ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0220.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: integrated guidance and autopilot; neural network; extended state observer; command filter; back-stepping control
Online: 16 May 2018 (05:48:05 CEST)
This paper focuses on the integrated guidance and autopilot design with control input saturation in the end-game phase of hypersonic flight. Firstly, uncertain nonlinear integrated guidance and autopilot model is developed with third actuator dynamics, where the control surface deflection has magnitude constraint. Secondly, neural network is implemented in extended state observer (ESO) design, which is used to estimate the complex model uncertainty, nonlinearity and state coupling. Thirdly, a command filtered back-stepping controller is designed with hybrid sliding surfaces to improve the terminal performance. In the process, different command filters are implemented to avoid the influences of disturbances and repetitive derivation, meanwhile solve the problem of unknown control direction caused by saturation. The stability of closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov theory, and the principles abided by the controller parameters are concluded through the proof. Finally, series of 6-DOF numerical simulations are presented to show the feasibility and validity of the proposed controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: ultra-low anti-reflection coating; ellipsometer; optical admittance method
Online: 31 May 2017 (11:50:18 CEST)
An ultra-low anti-reflection optical coating on both surfaces of a plastic cover slip was studied for use in confocal image measurement. The optical reflectance at a wavelength of 632.8 nm was less than 0.1% when the coated sample was placed in a liquid having a refractive index of 1.34 close to the aqueous solution of the biomaterial. The high- and low-index coating films, Substance-2 (PrTiO3) and silicon dioxide (SiO2), were measured by an ellipsometer to determine their optical refraction indices and extinction coefficients. Theoretically, when the two layer thicknesses are designed using the optical admittance diagram of the cover slip to approach the equivalent index of 1.34, a reflectance of 1.6×10-5% in the liquid could be obtained. Experimentally, the reflectance of the sample deposited on the two faces of the cover slip was 4.223±0.145% as measured in the air; and 0.050±0.002% as measured by a He-Ne laser in the liquid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; therapeutic strategies; drug; ACE2
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:59:25 CET)
Most recently, an outbreak of severe pneumonia caused by the infection of 2019-nCoV, a novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China, imposes serious threats to public health. Many important aspects about 2019-nCoV remain largely unknown, among which, the limitation of antiviral therapies represents one of the most critical problems. More recently, it was confirmed that human ACE2 is the receptor for the entry of 2019-nCoV into lower respiratory tract epithelial cells. Give this observation, it is thus expected that the virus could be inhibited if we decrease the expression of ACE2. Here by screening two databases, Connectivity Map (CMap) and our JeaMoon Map (JMap), we identified a number of candidate agents that decrease ACE2 expression. CMap analysis identified 5 compounds, among which, Azathioprine is a possible therapeutic strategy for anti-2019-nCoV. Moreover, JMap analysis revealed a number of comounds, biologics, and traditional Chinese medicine, among which, Andrographis, Urtica, Sambucus, Astragalus, valproic acid, butyrate, and epoxomicin represent the most significant and possible strategies for anti-2019-nCoV therapies. This study provides a number of clues and possible therapeutic strategies for 2019-nCoV prevention and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0194.v1
Online: 14 February 2020 (10:52:21 CET)
Recently, it was confirmed that ACE2 is the receptor of 2019-nCoV, the pathogen causing the recent outbreak of severe pneumonia in China. It is confused that ACE2 is widely expressed across a variety of organs and is expressed moderately but not highly in lung, which, however, is the major infected organ. It remains unclear why it is the lung but not other tissues among which ACE2 highly expressed is mainly infected. We hypothesized that there could be some other genes playing key roles in the entry of 2019-nCoV into human cells. Here we found that AGTR2 (angiotensin II receptor type 2), a G-protein coupled receptor, has interaction with ACE2 and is highly expressed in lung with a high tissue specificity. More importantly, simulation of 3D structure based protein-protein interaction reveals that AGTR2 shows a higher binding affinity with the Spike protein of 2019-nCov than ACE2 (energy score: -15.7 vs. -6.9 [kcal/mol]). Given these observations, we suggest that AGTR2 could be a putative novel gene for the the entry of 2019-nCoV into human cells but need further confirmation by biological experiments. Finally, a number of compounds, biologics and traditional Chinese medicine that could decrease the expression level of AGTR2 were predicted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma; cancer associated fibroblasts; Ki-67; spatial analysis; immunohistochemistry
Online: 26 May 2021 (10:53:24 CEST)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are highly prevalent cells in the tumor microenvironment in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). CAFs exhibit a pro-tumor effect in vitro and have been implicated in tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, and treatment resistance. Our objective is to analyze the geospatial distribution of CAFs with proliferating and apoptotic tumor cells in the ccRCC tumor microenvironment and determine associations with survival and systemic treatment. Pre-treatment primary tumor samples were collected from 96 patients with metastatic ccRCC. Three adjacent slices were obtained from 2 tumor-core regions of interest (ROI) per patient, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed for αSMA, Ki-67, and caspase-3 to detect CAFs, proliferating cells, and apoptotic cells, respectively. H-scores and cellular density were generated for each marker. ROIs were aligned, and spatial point-patterns were generated, which were then used to perform spatial analyses using a normalized Ripley's K function at a radius of 25μm (nK(25)). The survival analyses used an optimal cut-point method, maximizing the log-rank statistic, to stratify the IHC-derived metrics into high and low groups, and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed accounting for age and International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) risk category. Survival outcomes included overall survival (OS) from the date of diagnosis, OS from the date of immunotherapy initiation (OS-IT), and OS from the date of targeted therapy initiation (OS-TT). Therapy resistance was defined as progression-free survival (PFS) <6 months, and therapy response was defined as PFS >9 months. CAFs exhibited higher cellular clustering with Ki-67+ cells than with caspase-3+ cells (nK(25): Ki-67 1.19; caspase-3 1.05; P = .04). The median nearest neighbor (NN) distance from CAFs to Ki-67+ cells was shorter compared to caspase-3+ cells (15 μm vs 37μm, respectively; P < .001). Multivariable Cox regression analyses demonstrated that both high Ki-67+ density and H-score were associated with worse OS, OS-IT, and OS-TT. Regarding CAFs, only a high H-score was associated with worse OS, OS-IT, and OS-TT. For caspase-3+, high H-score and density were associated with worse OS and OS-TT. Patients whose tumors were resistant to targeted therapy (TT) had higher Ki-67 density and H-scores than those who had TT response. Overall, this ex vivo geospatial analysis of CAF distribution suggests that close proximity clustering of tumor cells and CAFs potentiates tumor cell proliferation, resulting in worse OS and resistance to TT in metastatic ccRCC.