ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0417.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: placental scars; demography; litter size; fecundity; turnover
Online: 16 November 2020 (11:47:54 CET)
The feral mink population in Denmark consists of two groups of animals; mink born in the wild and mink that have recently escaped from farms. The aims of this study are; 1) to estimate the reproduction and mortality of wild-born and captive-born mink and 2) to estimate the age of mink based on the width of pulp cavity (% of tooth width) in the canine teeth. During 2018, 247 wild caught mink were sent for necropsy at the Danish National Veterinary Institute. Of these mink, 112 were determined as captive-born and 96 were determined wild-born. The mean litter size ± SE of wild-born females was 7.6 ± 0.9 (range: 5-11 kits) and for captive-born females 5.9 ± 0.9 (range: 1-10 kits). The best fitting regression line for mink age (in months) based on pulp width was y=0.42x2-11.52x+104.7, R² = 0.77, p< 0.0001. Individuals with a pulp cavity width <35% was found to be younger than one year. The turnover of mink caught in nature was estimated to 66% and the yearly mortality to 69%, therefore the population is slightly declining. In conclusion, a feral reproducing mink population in Denmark persists, besides the continues influx of captive-born mink escaped from farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0819.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Preeclampsia; Fetal growth restriction; sFlt-1; Inhibin-A; Placental growth factor
Online: 31 December 2020 (14:23:21 CET)
Objective: We previously provided evidence to confirm that soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and their ratio, are useful tools to direct the management of preeclampsia (PE), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and PE+FGR near delivery. In this study we examine the potential additive value of Inhibin-A, a hormone marker of the transforming growth factor family. Methods: We used a cohort of 125 pregnant women enrolled near delivery at clinics of the University Medical Center of Ljubljana, Slovenia. There were 31 cases of PE, 16 of FGR, 42 of PE+FGR, 15 iatrogenic preterm delivery (PTD), and 21 unaffected controls with delivery of a healthy baby at term. Cases delivered before 34 weeks’ gestation included 13 of PE, 12 of FGR, 22 of PE+FGR, and 6 of PTD. We recorded demographic characteristics and medical history and the levels of PlGF, sFlt-1 and Inhibin-A. The predictive accuracy of each biomarker, their ratios, and combinations was estimated from areas under the curve (AUC) of Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves. We estimated accuracy by the continuous marker model and a cut-off model. Results: Combining Inhibin-A with PlGF or with the sFlt-1 / PlGF ratio showed a 10-20% increase in AUCs and 5-15% increase in the detection rate, at 10% false positive rate, of PE, and a lower, but significant, increase for PE+FGR but not for FGR alone. The use of a cut-off model was adequate, although a bit higher accuracy was obtained from the continuous model. Highest correlation was found for PlGF with all three complications. Conclusion: Inhibin-A improves the accuracy of predicting PE and PE+FGR provided by the angiogenic markers alone, bringing the results to a diagnostic level, thus assisting in directing clinical management. Inhibin-A had no added value for the accuracy of predicting FGR alone.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Placental Pathology; Apgar Scores; Gestational Age; Under-resourced Patient Population
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:17:10 CEST)
Abstract. Babies born to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected mothers are at greater risk for perinatal morbidity and more likely to receive a neurodevelopmental diagnosis in the first year of life. However, the effect of maternal infection on placental function and neonatal outcomes varies depending upon the patient population. We set out to test our hypothesis that maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in our underserved, socioeconomically disadvantaged, predominantly African American and Latina population in the Bronx, NY would have effects evident at birth. Fifty-five SARS-CoV-2 positive and 61 negative third trimester patients were randomly selected from Montefiore Medical Center (MMC), Bronx, NY. In addition, two positive cases from Yale New Haven Hospital, CT were included as controls. All 55 placentas delivered by SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were uninfected by the virus, based on immunohistochemistry, in-situ hybridization, and qPCR analysis. However, placental villous infarcts, mild preeclampsia, shortened gestational periods and lower Apgar scores were observed in the infected cases. These findings suggest that even without entering the placenta, SARS-CoV-2 can affect various systemic pathways culminating in altered placental development and function, which may adversely affect the fetus, especially in a high-risk patient population such as ours. These results underline the importance of vaccination among pregnant women, particularly in low resource areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Karyotype, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), amniotic fluid (AF), chorionic villus sampling (CVS), aneuploidies, pathogenic copy number variants (pCNV), confined placental mosaicism (CPM), true fetal mosaicism (TFM), pseudo-mosaicism.
Online: 17 December 2018 (09:58:43 CET)
Current prenatal genetic evaluation showed a significantly increase in non-invasive screening and the reduction of invasive diagnostic procedures. To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy on detecting common aneuploidies, structural chromosomal rearrangements and pathogenic copy number variants (pCNV), we performed a retrospective analysis on a case series initially analyzed by aneuvysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and karyotyping then followed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Of the 386 cases retrieved from the past decade, common aneuploidies were detected in 137 cases (35.5%), other chromosomal structural rearrangements were detected in four cases (1%), and pCNV were detected in five cases (1.3%). The relative frequencies for common aneuploidies suggested a under detection of sex chromosome aneuploidies. Approximately 9.5% of cases with common aneuploidies showed a mosaic pattern. Inconsistent results between FISH and karyotyping were noted in cases with pseudo-mosaicism introduced by culture artifact or variable cellular proliferation from cells with mosaic karyotypic complements under in vitro cell culture. Based on findings from this case series, cell-based FISH and karyotyping should be performed to detect common aneuploidies, structural chromosomal abnormalities, and mosaic pattern. DNA-based aCGH and reflex FISH should be performed to detect and confirm genomic imbalances and pCNV. Practice points to ensure the diagnostic accuracy and efficacy were summarized.