COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: angiogenesis; intussusceptive microvascular growth; lymphomas; vasculogenic mimicry; vascular cooption
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:08:02 CEST)
The formation of new blood vessels is a critical process for tumor growth and may be achieved through different mechanisms. Angiogenesis represents the first described and most studied mode of vessel formation, but tumors may also use alternative ways to secure blood supply and eventually acquire resistance to anti-angiogenic treatments. These non-angiogenic mechanisms have been described more recently and include intussusceptive microvascular growth (IMG), vascular co-option, and vasculogenic mimicry. Like solid tumors, also in lymphomas angiogenic and non-angiogenic pathways play a fundamental role in tumor growth and progression. In view of the relevant prognostic and therapeutic implications, a comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms is of paramount importance for improving the efficacy of treatment in patients with lymphoma. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on angiogenic and non-angiogenic mechanisms involved in the formation of new blood vessels in Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: salivary glands, minor salivary glands, salivary gland carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, in situ carcinoma, intra-cystic carcinoma
Online: 8 April 2020 (14:46:41 CEST)
Aims: To report on the clinico-pathological features of a series of 12 intra-oral mucoepidermoid carcinomas showing exclusive intra-cystic growth. Methods and methods: All mucoepidermoid carcinomas diagnosed in the period 1990-2012 were retrieved, the original histological preparations were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis, and from selected cases, showing exclusive intra-cystic neoplastic component, additional sections were cut at 3 subsequent 200m intervals and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, PAS and Alcian Blue, to possibly identify tumor invasion of the adjacent tissues, which could have been overlooked in the original histological preparations. Also, pertinent findings collected from the clinical charts and follow-up data were analyzed. Results: We identified 14 intraoral mucoepidermoid carcinomas treated by conservative surgery and with a minimum follow up of 5 years. The neosplasm were located in the hard palate (9 cases), the soft palate (2), the cheeck (2) and the retromolar trigone (1). In all instances histological examination was revealed the presence of a single cystic space, containing clusters of columnar, intermediate, epidermoid, clear and mucous-producing cells, the latter exhibiting distinct intra-cytoplasmic mucin production, as confirmed by PAS and Alcian Blue stains. The cysts were entirely circumscribed by fibrous connective tissue and no solid areas or infiltrating tumour clusters were detected. Conservative surgical resection was performed in all cases and no recurrences or nodal metastases were observed during the follow up period. Conclusions: Mucoepidermoid carcinomas showing prominent (>20%) intra-cystic proliferation currently are considered low-grade tumours. In addition, we also unveil the possibility that mucoepidermoid carcinomas, at least in their early growth phase, may display an exclusive intra-cystic fashion and might be considered as in situ carcinomas, unable to infiltrate adjacent tissues or metastasize.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ChatGPT; chatbot; Artificial Intelligence; AI; Pathology; Histology
Online: 29 August 2023 (13:15:21 CEST)
Abstract: The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has in just a few years invested multiple areas of knowledge, also affecting the medical-scientific sector. An increasing number of AI-based applications have been developed, among which conversational AI has emerged. Among these, ChatGPT has risen to the headlines, scientific and otherwise, for its distinct propensity to simulate a 'real' discussion with its interlocutor, based on appropriate prompts. Although several clinical studies using ChatGPT have already been published in the literature, very little has yet been written about its potential application in human pathology. We conduct a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Re-views and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed and Scopus as databases, with the fol-lowing keywords: ChatGPT OR Chat GPT, in combination with each of the following: Pathology, di-ag-nostic pathology, anatomic pathology. A total of 90 records were initially identified in the literature search, of which 6 were duplicates. After screening for eligibility and inclusion criteria, only 5 publications were ultimately included. The majority of publications were original articles (n = 2), followed by case reports (n = 1), letter to the editor (n = 1) and review (n = 1). Although the premises are exciting and ChatGPT is able to co-advise the pathologist in providing large amounts of scientific data for use in routine microscopic diagnostic practice, there are many limitations that need to be addressed and resolved, with the caveat that an AI-driven system should always provide support and never a decision-making motive during the anatomo-pathological diagnostic process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: DLBCL; tumor microenvironment; angiogenesis; tumor progression
Online: 9 July 2020 (06:05:22 CEST)
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), accounting for about 40% of all cases NHL. Analysis of the tumour microenvironment is an important aspect of the assessment of the progression of DLBCL. In this review article, we have analyzed the role of different cellular components of the tumour microenvironment, including mast cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, in tumour progression of DLBCL. We examined several approaches to confront the available pieces of evidence; three key points emerged. DLBCL is a disease of malignant B-cells spreading and accumulating both at nodal and in extranodal sites. Both in patients with nodal and extranodal lesions, the subsequent induction of a cancer-friendly environment appears pivotal. DLBCL cell interaction with mature stromal cells and vessels confers tumour protection and inhibition of immune response while delivering nutrients and oxygen supply. Single cells may also reside and survive in protected niches in the nodal and extranodal sites as a source for residual disease and relapse. This review aims to molecularly and functionally recapitulate the DLBCL-milieu crosstalk, to relate niche and pathological angiogenic constitution and interaction factors to DLBCL progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Renal Cell Carcinoma; Pathological staging; Extrarenal extension; Renal vein invasion
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:31:46 CET)
(1) Background: Overall survival of the patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends mostly on extra-renal extension, documented by the invasion of the pelvicalyceal system, or the perinephric/renal sinus fat or the renal vein/its segmental intraparenchymal branches. Staging may be challenging because of the high inter-observer variability. We have introduced a more accurate procedure to detect the extra-renal extension and, to possibly evaluate the impact of such more laborious approach, we have compared the RCC pathological staging obtained following both standard and modified procedures; (2) Methods: We selected 54 consecutive cases of RCC diagnosed 18 months before and 54 consecutive cases diagnosed 18 months after the introduction of the new method of sampling. Clinico-pathological characteristics have been statistically analyzed; (3) Results: Most of the features analyzed were non statistically significative, except the extra-renal invasion. More precisely, the occurrence of retrograde venous invasion was higher in the cases grossly approached with the more accurate method; (4) Conclusions: Extra-renal extension to intraparenchymal renal vein branches may be underestimated, leading to an inappropriate under-staging. Using more accurate staging procedures, to disclose the occurrence of intra-renal veins tumoral thrombosis, helps to better define the pathological stage, allowing patients to benefit of better fitting treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0485.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Autoimmune diseases; Sjögren syndrome; minor salivary glands; B-cell lymphoma; extranodal marginal zone lymphoma; MALT lymphoma; primary breast lymphoma
Online: 18 November 2020 (16:36:38 CET)
The association between autoimmune diseases, mostly rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematous, celiac disease and Sjögren syndrome, and lymphoma has been widely demonstrated by several epidemiologic studies. By a not yet entirely elucidated mechanism, chronic activation/stimulation of the immune system, along with the administration of specific treatments, may lead to persistent stimulation of both of B- and T-cells, and to the onset of different types of lymphoma in such patients. Specifically, patients affected by may develop lymphomas may years after the original diagnosis. Several epidemiologic, hematologic and histological factors may anticipate the progression from Sjögren syndrome into lymphoma but, to the best of our knowledge, a definite pathogenetic mechanism for such progression is still missing. In fact, while the association between Sjögren syndrome and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, mostly diffuse large B-cell and extranodal marginal zone lymphomas is well established, many other variables, such as time of onset, gender predilection, sites of occurrence, subtype of lymphoma and predictive factors still remain unclear. We report on a rare case of primary breast lymphoma occurring three years after the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome in a 57 y.o. patient. The diagnostic work-up, including radiograms, core needle biopsy and histological examination are discussed, along with emerging data from the recent literature, thus highlighting the usefulness of breast surveillance in Sjögren syndrome patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: EMPSGC; Skin neoplasm; Mucinous carcinoma; rare neoplasms
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:06:48 CEST)
(1) Background: Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare low-grade, neuroendocrine-differentiated, cutaneous adnexal tumour, officially recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) Skin Tumours Classification in 2018 as a separate entity and homologue of endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (eDCIS)/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. Although it is more frequent in the female sex, between the sixth and seventh decade, in the peri-orbital region, EMPSGC has also been described in the male sex, in subjects under 60 and over 80, and in extra-eyelid localizations (cheek, temple, scalp), but also in extra-facial localizations (chest and scrotum). (2) Methods: We present the clinical case of a 71-year-old woman with an undated lesion of the scalp, which presented as a nodule, skin-coloured, 2.5 cm in maximum diameter. We also conduct a comprehensive literature review from 1997 to the end of 2022, consulting PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), using the following keywords: "Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma" and/or "EMPSGC" and/or "skin" AND "cutaneous neoplasms", and following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 248 patients were recorded with the majority, 146 females (58,8%) and 102 males (41,1%). The vast majority of the lesions were in the elides (peri-ocular region) and only a minority of cases involved the cheeks, supra-auricular, retro-auricular and occipital region, with very rare cases in the scalp, to which the present is also added (4) Conclusions: The morphological and immunophenotypical features are essential both for the correct diagnosis and to be able to classify this lesion among the corresponding eDCIS/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast, with neuroendocrine differentiation. Recent papers have attempted to shed light on the molecular features of EMPSGC and much remains to be done in the attempt to subtype the molecular profiles of these entities. Future studies with large case series, and especially with molecular biology techniques, will be needed to further add information about EMPSGC and its relationship in the PCMC spectrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Takayasu arteritis; echocardiography; immune cell infiltration; vascular stiffness; T helper like cells; regulatory T lymphocytes
Online: 12 November 2021 (13:40:14 CET)
Background: Takayasu Arteritis (TAK) increases vascular stiffness and arterial resistance. Hypertension and atherosclerosis lead to similar changes. We investigated possible differences in cardiovascular remodeling between these diseases and whether the differences are correlated with immune cell expression. Methods: Patients with active TAK arteritis were compared with age- and sex-matched hypertensive and atherosclerotic patients. In a subpopulation of TAK patients, Treg/Th17 cells were measured before (T0) and after 18 months (T18) of infliximab treatment. Echocardiogram, supraaortic Doppler ultrasound, and lymphocytogram were performed in all patients. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the vessel wall was performed to compare the in vivo results. Results: TAK patients have increased aortic valve dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction. These data have been associated with uric acid levels. A significant increase in aortic stiffness was also noted and associated with peripheral T lymphocyte levels. CD3+CD4+ cell infiltrates were detected in the vessel wall samples of these patients. They had a lower mean percentage of Tregs at T0 than controls, but levels increased significantly at T18. Opposite results were found in Th17 cells. Finally, TAK patients were found to have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Conclusion: Our data suggest that different pathogenic mechanisms of vessel damage, including atherosclerosis, underlie TAK patients compared with control subjects. The increased risk of ASCVD in TAK patients correlates directly with the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration in the vessel wall. Infliximab restores the normal frequency of Tregs/Th17 in TAK patients and allows a possible reduction of steroids and immunosuppressants.