ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotics; geomicrobiology; Illumina sequencing; microbiome diversity; Streptomyces; Cave microbiology
Online: 12 February 2018 (16:30:42 CET)
Moonmilk are cave carbonate deposits that host a rich microbiome including antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria making these speleothems appealing for bioprospecting. Here we investigated the taxonomic profile of the actinobacterial community of three moonmilk deposits of the cave “Grotte des Collemboles” via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Actinobacteria was the most common phylum after Proteobacteria, ranging from 9 to 23% of the total bacterial population. Next to actinobacterial OTUs attributed to uncultured organisms at the genus level (~44%), we identified 47 actinobacterial genera with Rhodoccocus (4 OTUs, 17%) and Pseudonocardia (9 OTUs, ~16%) as the most abundant in terms of absolute number of sequences. Streptomycetes presented the highest diversity (19 OTUs, 3%), with most of OTUs unlinked to the culturable Streptomyces strains previously isolated from the same deposits. 43% of OTUs were shared between the three studied collection points while 34% were exclusive to one deposit indicating that distinct speleothems host their own population despite their nearby localization. This important spatial diversity suggests that prospecting within different moonmilk deposits should result in the isolation of unique and novel Actinobacteria. These speleothems also host a wide range of non-streptomycetes antibiotic-producing genera, and should therefore be subjected to methodologies for isolating rare Actinobacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Nasal microbiota; Illumina sequencing; nanopore sequencing; 16S rRNA gene; Bacterial species; Corynebacterium
Online: 30 August 2020 (16:04:50 CEST)
Illumina and nanopore sequencing technologies are powerful tools that can be used to determine the bacterial composition of complex microbial communities. In this study, we compared nasal microbiota results at genus level using both Illumina and nanopore 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We also monitored the progression of nanopore sequencing in the accurate identification of species, using pure, single species cultures, and evaluated the performance of the nanopore EPI2ME 16S data analysis pipeline. Fifty-nine nasal swabs were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore 16S rRNA gene sequencing technologies. In addition, five pure cultures of relevant bacterial species were sequenced with the nanopore sequencing technology. The Illumina MiSeq sequence data were processed using bioinformatics modules present in the Mothur software package. Albacore and Guppy base calling, a workflow in nanopore EPI2ME and an in house developed bioinformatics script were used to analyze the nanopore data. At genus level, similar bacterial diversity profiles were found, and five main and established genera were identified by both platforms. However, probably due to mismatching of the nanopore sequence primers, the nanopore sequencing platform identified Corynebacterium in much lower abundance compared to Illumina sequencing. Further, when using default settings in the EPI2ME workflow, almost all sequence reads that seem to belong to the bacterial genus Dolosigranulum and a considerable part to the genus Haemophilus were only identified at family level. Nanopore sequencing of single species cultures demonstrated at least 88% accurate identification of the species at genus and species level for 4/5 strains tested, including improvements in accurate sequence read identification when the basecaller Guppy and Albacore, and when flowcell versions R9.4 and R9.2 were compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0219.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Equid alphaherpesvirus 1; EHV-1; transcriptome; replication origin; long-read sequencing; nanopore sequencing; direct RNA sequencing; Illumina sequencing
Online: 15 June 2022 (09:30:44 CEST)
In this study, a structural profiling of equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) transcriptome was carried out using next-generation (Illumina) and third-generation (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) sequencing platforms. We annotated the canonical mRNA molecules and their isoforms, including transcript start and end site isoforms, and splice variants. Additionally, a number of putative 5′-truncated mRNAs containing shorter in-frame ORFs were detected. We also demonstrated that EHV-1 produces a high number of non-coding transcripts, including antisense and intergenic RNAs. One of the most remarkable features of the EHV-1 is the generation of abundant fusion transcripts some of which encoding chimeric polypeptides. We observed a higher number of splicing and transcriptional overlaps than in related viruses. Additionally, we found that many upstream genes of tandem gene clusters have their own transcript end sites (TESs) besides the co-terminal TESs, which is rare in other alphaherpesviruses. We show here that the replication origins (OriS and OriL) of the virus are co-localized with promoter sequences and overlap with specific RNA molecules. Furthermore, we discovered a novel non-coding RNA (designated as NOIR) that overlaps the 5′-ends of the longer transcript variants encoded by the two main transactivator genes ORF64 and 65 bracketing the OriL. These all suggest the existence of a central regulatory system which controls the genome-wide transcription and the replication through a mechanism based on the interference between the machineries carrying out the synthesis of DNA and RNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0687.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gross chromosomal rearrangements; non-homologous end joining; translocation; Illumina MiSeq; Oxford Nanopore; kluyveromyces marxianus; saccharomyces cerevisiae; URA3 gene
Online: 31 August 2020 (02:54:09 CEST)
Kluyveromyces marxianus (K. marxianus) is a newly emerging industrially relevant yeast. It is known to possess a highly efficient Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) pathway that promotes random integration of non-homologous DNA fragments into its genome. The nature of the integration events was traditionally analyzed by Southern blot hybridization. However, the precise DNA sequence at the insertion sites were not fully explored. We transformed a PCR product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3 gene (ScURA3) into an uracil auxotroph K. marxianus wildtype strain and picked 24 stable Ura+ transformants for sequencing analysis. We took advantage of rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies and developed a method using a combination of Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore sequencing. This approach enables us to uncover the Gross Chromosomal Rearrangements (GCRs) that are associated with the ScURA3 random integration. Moreover, it will shine a light on understanding DNA repair mechanisms in Eukaryotes, which could potentially provide insights for cancer research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Illumina MiSeq sequencing; gut microflora; Lactobacilli; immunostimulant; anticancer
Online: 17 February 2022 (17:31:15 CET)
We demonstrated the role of natural probiotics 3L, 3 Lactobacilli, in the establishment of a strong and sustainable beneficial healthy gut flora, after chemotherapy through experimental results through in vivo model. Using rat CTX model (immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide), we suggested some new adjuvant to chemotherapy as drugs + lactobacillus treament. Further, we proposed a new probiotic formulation (L. acidophilus + L. casei + L. plantarum) to be explored in the prevention of health condition loss by alteration of the general immune system, in numerous studies that reported the use of probiotics involving Lactobacillus in the post-chemo or post-surgical procedures. Here, in our study, Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to generate sequencing data from microbial genomic DNA libraries, which is appreciable to check for the effects of 3L on bacteria. Microbiome analysis, phylogenetic and classification reports, community data have supported the experiments and the results where 3L had strong beneficial effects on the microbiome. Further, the influence on specific metabolic pathways are assisted in deriving the conclusion of the study (use of 3L for cancer therapy) to the mode of action, mechanistically by correcting microbiota composition and enhancing specific gut metabolic functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0428.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array; rearing; behavioral style; primate
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:49:02 CEST)
While low serotonergic activity is often associated with psychological disorders like depression, anxiety, mood and personality disorders, variations in serotonin also contribute to normal personality differences. Here we investigate the role of blood DNA methylation levels at individual CpG sites of two key serotonergic genes (serotonin receptor gene 1A, HTR1A; serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4) in predicting personality of captive chimpanzees. We find associations between methylation at 9/48 CpG sites with four personality dimensions: Dominance, Reactivity/Dependability, Agreeableness and Openness. Directionality of effects were CpG location-dependent and confirmed a role of serotonergic methylation in reducing anxiety (Dominance) and aggression related personality (Reactivity/Undependability) while simultaneously promoting prosocial (Agreeableness) and exploratory personality (Openness). While early-life adversity has been shown to impact serotonergic methylation patterns in other species, here, atypical early social rearing experiences only had a modest impact on CpG methylation levels in this chimpanzee sample. While the precise environmental factors impacting serotonergic methylation in chimpanzees thus remain to be identified, our study suggests a role in shaping natural variation in animal personality. The results of this study offer a basis for future hypothesis driven testing in additional populations and species to better understand the impact of ecology and evolution on complex behavioral traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0056.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: green manure; soil microbial communities; crop health; Illumina sequencing
Online: 18 September 2016 (08:56:53 CEST)
Green manure could improve soil nutrients and crop production, playing a significant role in sustainable agriculture. However, the impacts of green manure on crop health and the roles soil microbial communities play in the process haven’t been clarified clearly yet. In this study, we investigated soil microbial community composition and structure in four tobacco farmlands, which were treated with different green manure (control, ryegrass, pea and rape), using 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing. Results showed that green manure had significant impacts on soil properties, microbial communities and tobacco health. First, soil total C, N and Ca content increased significantly in groups treated with green manure than control. Second, soil community diversity was significantly higher in groups treated with green manure. Third, green manure especially ryegrass, decreased tobacco disease (bacterial wilt) rate dramatically, and the process might be mediated by soil microbial communities. On the one hand, several microbial populations were found to be potentially disease inducible or suppressive. For example, the abundances of Dokdonella and Rhodanobacter were positively correlated to tobacco disease rate, while Acidobacteira_Gp4 and Gp6 had negative correlations with tobacco disease. On the other hand, soil microbial communities were shaped by soil properties (e.g., pH, C and N content). In conclusion, our research showed that green manure could increase soil nutrients directly, and further improve tobacco health mediated by soil microorganisms, which may shed light on revealing interactions among soil properties, microorganisms and plants.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0205.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: RaTG13; SARS-COV-2; Illumina sequencing, amplicon sequencing, NGS; fecal swab
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:20:17 CEST)
RaTG13 (a bat derived SARS-like CoV) is the closest relative sequence of SARS-CoV-2 reported till date. The sample from which RaTG13 was sequenced was a bat fecal swab collected in 2013 from Tongguan, Mojiang, Yunnan province, China. The Illumina based sequence of RaTG13, MN996532.1, was deposited on 27th Jan 2020 and the raw data (Illumina), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/SRX7724752[accn]. There are discrepancies in dates about when the metagenome sequencing of RaTG13 sample was done (2018 or 2020), both stated by the same corresponding author. Comparison of the RNA Seq data of RaTG13 fecal swab to the corresponding data from the bat fecal swabs deposited by the same working group using the same methods indicated that the RaTG13 raw data seemed to be different in various aspects. The fecal swab sample showed abnormally less read of bacterial reads in the swab was exceptionally low, i.e. 0.7%, compared to the 20-90% abundance in other fecal swabs from bats processed by similar methods. Also, another raw data in the form of amplicon sequences was deposited in May 2020; however, the dates mentioned on the files of the sequenced amplicons were older (2017, 2018). The genome assembly of RaTG13 could not be done de-novo and the average coverage of the genome ~8%. Also, literature indicates that RaTG13 RBD cannot bind to Rhinolophus ACE-2 receptors. Collectively, the anomalies in the raw data of RaTG13 and other issues pose an important question about the overall authenticity of the RaTG13 genome sequence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: noni mosaic virus; potyvirus; complete genome; morinda citrifolia l; illumina transcriptomic sequencing
Online: 14 October 2019 (09:29:57 CEST)
An outbreak of a virus-like disease has caused severe damage to noni plants (Morinda citrifolia L.) in Xishuangbanna area of China's southwestern Yunnan province since 2015. The diseased plants displayed typical mosaic symptom with light and dark green patches on leaves. Flexuous filamentous virus particles of about 800 nm in length were observed from the leaf saps by transmission electron microscope. Illumina transcriptomic sequencing further revealed the presence of a potyvirus and its near complete genome was obtained from de novo assembly. The complete genome of 9,659 nts was obtained by Sanger sequencing of eight amplicons generate by RT-PCR and 5’ and 3’ RACE. BLASTp analysis of the polyprotein sequence showed that the virus was most closely related to Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV), but these two viruses only shared 50.7% amino acid sequence similarity. Both phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein and CP amino acid sequences indicated that this virus is a member of genus Potyvirus. However, the low sequence homology with all known potyviruses established this virus as a new species in the genus, tentatively named as Noni mosaic virus (NoMV). Our field surveys showed that 100% of the symptomatic samples and 28.57% of the asymptomatic samples were infected with this novel potyvirus. Aphids collected from diseased leaves were also detected carrying the virus. In summary, our data indicated that a novel species of potyvirus, NoMV, is prevalent in Yunnan, China and is associated with an emerging mosaic disease on M. citrifolia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0003.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Conventional agriculture; sustainable agriculture; compost tea; bacteria; biodiversity; Illumina MiSeq sequencing; plant growth; soybean
Online: 1 July 2021 (07:59:55 CEST)
Soil bacteria drive key ecosystem functions, including nutrient mobilization, soil aggregation and crop bioprotection against pathogens. Bacterial diversity is thus considered a key component of soil health. Conventional agriculture reduces bacterial diversity in many ways. Compost tea has been suggested as a bioinoculant that may restore bacterial community diversity and promote crop performance under conventional agriculture. Here, we conducted a field experiment to test this hypothesis in a soybean-maize rotation. Compost tea application had no influence on bacterial diversity or community structure. Plant growth and yield were also unresponsive to compost tea application. Combined, our results suggest that our compost tea bacteria did not thrive in the soil, and that the positive impacts of compost tea applications reported elsewhere may be caused by different microbial groups (e.g., fungi, protists, nematodes) or by abiotic effects on soil (e.g., contribution of nutrients and dissolved organic matter). Further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanisms through which compost tea influences crop performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0681.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Majiang region; dry red blueberry wine; fungal community; fungal dynamic analysis; Illumina MiSeq high-throughput technology
Online: 11 September 2023 (13:45:18 CEST)
Abstract: Microflora play an important role in the fermentation of blueberry wine, influencing the flavor and nutrient formation. Commercial yeasts give blueberry wines an average flavor profile that does not highlight the specific aroma and origin of the blueberry. In the present study, ITS1-ITS2 region sequencing analysis was performed using Illumina MiSeq high-throughput technology to sequence fermented blueberry wine samples of three Vaccinium ashei varieties, Gardenblue, Powderblue, and Britewell, from the Majiang appellation in Guizhou province to analyze the trends of fungal communities and the diversity of compositional structures in different periods of blueberry wine fermentation. The study's results revealed that 114 genera from 7 phyla were detected in 9 samples from different fermentation periods of blueberry wine. The main fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Kickxellomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Olpidiomycota. The main fungal genera were Hanseniaspora, Saccharomyces, unidentified, Aureobasidium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Colletotrichum, etc. Hanseniaspora was dominant in the pre-fermentation stage of blueberry wine, accounting for more than 82%; Saccharomyces was the dominant genera in the middle and late fermentation stages of blueberry wine, with Saccharomyces accounting for more than 72% in the middle of fermentation and 93% in the late fermentation stage. This study screened indigenous flora for the natural fermentation of blueberry wine in the Majiang production area of Guizhou, improved the flavor substances of the blueberry wine, highlighted the characteristics of the production area, and made the blueberry wine have the characteristic flavor of the production area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0379.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: anaerobic digestion; Co-digestion; CSTR; BMP-test; Illumina sequencing; T-RFLP; glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 48
Online: 27 May 2018 (12:53:51 CEST)
This study investigated whether biogas reactor performance, including microbial community development, in response to a change in substrate composition is influenced by initial inoculum source. Test reactors were first started with two different inocula and operated with the same grass-manure mixture for more than 120 days. These reactors initially showed great differences depending on inoculum source, but eventually showed similar performance and overall microbial community structure. At the start of the present experiment, the substrate was complemented with milled feed wheat, added all at once or divided into two portions. The starting hypothesis was that process performance depends on initial inoculum source and microbial diversity, and thus that reactor performance is influenced by the feeding regime. In response to the substrate change, all reactors showed increases and decreases in volumetric and specific methane production, respectively. However, specific methane yield and development of the microbial community showed differences related to initial inoculum source, confirming the hypothesis. The different feeding strategies had however only minor effects on process performance and overall community structure, but still induced differences in the cellulose-degrading community and in cellulose degradation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0562.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genome; transcriptome; gene models; Leishmania; Illumina sequencing; PacBio sequencing; expression levels; untranslated regions (UTRs); SL-additions sites; polyadenylation sites
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:23:40 CEST)
Leishmania major is the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. The Friedlin strain of this species (LmjF) was chosen when a multi-laboratory consortium undertook the objective of deciphering the first genome sequence for a parasite of the genus Leishmania. The objective was successfully attained in 2005, and this represented a milestone for Leishmania molecular biology studies around the world. Although the LmjF genome sequence was done following a shotgun strategy and using classical Sanger sequencing, the results were excellent and this genome assembly served as the reference for subsequent genome assemblies in other Leishmania species. Here, we present a new assembly for the genome of this strain (named LMJFC for clarity), generated by the combination of two high throughput sequencing platforms, Illumina short-read sequencing and PacBio Single Molecular Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing, which provides long-read sequences. Apart from resolving uncertain nucleotide positions, several genomic regions have been reorganized and a more precise composition of tandemly repeated gene loci was attained. Additionally, the genome annotation has been improved by adding 542 genes and more accurate coding-sequences defined for around two hundred genes, based on the transcriptome delimitation also carried out in this work. As a result, we are providing gene models (including untranslated regions and introns) for 11,238 genes. Genomic information ultimately determines the biology of every organism; therefore, our understanding of molecular mechanisms will depend on the availability of precise genome sequences and accurate gene annotations. In this regards, this work is providing an improved genome sequence and updated transcriptome annotations for the reference L. major Friedlin strain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1417.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Neorhizobium galegae biovars orientalis and officinalis; polytypic rhizobia species; evolution of symbiosis; core and symbiotically specialized (sym) genes; nucleotide polymorphism of genes; driving and purifying selection; p-distance; dN/dS statistics; goats’ rue (Galega); Illumina
Online: 21 August 2023 (07:26:27 CEST)
Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) represent a suitable model to address a range of evolutionary prob-lems including the tradeoff between genetic polymorphism and natural selection. Rhizobia possess the complicated genomes in which symbiotically specialized (sym) genes differ in their natural histories from core genes encoding for housekeeping functions. Diversification of sym genes is responsible for the rhizobia microevolution which depends on the host-induced natural selection. For the rhizobia speciation, diversification of core genes is responsible for which the selective factors are unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that in the goats’ rue rhizobia (Neorhizobium galegae) populations collected at North Caucasus and composed of two host-specific biovars orientalis and officianalis (N2-fixing symbionts of Galega orientalis and G. officinalis, respectively), evolutionary mechanisms are different for core and sym genes. In both N. galegae biovars, core genes are more polymorphic than sym genes. In bv. orientalis, evolution of core genes occurs under the impacts of driving se-lection (dN/dS > 1), while evolution of sym genes is close to neutral (dN/dS ≈ 1). In bv. officinalis, evolution of core genes is neutral, while for sym genes, it is dependent on purifying selection (dN/dS < 1). A marked phylogenetic congruence of core and sym genes revealed using the ANI analysis may be due to a low intensity of gene transfer within and between N. galegae biovars. Polymorphism of both gene groups and the impacts of driving selection on the core gene evolu-tion are more pronounced in bv. orientalis than in bv. officianalis reflecting the diversities of re-spective host plant species. In bv. orientalis, highly significant (P0 < 0,001) positive correlation was revealed between the p-distance and dN/dS values for core genes, while in bv. officinalis this cor-relation is lowly significant (0,05 < P0 < 0,10). For sym genes, correlation between the p-distance and dN/dS values is negative in bv. officinalis but is not revealed in bv. orientalis. These data along with the functional annotation of core genes implemented using the Gene Ontology tools sug-gests that evolution of bv. officinalis is based mostly on adaptation for in planta niches while in bv. orientalis evolution presumable depends on adaptation for soil niches. New insights into the tradeoff between natural selection and genetic diversity are presented suggesting that the gene polymorphism may be extended by driving selection only in the ecologically versatile organ-isms capable to support a broad spectrum of gene alleles in their genepools.