COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Lyme disease; Lyme carditis; Atrioventricular block
Online: 3 August 2018 (20:21:23 CEST)
Lyme carditis (LC) is a manifestation of the early disseminated stage of Lyme disease and often presents as high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. High-degree AV block in LC can be treated with antibiotics, usually resolving with highly favourable prognosis, thus preventing the unnecessary implantation of permanent pacemakers. We present a systematic approach to the diagnosis and management of LC that implements the Suspicious Index in Lyme Carditis (SILC) risk stratification score.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0350.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: lyme disease; clinical decision-making; medical history taking; physician-patient relation; primary health care; qualitative research
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:14:56 CEST)
Background: Media coverage of Lyme disease (LD) has led to an increase in consultations for presumed LD in Europe. However, LD is confirmed in only 10-20% of patients, with a significant number remaining in a diagnostic dead-end. Objectives: To reach a deeper understanding of how patients themselves contribute to the diagnostic process. To describe the genesis of the LD hypothesis in care pathways. Methods: In 2019, 30 patients from a prospective cohort consulting in the infectious diseases department at University Hospital in Marseille for presumed LD were recruited for semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were : suffering from subjective symptoms for 6 months, no clinical or paraclinical argument suggesting current LD. The patients’ medical trajectories were collected using a biographical approach. Results: The diagnosis of Lyme disease was primarily triggered by identification with personal testimonies found on the internet. Most of patients were leading their own diagnostic investigation. The majority of participants were convinced they had LD despite the lack of medical evidence and the scepticism of their referring GP. Conclusion: GPs should first systematically explore patients’ etiologic representations in order to improve adherence to the diagnosis especially in the management of medically unexplained symptoms. Long COVID-19 syndrome challenge offers an opportunity to promote active patient involvement in diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dapsone; disulfiram; chronic Lyme disease; Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome; babesia; bartonella; persisters; biofilms.
Online: 29 April 2022 (10:12:41 CEST)
Lyme disease and associated co-infections are increasing worldwide and approximately 20% of individuals develop chronic Lyme disease (CLD)/Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS) despite early antibiotics. A 7–8-week protocol of double dose dapsone combination therapy (DDDCT) for CLD/PTLDS results in symptom remission in approximately 50% of patients for one year or longer, with published culture studies indicating higher doses of dapsone demonstrate efficacy against resistant biofilm forms of Borrelia burgdorferi. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate higher doses of dapsone in the treatment of resistant CLD/PTLDS and associated co-infections. Twenty-five patients with a history of Lyme and associated co-infections, most of whom had ongoing symptoms despite several courses of DDDCT, took one or more courses of high dose pulsed dapsone combination therapy (200 mg dapsone X 3-4 days and/or 200 mg BID x 4 days), depending on persistent symptoms. The majority of patients noticed sustained improvement in 8 major Lyme symptoms, including fatigue, pain, headaches, neuropathy, insomnia, cognition, and sweating, where dapsone dosage, not just treatment length, positively affected outcomes. High dose pulsed dapsone combination therapy may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of resistant CLD/PTLDS, and should be confirmed in randomized, controlled clinical trials.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Lyme disease; Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS); dapsone combination therapy (DDS CT); double dose dapsone combination therapy (DDD CT); babesiosis; persistent infection
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:30:52 CEST)
Three patients with multi-year histories of relapsing and remitting Lyme disease and associated co-infections despite extended antibiotic therapy were each given double dose dapsone combination therapy (DDD CT) for a total of 7-8 weeks. At the completion of therapy, all three patients major Lyme symptoms remained in remission for a period of 25-30 months. In conclusion, Double dose dapsone therapy could represent a novel and effective anti-infective strategy in chronic Lyme disease/PTLDS, especially in those individuals who have failed regular dose dapsone combination therapy (DDS CT) or standard antibiotic protocols. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of DDD CT in those individuals with chronic Lyme disease/PTLDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0692.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Lyme disease; Quebec; Spatiotemporal patterns; front wave velocity; clusters; emergence
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:38:26 CEST)
Lyme disease is a growing public health problem in Québec. Its emergence over the last decade is caused by environmental and anthropological factors that favour the survival of Ixodes scapularis, the vector of Lyme disease transmission. The objective of this study was to estimate the speed and direction of Lyme disease emergence in Québec and to identify spatiotemporal risk patterns. A surface trend analysis was conducted to estimate the speed and direction of its emergence based upon the first detected case of Lyme disease in each municipality in Québec since 2004. A cluster analysis was also conducted to identify at-risk regions across space and time. These analyses were reproduced for the date of disease onset and date of notification for each case of Lyme disease. It was estimated that Lyme disease is spreading northward in Québec at a speed varying between 18 and 32 km/year according to the date of notification and the date of disease onset, respectively. A high rate of disease risk was found in seven clusters identified in the south-west of Québec in the sociosanitary regions of Montérégie and Estrie. The results obtained in this study improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of Lyme disease in Québec, which can be used for proactive, targeted interventions by public and clinical health authorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; Tickborne disease; Chronic infection; Spirochete culture
Online: 8 March 2018 (07:08:02 CET)
Introduction: Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of 10 control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner. Results: Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods. Conclusions: Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dizziness; Vertigo; Migraine Disorders; Interdisciplinary Communication; Headache; Medulloblastoma; Lyme Neuroborreliosis; Somatoform Disorders; Child; Adolescent
Online: 31 March 2021 (11:35:13 CEST)
Objective: The causes of vertigo and dizziness in children are diverse and require attention from various specialists. Numerous authors have reported that the commonest type of vertigo in children is migraine-associated vertigo (vestibular migraine and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood - BPV). We aimed to check whether this could be applied to our group of patients. Materials and methods: A retrospective case series of 257 consecutive pediatric vertigo and diz-ziness patients referred to the tertiary pediatric ENT clinic from 2015 to 2020. Patients received a complete audiovestibular workup and were referred to pediatric neurologists and other special-ists depending on the signs and symptoms. Results: Of 257 children aged 1-17 years, almost one fifth of them, 49/257 (19.1 %) had a central type of vertigo, 20/257 of them (7.8%) had benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood and 4/257 (1.6%) had a migrainous type of vertigo. Most of the children, 112/257 (43.6%), remained unclas-sified, without a final diagnosis. Conclusion: Due to the numerous possible causes, a child presenting with dizziness and vertigo requires a multidisciplinary approach. In the majority of cases, vertigo spells are self-limiting. They stop spontaneously and sometimes remain clinically undiagnosed. The most prevalent reasons for pediatric vertigo may be temporary hemodynamic (vaso-vagal) and psychological imbalance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; tickborne diseases; persistent infection; treatment; assessment; depression; anxiety; sleep disorders; opioid addiction
Online: 5 June 2018 (08:33:20 CEST)
There is increasing evidence and recognition that Lyme borreliosis, and other associated tick-borne diseases (LB/TBD) cause mental symptoms. Data was drawn from databases, search engines and clinical experience to review current information on LB/TBD. LB/TBD infections cause immune and metabolic effects that result in a gradually developing spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms, usually presenting with significant comorbidity and may include developmental disorders, autism spectrum disorders, schizoaffective disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety disorders (panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, intrusive symptoms), eating disorders, decreased libido, sleep disorders, addiction, opioid addiction, cognitive impairments, dementia, seizure disorders, suicide, violence, anhedonia, depersonalization, dissociative episodes, derealization and other impairments. Screening assessment followed by a comprehensive psychiatric clinical exam relevant to patient’s complaints and findings with a thorough history, mental status exam, review of systems, neurological exam, physical exam, a knowledgeable interpretation of laboratory findings, pattern recognition and clinical judgment facilitate diagnosis. Psychotropics and antibiotics may help improve functioning and prevent further disease progression. Awareness of the association between LB/TBD and neuropsychiatric impairments and studies of their prevalence in neuropsychiatric conditions can improve understanding of the causes of mental illness and violence and result in more effective prevention, diagnosis and treatment.