ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: lipoprotein; extracellular vesicles; exosome; ectosome; stress response; resistant cancer; metastatic cancer; heat shock stress
Online: 10 October 2018 (09:44:17 CEST)
Resistant cancer often shows a particular secretory trait such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and oncosomes surrounded by lipid bilayers. Lipoproteins are biochemical assemblies that transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in body fluid and are composed of a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, lipids molecules within the particles, and apolipoproteins embedded in the membrane. However, lipoprotein storage and secretion by cancer cells have not well-investigated yet. We found lipoproteins were stored and abundantly secreted by neuroendocrine, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NEPC / CRPC) cells but barely secreted by colon cancer cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In addition, large EVs (approx. 300 nm diameter) and potential oncosomes were released by CRPC and OSCC cells. Proteomics revealed that CRPC cells secreted EVs enriched with tetraspanins and extracellular matrices which were reduced upon heat shock stress and alternatively lipoproteins and HSPs were secreted upon stress. Heat shock stress triggered secretion of lipoprotein-EV complexes that contained apolipoprotein A, B, C and E. These data suggested that vesicular assembly composed of EVs and lipoproteins enriched with cholesterols and phospholipids may be stored in resistant cancer cells but released upon cell stress that is increased in cancer therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Liquid-based 3D culture; tumoroid; cisplatin resistance; imatinib (gleevec); tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI); organoid; spheroid; metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)
Online: 23 December 2020 (10:15:46 CET)
Researchers have developed and used several three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, including spheroids, organoids, and tumoroids. Drug resistance is a crucial issue involving recurrence in cancer patients. Many studies on anticancer drugs have been done in 2D culture systems, where-as 3D cultured tumoroids have many advantages for assessing drug sensitivity and resistance. Here, we aim to investigate whether Cisplatin (a DNA crosslinker), Imatinib (a multiple tyro-sine kinase inhibitor), and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU: an antimetabolite) alter tumoroid growth of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). To establish a liquid-based 3D multiplexing reporter assay system, LuM1 (a murine mCRC cell line) was stably transfected with the Mmp9 promoter-driven ZsGreen reporter gene, which was designated as LuM1/m9 cells and cultured in NanoCulture Plate (NCP), a 3D culture device. The larger tumoroids were not sensitive to Cisplatin and ex-pressed ABCG2 (a marker of cancer stem cells, a.k.a. a drug efflux transporter), whereas smaller cell-aggregates were more sensitive to Cisplatin. Both Imatinib and Cisplatin significantly in-creased tumoroid growth (larger than 300 μm2) and Mmp9 promoter activity and were not cytotoxic to the mCRC tumoroids. On the other hand, 5-FU was cytotoxic to the tumoroids and significantly inhibited tumoroid growth, although not completely. Thus, platinum resistance and imatinib resistance in mCRC were modeled using the liquid-based 3D cultured tumoroid system. The tumoroid culture is useful and easily accessible for the assessment of drug sensitivity and resistance.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: SCAN zinc-finger; SCAND1; CDC37; MZF1; prostate cancer
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:10:22 CEST)
Cell division control 37 (CDC37) increases the stability of HSP90 client proteins and is thus essential for numerous intracellular oncogenic signaling pathways, playing a key role in prostate oncogenesis. Notably, elevated expression of CDC37 was found in prostate cancer cells, although the regulatory mechanisms through which CDC37 expression becomes increased are unknown. Here we show both positive and negative regulation of CDC37 gene transcription by two members of the SCAN transcription factor family- MZF1 and SCAND1, respectively. Consensus DNA-binding motifs for myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1 / ZSCAN6) were abundant in the CDC37 promoter region. MZF1 became bound to these regulatory sites and trans-activated the CDC37 gene whereas MZF1 depletion decreased CDC37 transcription and reduced tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells. On the other hand, SCAND1, a zinc-fingerless SCAN box protein that potentially inhibits MZF1, accumulated at MZF1-binding sites in CDC37 gene, negatively regulated CDC37 gene and inhibited tumorigenesis. SCAND1 was abundantly expressed in normal prostate cells but was reduced in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role of SCAND1 in prostate cancer. These findings indicate that CDC37, a crucial protein in prostate cancer progression, is regulated reciprocally by MZF1 and SCAND1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cell stress response; stressome; extracellular vesicle; heat shock protein 90 (HSP90); cell division control 37 (CDC37); prostate cancer; exosome; ectosome
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:50:14 CET)
Tumor cells exhibit a resistance-associated secretory phenotype involving extracellular vesicles (EVs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). This response occurs in response to cell stress and cancer therapeutics. HSPs are stress-responsive molecular chaperones promoting proper protein folding, while also being released from cells with EVs as well as in free form as alarmins. We have here investigated the secretory phenotype of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells using proteome analysis. We have also examined the roles of the key co-chaperone CDC37 in stressome release, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and tumor progression. A number of HSP family members and their common receptor CD91/LRP1 were enriched at high levels in CRPC cell-derived EVs among over 700 other protein species. The small EVs (30 to 200 nm in size, potentially exosomes) were released even in a non-heated condition from the prostate cancer cells, whereas EMT-coupled release of EVs (200 to 500 nm, likely ectosomes) with associated HSP90α was increased after heat shock stress (HSS). Lactate dehydrogenase, a marker of membrane leakage/damage of cells, was also released upon HSS from the prostate cancer cells. During this stress response, intracellular CDC37 was also transcriptionally inducible by heat shock factor 1, and knockdown of CDC37 decreased EMT-coupled release of EVs. Triple knockdown of CDC37, HSP90α, and HSP90β was required for efficient reduction of the chaperone trio and to reduce tumorigenicity of the CRPC cells in vivo. Taken together, the data indicated that CDC37 and HSP90 are essential for stressome release and for tumorigenesis in resistant cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tumor-associated macrophage; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; heat shock proteins; oral cancer; fluorescent labeling of exosomes
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:50:52 CEST)
Tumor-associated macrophages are a key component in the tumor microenvironment, secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes and other various factors for intercellular communication. However, macrophage-derived EVs heterogeneity and their cytotoxicity to cancer cells has not been well understood. Here, we aimed to separately isolate various types of macro-phage-EVs by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) method and investigate EV transmission and cytotoxicity to oral cancer cells. For fluorescence-labeling of cellular and EV membranes, palmitoylation signal-fused GFP and tdTomato were expressed in THP-1 monocytic cells and HSC-3 oral cancer cells, respectively. We found that fluorescence-labeled EVs secreted by macrophages were highly transmissive to oral cancer cells than those from parental monocytic cells. In a co-culture system and conditioned medium (CM), a macrophage-secreted unidentified factor was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells. We fractionated macrophage-derived EVs by the SEC method and performed western blotting to characterize various EV types. Three fractions were characterized: small exosomes (EXO-S: < 50 nm) fraction containing HSP90α, HSP90β, CD63 (EV marker) and β-actin; large exosomes (EXO-L: 50-200 nm) fraction containing CD9 (EV marker) and HSP90β; large EVs (100-500 nm) fraction. Notably, the macrophage-derived small exosomes fraction was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells, while large exosomes and large EVs were not. There-fore, it was implicated that macrophage-derived small exosomes are cytotoxic with high trans-mission potential to cancer cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0371.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3); extracellular vesicles (EVs); tumoroid; tumor organoid; tumorigenesis; three-dimensional (3D) culture system
Online: 25 March 2020 (05:25:09 CET)
The tumor organoid (tumoroid) model in three-dimensional (3D) culture systems has been developed to reflect more closely the in vivo tumors than 2D-cultured tumor cells. Notably, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are efficiently collectible from the culture supernatant of gel-free tumoroids. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3 is a multi-functional factor playing crucial roles in tumor progression. However, roles of MMP3 within tumor growth and EVs have not unveiled. Here, we investigated the protumorigenic roles of MMP3 on integrities of tumoroids and EVs. We generated MMP3-knockout (KO) cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system from rapidly metastatic LuM1 tumor cells. Moreover, we established fluorescent cell lines with palmitoylation signal-fused fluorescent proteins (tdTomato and enhanced GFP). Then we confirmed the exchange of EVs between cellular populations and tumoroids. LuM1-tumoroids released large EVs (300-1000 nm) and small EVs (50-200 nm) while the knockout of MMP3 resulted in the additional release of broken EVs from tumoroids. The loss of MMP3 leads to a significant reduction in tumoroid size and to the development of the necrotic area within tumoroids. MMP3 and CD9 (a category-1 EV marker tetraspanin protein) were significantly down-regulated in MMP3-KO cells and their EV fraction. These weakened phenotypes by MMP3 KO were markedly rescued by the addition of MMP3-rich EVs or conditioned medium (CM) collected from LuM1-tumoroids, which caused a dramatic rise in the expression of MMP3, CD9, and Ki-67 (a marker of proliferating cells) in the MMP3-null/CD9-low tumoroids. Notably, MMP3 enriched in tumoroids-derived EVs and CM deeply penetrated into recipient MMP3-KO tumoroids, resulting in a remarkable enlargement of solid tumoroids, while MMP3-null EVs did not. These data demonstrate that EVs can mediate molecular transfer of MMP3 resulting in increasing the proliferation and CD9+ tumorigenesis, indicating crucial roles of MMP3 in tumor progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP); moonlighting metalloproteinase; extracellular vesicles; oncosome; genome editing; cell communication network factor 2 (CCN2/CTGF); transcription factor; cancer
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:52:42 CET)
Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) plays multiple roles in pro-tumorigenic proteolysis and in intracellular transcription. These include inducing connective tissue growth factor [CTGF, also known as cellular communication network factor 2 (CCN2)] and prompting a new definition of MMP3 as a moonlighting metalloproteinase. Members of the MMP family have been found within tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as oncosomes or exosomes. We here investigated the roles of MMP3-rich oncosomes in tumor progression, molecular transmission, and gene regulation. MMP3 and CCN2/CTGF were significantly co-expressed in tumor samples derived from patients suffering from colorectal adenocarcinoma. We found that oncosomes derived from a rapidly metastatic colon cancer cells (LuM1) were enriched in MMP3 and a C-terminal half fragment of CCN2/CTGF. MMP3-rich oncosomes were highly transmissive into recipient cells and were pro-tumorigenic in an allograft mouse model. Oncosome-derived MMP3 was transmissive into recipient cell nuclei, trans-activated CCN2/CTGF promoter, and induced CCN2/CTGF production at 1 to 6 hours after the addition of oncosomes to culture media. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of MMP3 showed significant anti-tumor effects, including inhibition of migration and invasion of LuM1 cells in vitro, inhibition of tumor growth in vivo, and reduction of CCN2/CTGF and its promoter activity in vitro. These data newly demonstrate that the oncosome-derived moonlighting metalloproteinase promotes metastasis and is pro-tumorigenic at distant sites as well as a transmissive trans-activator for the cellular communication network gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: drug repositioning/repurposing; dopamine transporter (DAT); benztropine; tumoroids; signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT); circulating tumor cells (CTC); three-dimensional (3D) culture
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:16:54 CET)
Tumor growth, progression, and therapy resistance are crucial factors in the prognosis of cancer. Properties of three-dimensional tumor-like organoids (tumoroids) more closely resemble in vivo tumors compared to two-dimensionally cultured cells and are therefore effectively used for assays and drug screening. We here established a repurposed drug for novel anticancer research and therapeutics using a tumoroid-based screening system. We screened 6 pharmacologically active compounds by using an original tumoroid-based multiplex phenotypic screening system with matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) promoter-driven fluorescence reporter for the evaluation of both tumoroid formation and progression. The effects of one of the hit compounds were examined on tumor formation and progression in vitro and in vivo. Antiparkinson drug benztropine was the most effective compound uncovered by the screen. Benztropine significantly inhibited in vitro tumoroid formation, cancer cell survival, and MMP9 promoter activity. Benztropine also reduced the activity of oncogenic signaling transducers and trans-activators for MMP9, including STAT3, NF-κB, and β-catenin, and properties of cancer stem cells / cancer-initiating cells. Benztropine and GBR-12935 directly targeted the dopamine transporter DAT/SLC6A3, whose genetic alterations such as amplification were correlated with poor prognosis for cancer patients. Benztropine also inhibited tumor growth, circulating tumor cell (CTC) number, and rate of metastasis in a tumor allograft model in mice. In conclusion, we propose the repurposing of benztropine for anticancer research and therapeutics that can suppress tumor progression, CTC, and metastasis of aggressive cancers by reducing key pro-tumorigenic factors.