ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0246.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Newcastle disease virus; Paramyxovirus; vaccine quality; vaccine stability; heat stability
Online: 10 February 2021 (08:23:38 CET)
Vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating viral disease of chicken, is often hampered by thermal inactivation of the live vaccines, in particular in tropical and hot climate conditions. In the past “thermostable” vaccine strains (I-2) have been proposed to overcome this problem. In the current study, we compared the thermal stability of 6 commercially available ND vaccines. Subjected to 37°C as lyophilized preparation, two vaccines containing I-2 strains were more sensitive to inactivation than a third I-2 vaccine or when compared to three other vaccines based on different strains. However, after reconstitution strains proved to have a comparable tenacity. Interestingly, all vaccines retained a sufficient virus dose for protection (106 EID50) after 1 day at 37°C, still. However, experiments exposing ND-vaccines to elevated temperatures of 51°C and 61°C, clearly demonstrated inactivation of all dissolved vaccines within 2 to 4 hours. The data indicate preparation that specific factors may influence thermal stability rather than strain specific characteristics. Regardless of the ND strain used, the appropriate cold chain is mandatory for live ND-vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0059.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: smallholder women farmers; Newcastle disease vaccines; informal institutional barriers
Online: 6 May 2022 (04:34:32 CEST)
Institutional barriers can hinder effective access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines among smallholder chicken farmers. Many studies have focused on formal institutional barriers with minimal focus on informal institutions - unwritten rules and regulations that govern access and utilisation of Newcastle vaccines. However, informal institutions are more profound and encultured in individuals’ daily activities. This study sought to investigate informal institutional barriers to access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines among women smallholder chicken farmers in Makueni, Kenya. The cross-sectional qualitative study employed in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions as data collection methods. Study informants were conveniently and purposively sampled. Informal institutional barriers to access and utilisation included: fear of Newcastle disease vaccine as a new technology, use of herbal remedies, mistrust of community vaccinators, gender division of labour, ownership of household resources and beliefs that indigenous chickens do not need vaccines. The study concludes that women chicken farmers are constrained by unwritten rules, norms, regulations and gender roles that hinder their access to and utilisation of the Newcastle disease vaccines. The need to examine informal institutions to identify and eradicate barriers to access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines by farmers is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0200.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Newcastle disease; poultry; Pakistan; vaccine; economic affects
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:59:23 CEST)
The poultry industry is affected by many epidemics and Newcastle Disease (ND) is a constant threat, known as a devastating disease for poultry farmers around the world. According to the average death time of chicken embryos, virus strains can be classified as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic. The current research will clarify the vulnerable host range as well as the epidemiology and geographic distribution of ND in Pakistan. The introduction of the virus into poultry can have serious economic consequences, including the loss of production of sick and dying poultry, the cost of control measures (such as population reduction and disinfection measures), and possible trade restrictions in the event of an outbreak. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with sick poultry or carriers. Infected birds can also spread the virus in their feces. It can also be spread through respiratory secretions, contaminated feed, equipment, water, or feces. We will also discuss vaccines that which vaccines are available for NDV in Pakistan and vaccines can fight against this disease or not? In this study, a qualitative risk analysis was carried out to assess Pakistan's vulnerability to the introduction of virulent NDV strains
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0618.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Newcastle disease virus; chicken; pancreas; hormone; enzymes; histopathology
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:38:05 CET)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a highly contagious and devastating disease in poultry, Newcastle disease (ND). ND causes heavy economic losses to the global poultry industry by decreasing the growth rate, decrease egg productions, mortality, and morbidity. Although, significant advances have been made in the vaccine development, but outbreaks are reported in vaccinated birds leading to overall decreased growth rate. In this study, we report the damage caused by the NDV infection in the pancreatic tissues of vaccinated as well as specific pathogen free chickens. The histopathological examination of the pancreas showed sever damage in the form of partial depletion of zymogen granules, acinar cell vacuolization, necrosis, and apoptosis, congestion in the large and small vessels, sloughing of epithelial cells of pancreatic duct, and mild perivascular edema. Increased plasma levels of corticosterone, somatostatin, were observed in NDV infected chicks at 3 and 5-day post infection (DPI). Slight decrease in the plasma concentrations of the insulin were noticed at 5 DPI. Significant changes were not observed in the plasma levels of glucagon. Furthermore, NDV infection has decreases the activity and mRNA expression of amylase, lipase, and trypsin from the pancreas. Taken together, our findings highlight that NDV induces extensive tissue damage in pancreas, decrease the activity and expression of pancreatic enzymes and increase plasma corticosterone and somatostatin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: chicken; Newcastle disease; spleen; immune response; gene expression; RNA-seq
Online: 4 August 2020 (16:09:52 CEST)
As a major infectious disease in chickens, Newcastle disease causes considerable economic losses in the poultry industry, especially in developing countries where there is limited access to effective vaccination. Therefore, enhancing resistance to the virus in commercial chickens through breeding is a promising way to promote poultry production. In this study, we investigated gene expression changes at 2 and 6 dpi after infection at day21 with a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in a commercial egg-laying chicken hybrid using RNA sequencing analysis. By comparing NDV challenged and nonchallenged groups, 526 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05) were identified at 2 dpi, and only 36 at 6 dpi. For the DEGs at 2 dpi, IPA analysis predicted inhibition of multiple signaling pathways in response to NDV that regulate immune cell development and activity, neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Upregulation of Interferon Induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 5 (IFIT5) in response to NDV was consistent between the current and most previous studies. Sprouty RTK Signaling Antagonist 1 (SPRY1), a DEG in the current study is located in a significant QTL associated with virus load at 6 dpi in the same population. These identified pathways and DEGs provide potential targets to further study breeding strategy to enhance NDV resistance in chickens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0338.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: migratory birds; Newcastle disease virus-GVII; poultry; phylogenetics; sequence-independent; sin-gle-primer amplification (SISPA); velogenic; whole genome sequencing (WGS)
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:40:10 CEST)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype VII is a highly pathogenic Orthoavulavirus that has caused multiple outbreaks among poultry in Egypt since 2011. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of NDV prevailing in domestic and wild birds in Egyptian governorates. A total of 37 oropharyngeal swabs from wild birds and 101 swabs from domestic bird flocks including chickens, ducks, turkeys, and swans were collected from different geographic regions within 13 governorates during 2019-2020. Virus isolation and propagation via embryonated eggs revealed 91 swab samples produced allantoic fluid containing hemagglutination activity, suggestive of virus presence. The use of RT-PCR targeted to F gene successfully detected NDV in 85 samples. The geographical prevalence of NDV spread to 12 governorates in domestic birds, migratory and non-migratory wild birds. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled six NDV genome sequences (70 - 99% of genome coverage), including five full F gene sequences. All NDV strains carried high virulence, based on the presence of polybasic amino acids (RRQRF) at the F gene cleavage site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NDV strains belonged to class II within genotype VII.1.1. The presence of genetically similar virulent NDV in wild birds further highlights their role in the dissemination of NDV in poultry populations across Egypt. Continued genomic surveillance in both wild birds and poultry would be necessary for monitoring NDV incursions and genetic diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0018.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV); NDV ZG1999HDS; NDV La Sota; TLT (Human macrophage cell line; Immunomodulation; Anti - Gram Positive bacteria; Anti - Gram - Negative bacteria; activity
Online: 1 November 2021 (13:01:38 CET)
ABSTRACT. The immunotherapies, as a modern therapeutic approach, get an attention because of theirs’ promise to treat a large number of different medical disorders. Immunomodulation effects of low titres (10 HA/ml) of NDV (Newcastle Disease Virus) ZG1999HDS or La Sota were tested on TLT (Human macrophage cell line) bound to PBMC (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells). During the immunomodulation, the amount of NO, H2O2, lysozym and induced antibacterial activity against Gram - positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus mutants) and against Gram - negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter baumanii) were analysed. In addition, the cytokine secretion, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, GM-CSF, TNF-α, IFN-α and IFN-α were evaluated. Firstly, the TLT cells are activated through the NDV ZG1999HDS or La Sota binding, followed by the NO “burst” and H2O2 and lysozyme level increase. Secondly, after the binding to the TLT cells and interaction with the PBMCs, the decrease of GM-CSF, and an increase of TNF – α and IFN – γ were found. Simultaneously, the decrease of pro – inflammatory cytokine IFN-α and the differentially increase of IL-1α, IL-2 and IL-4 were recorded. During the induction of the antibacterial response, against Gram - positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus mutants) the effect was one third higher with NDV ZG1999HDS compared to La Sota. Antibacterial response against Gram - negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter baumanii) was not so clear. In general, NDV ZG1999HDS or La Sota activated TLT cells, further bound to PBMC; the ZG1999HDS is stronger immunomodulator than La Sota.