showed that participants’ levels of negative mood, as measured by different aspects of the POMS questionnaire (tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-dejection, confusion, fatigue), decreased after exposure to the forest environment. In contrast, both tension-anxiety and anger-hostility increased in the urban environment. The indicator of negative affect from the PANAS questionnaire also increased after exposure to the urban environment, whereas the indicator of positive affect based on PANAS was higher in the forest environment than in the urban environment. Restorativeness and subjective vitality exhibited higher values after exposure to the forest environment in comparison to those from the control and pre-test. The changes in these indicators demonstrates that forest recreation in the snow during winter can significantly increase psychological relaxation in young females, as well as showing that recreation can be successfully conducted under these winter conditions.