Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: posthuman; deterriteriolization; diaspora; home; Arab women; Arab Anglophone
Online: 11 July 2016 (10:41:37 CEST)
The present paper offers a reading of three selected novels by two Anglophone Arab writers Diana Abujaber and Fadia Faqir. Our reading is fundamentally based on a philosophical post-humanist perception of other ethnic minorities as being inferior and un-human. In interpreting the three novels, Arabian Jazz (2003), My Name is Salma (2007) and Willow Trees Don’t Weep (2014), a main concern is to bring to light how Arabs –and Muslims –have been zombified and de-humanized in Western mainstream media and culture based on a biased stigmatization and stereotyping of a large heterogeneous ethnic group wherein religions, traditions, languages and cultures are diverse. Also, a pivotal preoccupation is going to be the exiling journey of the protagonists from their homelands to Western countries, and how these journeys contribute to the post-humanization of the self, the identity and the culture of Arab displaced immigrants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0197.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Arab Sciences; Greek Logic; Islamic Philosophy; Heretical Books; Modernization of Arab Rhetorical Linguistic Sciences in the contemporary age
Online: 22 January 2018 (10:07:20 CET)
Arabic was the language of philosophy, logic, Islamic sciences and rhetorical linguistic sciences. It was used in the writing of all sciences generally and became the language of world culture. Although the other languages of the Islamic world had a little share, but all peoples of Islamic countries; Arabs and non-Arabs, Muslims and non-Muslims attributed to that movement appreciated. Hence, Arab sciences flourished in their bright ages. Arabic language was a cultural container of the ancient Greek and Latin intellectual heritage. As the ancient Greek and Latin sciences and literatures were translated into Arabic in the bright ages of Islam. Arab language was a strong bond for them, as a common human heritage for the centuries to save it from being lost, as Muslims used it to develop their sciences and arts, as Muslims in the East used the Western sciences and literatures in the modern age, because they are not Eastern or Western, but the common efforts of all humanity. Arabic language opened for the dictionaries and other tongues of cross-fertilization, civil friction and simulation. Arabic had become the language of sciences: mathematics, astronomy, engineering, logic, philosophy, mysticism, agriculture, industry and economics by the continuous efforts of scientists in their scientific research, invention, experimentation, knowledge collection and classification in various fields, where orientalists recognized the Arab leadership. That scientific and literary civilization moved to Europe through Italy, Andalusia, Crusades and the Ottoman Caliphate. Europeans learned Arabic language, literature and sciences in the centers of Toledo, Fez and cities of Maghreb.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; mass testing strategy; United Arab Emirates
Online: 19 January 2021 (08:59:34 CET)
Appropriate diagnostic testing to identify persons infected with SARS-COV-2 is a vital part of a health system’s ability to control the global pandemic of COVID-19 disease. The primary purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the mass testing strategy implemented throughout the UAE and the overall impact it has made on containing and controlling the spread of the disease. This study describes the mass testing strategy and capacity of the UAE during the pandemic of the new coronavirus SARS-COV-2. The UAE has conducted 15 million polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to SARS-COV-2, as of 15 November 2020. The number of tests per day varied from 10,000 by the end of March to 120,000 tests per day in November 2020. The mass testing initiative across the entire UAE forms an integral part of a bigger strategy focusing on testing, tracing contacts and isolating positive cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0316.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Arab cities; heritage conservation; urban management; sustainable built environment.
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:42:10 CET)
As Arab countries are beginning to recover from the socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, conservation programs are restarting. Noticeably, traditional conservation efforts have not helped improve the poor living conditions in most historic urban centers of Arab cities due to many reasons such as a lack of funds, urban management policies, and the narrow scope of conservation projects. In 2016, the UN urban agenda recognized tangible and intangible heritage as the basis for sustainable, vibrant, urban economies. These efforts reflect the new shift in conservation activities to tangible and intangible heritage and consider urban heritage a tourist product rather than antiquity. This approach grants urban vitality and sustainability for heritage areas. Thus, this study investigates the existing trends and forthcoming changes in conservation and their implication for the deteriorated historic urban city centers of the Arab world. International urban heritage conservation trends were highlighted, objectives and bases of successful urban conservation trends were reviewed, and an assessment framework was developed. Two case studies of historic centers in two Arab cities, Jeddah, and Aman, were empirically assessed using the developed framework. The findings highlight the most common urban problems of the historic centers in terms of urban management policies and trends. In addition, the impact of urban management policies on historic urban areas' sustainability, vitality, and quality was revealed. The paper ends with recommendations for conservation authorities to define a proposed framework to embed the conservation within the urban development plans for deteriorated historic urban centers. The paper's findings and recommendations can contribute to the required knowledge related to urban heritage conservation for practitioners and decision-makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0494.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Flipped Classroom; Arab minority; Mathematics Learning; Conceptual Understanding; Motivation
Online: 20 May 2021 (17:07:02 CEST)
This study presents a designated Flipped Classroom (FC) mathematics environment that utilizes a unique online platform designed for Arab minority students in Israel. It investigates how studying in an FC affects conceptual understanding and motivation to study mathematics among Arab high school students. The study also explores the factors that contribute to effective learning in the FC environment. Participants were 75 Arab high school students in 10th and 11th grade who studied advanced mathematics. Each grade group was randomly divided into two subgroups: an FC group and a traditional classroom group (comparison group). Quantitative questionnaires given before and after the learning program served to measure students’ motivation and conceptual understanding of the derivative and integral topics. Additionally, a random sample of students who studied in the FC group and the teacher who taught all the groups were interviewed. The study describes the positive effect an FC environment has on students' conceptual understanding, particularly for 11th graders. The participants mostly appreciated how the FC resulted in less lecturing in class. The study contributes to the literature about FC among minorities and contributes to national and international efforts being made to reduce the gap in mathematics achievements between minorities and other sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0211.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: sign language; flexible resistance; arab deaf; gloves sensors; accelerometer
Online: 21 June 2019 (09:43:53 CEST)
The deaf impairment is among the most substantial health problem worldwide, that can lead to various personal, economical, and social crisis. Therefore, it is critical for developing an efficient way to facilitate communication between deaf-dumb impaired and normal people. Herein, we have rationally designed a new digitally computerized and mobile smart system as an efficient communication tool between deaf impaired and normal Arabian people. This is based on two main steps, including creating a digital output for the hand gestures using gloves flex sensors equipped with a three-axis accelerometer that is controlled using a microcontroller. The digital results are compared to that in a words-based “database”, where Arabs use expressions not alphabet in their communication. The second step is translation or conversion the outputs of the first stage into written texts and voices. The newly developed system allows Arabian deaf to translate words of ordinary people into gestures using a speech recognition system with an impressive accuracy over 90 % without the needing for a webcam, colored gloves, and/or online translator. The presented system can be used on any android or windows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19, vaccine/vaccination; stress; anxiety; hesitancy; preparedness; Jordan/Arab
Online: 6 May 2022 (14:06:14 CEST)
Although vaccinating the world is adopted by the WHO to limit COVID-19 transmission, people’s worries about vaccines may suppress their desire for vaccination despite vaccine availability. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of stress and anxiety among 250 Jordanians who received their first vaccine dose at a local community health center. The respondents completed the stress and anxiety subscales of the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale 21 (DASS-21) pre- and post-vaccination. The respondents expressed more moderate-severe levels of stress pre than post vaccination (20.8% and 13.2%, respectively). Meanwhile, 37.2% and 45.2% of the respondents expressed moderate-severe anxiety pre and post vaccination, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed that the drop in the level of stress from pre (median (IQR) = 5 (1-8)) to post vaccination (median (IQR) = 3 (1-7)) was statistically significant (z = -3.81, p = 0.001, r = 0.17) while the increase in anxiety was not. Anxiety median significantly dropped among individuals experiencing mild to severe anxiety pre vaccination. Similarly, stress and anxiety significantly increased among individuals expressing normal anxiety pre vaccination (z = -3.57 and -8.24, p values = 0.001, r = 0.16 and 0.37, respectively). Age positively correlated with post vaccination anxiety among respondents with mild pre vaccination anxiety, and it negatively correlated with pre vaccination level of stress in the normal anxiety group. Gender, marital status, respondents’ level of education, and history of COVID-19 infection had no significant correlation with anxiety or stress at either point of measurement. Overcoming their hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccine, individuals with normal levels of anxiety experienced a rise in their distress symptoms following immunization. On the contrary, vaccination seemed to desensitize anxious individuals. Policymakers need to formulate a population-specific plan to increase vaccine preparedness and promote psychological well-being over all during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: WTO, Arab countries, international trade, free trade, accession, dispute settlement
Online: 26 November 2018 (09:57:36 CET)
The WTO is here to stay. Institutions are never perfect. The way the WTO, as an institution, runs its business may not be perfect either. Arab countries are attempting to broaden their engagement in the multilateral trading system in a manner that has many implications. This engagement includes accession to the WTO, participation in WTO dispute resolution mechanism, and representations at the WTO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040079
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: translation; children literacy; fostering reading; Arab countries; MSA or dialect; UAE; primary schools
Online: 22 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Globalization has had an impact on the education system in the UAE, where increased use of bilingual curriculum (Arabic-English) is held in high regard. Nevertheless, literacy among Emirati children and teenagers remains low. This study uses a 15-item, open-ended questionnaire completed by Emirati parents and an 8-item, open-ended questionnaire completed by Emirati primary school children from 8 to 11 years of age, and compares the translation of The Little prince into Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and into the Emirati dialect. The results suggest that not only the Emirati dialect, but any Arabic dialect (in its respective Arab country) could be used in primary schools to motivate children to read in Arabic and bridge the gap between their spoken language (dialect) and formal written Arabic. Not only must an Arab child learn how to read, but also, they have to understand a very formal language system that they are not used to speaking at home, i.e., Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Having books in their own dialects may make children more interested in reading, as they can understand them more easily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0355.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Scale; youth violent extremism; Arab countries; exclusion; intolerance; rigidity; social pessimism; grievances; violence; jihad
Online: 10 April 2023 (09:43:21 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the problem of violent extremism among young people. Additionally, a youth violent extremism scale (YVES) was developed that takes into account the differences between and within Arab cultures. The goal was to produce a scale that could be used and tested within an Arab country or between Arab countries. The scale was developed in three stages: generation, refinement, and validation. A literature review and nomological network were utilized to show the scale's dimensions, correlations to those dimensions, and other relevant variables (such as the LSC, LSE, and criminality scale). A sample of 6726 young students from fifteen Arab countries and the authorities involved were selected. Findings showed that six factors were obtained through principal component factor analysis using Varimax and Kaiser normalization (29 items). A significant positive association was found (r=.651, p = 0.000), supporting the scale's validity. Using Cronbach's alpha, the scale reliability was strong and assessed at 0.98. The scale's construct validity was estimated by assessing the correlation between the Youth Violent Extremism scale and low self-control. A significant positive correlation (r=.651, p = 0.000) indicates the scale's validity. Findings showed significant differences between males and females in youth violent extremism (F = 13.678, α ≤0.000). Descriptive results showed, however, that females have a slightly higher mean of violent extremism than males (M =85.2 vs. 87.6), with a close variation (26 vs. 27) for males and females, respectively. In this study, a measurement tool was provided that can be used as a knowledge base for security strategies. The scale can be applied to identify legal, social, and educational policies and applications of violent extremism. Future research is needed to test the scale on different professions like teachers, police officers, and parents. Also, a need to test the scale on different age groups, settings, and cultures. A need for atheoretical and empirical framework for understanding and preventing youth violent extremism through promoting a more cohesive and resilient youth society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0414.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: avelets; Non-uniform wavelets; CAPM; Wavelets CAPM; systematic (market) risk; scaling; Arab spring revolutions.
Online: 20 August 2021 (12:43:26 CEST)
The Capital Asset Pricing Model is a widely applied model to describe risky markets and to deduce their systematic risk. Its estimation, therefore, remains an important task in Econo-financial studies. Empirically, it focuses on the impact of return interval on the betas. Existing studies somehow turn around the same idea of measuring the value of the beta according to the uniform intervals of time during a fixed period. However, it is noticed easily, and especially in the last decade that many factors such as socio-political, and Econo-environmental ones have led to a perturbation in the timeline of the worldwide development, and especially in countries and regions having political changes. This led us to introduce a new idea of risk estimation taking into account the non-uniform changes in markets by introducing a non-uniform wavelet analysis. We aim to explain the Econo-political situation of Arab spring countries and the effect of the revolutions on the market beta. The main novelty is firstly the construction of a dynamic backward-forward model for missing data, and next the application of random non-uniform wavelets. The proposed procedure will be acted empirically on a sample corresponding to TUNINDEX stock as a representative index of the Tunisian market actively traded over the period January 14, 2016, to January 13, 2021. The chosen 5-years period is important as it constitutes the first 5-years-after the revolution and depends strongly on the Socio-Econo-political stability in the revolutionary countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ANGPTL3-DOCK7; irisin; c-peptide; triglyceride; interleukin 13; lipid metabolism; insulin resistance; Arab population
Online: 12 May 2021 (07:28:31 CEST)
ANGPTL3 is an important regulator of lipid metabolism. Its inhibition in people with hypercholesteremia reduces plasma lipid levels dramatically. Genome-wide association studies have associated ANGPTL3 variants with lipid traits. Irisin, an exercise modulated protein, has been associated with lipid metabolism. Intracellular accumulation of lipids impairs insulin action and contributes to metabolic disorders. In this study, we evaluate the impact of ANGPTL3 variants on levels of irisin and markers associated with lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. ANGPTL3 rs1748197 and rs12130333 variants were genotyped in a cohort of 278 Arab individuals from Kuwait. Levels of irisin and other metabolic markers were measured by ELISA. Significance of association signals was assessed using Bonferroni-corrected P-values and empirical P-values. The study variants were significantly associated with low levels of c-peptide and irisin. Levels of c-peptide and irisin were mediated by interaction between carrier genotypes (GA+AA) at rs1748197 and measures of IL13 and TG, respectively. While levels of c-peptide and IL13 were directly correlated in individuals with reference genotype, they were inversely correlated in individuals with carrier genotype. Irisin correlated positively with TG which is strong in individuals with carrier genotypes. These observations illustrate ANGPTL3 as a potential link connecting lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and cardioprotection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0236.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccines; Vaccine Hesitancy; Healthcare workers; Vaccine acceptance; Vaccination; Vaccines; Arab Healthcare workers
Online: 9 April 2021 (08:41:36 CEST)
Background: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting COVID-19 infection. Also, they present role models for communities with regards to attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Hence, hesitancy of HCWs towards vaccination can crucially affect the efforts aiming to contain the pandemic. Previously published studies paid little attention to HCWs in Arab countries, which has a population of over 440 million. Objectives: to assess the rates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside the Arab countries, and their perceived barriers towards vaccination. Methods: a cross-sectional study based on an online survey was conducted from 14-Jan 2021 to 29-Jan 2021, targeting Arabic-speaking HCWs from all around the world. Results: the survey recruited 5,708 eligible participants (55.6% males, 44.4% females, age 30.6±10 years) from 21 Arab countries (87.5%) and 54 other countries (12.5%). Our analysis shows a significant rate of vaccine hesitancy among Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside Arab countries (25.8% and 32.8%, respectively). The highest rates of hesitancy were among participants from the west region of the Arab world (Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria). The most cited reasons for hesitancy were concerns about side effects and distrust in vaccine expedited production and healthcare policies. Factors associated with higher hesitancy included age of 30-59, previous or current suspected or confirmed COVID-19, female gender, not knowing the vaccine type authorized in the participant’s country, and not regularly receiving the influenza vaccine. Conclusion: this is the first large-scale, multinational, post-vaccine-availability study on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HCWs. It reveals high rates of hesitancy among Arab-speaking HCWs. Unless addressed properly, this hesitancy can impede the efforts for achieving widespread vaccination and collective immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Candida; Candidemia; invasive candidiasis; Candida auris; non-albicans candida; COVID-19; antifungal susceptibility; Lebanon; Arab world; EQUAL score
Online: 11 May 2023 (04:37:02 CEST)
Invasive fungal infections, notably candidemia, have been associated with COVID-19. The epidemiology of candidemia has significantly changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to identify the microbiological profile, resistance rates, and outcomes of COVID-19 associated candidemia (CAC) compared to patients with candidemia not associated with COVID-19. We retrospectively collected data on patients with candidemia admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center between 2004 and 2022. We compared the epidemiology of candidemia during and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we compared the outcomes of critically ill patients with CAC to those with candidemia without COVID-19 from March 2020 till March 2022. Among 245 candidemia episodes, 156 occurred prior to the pandemic and 89 during the pandemic. Of the latter, 39 (43.8%) were CAC, most of which (82%) were reported from intensive care units (ICU). Non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. were predominant throughout the study period (67.7%). Candida auris infection was the most common cause of NAC spp. in CAC. C. glabrata had decreased susceptibility rates to fluconazole and caspofungin during the pandemic period (46.1% and 38.4% respectively). Mortality rate in the overall ICU population during the pandemic was 76.6%, much higher than the previously reported mortality of candidemia from previous studies at our center. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality between CAC and non-CAC (75.0% vs 78.1%; P =0.76). Performing ophthalmic examination (P = 0.002), CVC removal during the 48 hours following the candidemia (P = 0.008) and identifying the Candida spp. (P = 0.028) were significantly associated with a lower case-fatality rate. The epidemiology of candidemia has been significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic at our center. Rigorous infection control measures and proper antifungal stewardship are essential to combat highly resistant species like C. auris.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0419.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Intimate partner violence; Domestic violence; Prevalence rates, forms of IPV (physical, sexual, emotional, economic); Risk factors; cultural attitudes towards violence and gender roles, GCC, Arab, Khaliji
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:22:16 CEST)
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), locally known as Khaliji, is a group of six Arab nations, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern in the GCC region, but the research that synthesized the trend has received scant attention. The present narrative review examines existing research on the prevalence and frequency of IPV among Khaliji women in GCC nations. This review synthesized studies on physical violence, sexual violence, emotional abuse, and controlling behaviors perpetrated by an intimate partner. The prevalence rates of IPV among Khaliji women are observed to be high: women reported facing different types of abuse from their partners, namely physical (7% - 71%), sexual (3.7% - 81%), financial (21.3% - 26%) and psychological (7.5% - 89%), which is a culmination of controlling behavior (36.8%), emotional (22% - 69%) and social violence (34%). The extant studies in the GCC suggest that the most endorsed IPV was psychological abuse (89%) followed by sexual violence (81%). Qualitative content analysis of the associated factors resulted in four meaningful descriptors such as demographics of the victim, sociocultural factors, socioeconomic, and perpetrator-related issues. The study on IPV is still nascent and few. The way forward will require developing culturally appropriate interventions that address unique risk factors for IPV among Khaliji populations, strengthening institutional responses, and increasing awareness and social support for the victim of IPV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); cutoff point/cutoff score; psychiatric patients/the general public/healthy adults; psychometric evaluation/criterion validity; Coronavirus Disease-19/COVID-19; Arabic version/Arab/Saudi Arabia
Online: 25 January 2023 (05:02:13 CET)
The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is the most popular measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been recently validated in Arabic. This instrumental study aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores of the IES-R and its subscales in Arab samples of psychiatric patients (N = 168, 70.8% females) and healthy adults (N = 992, 62.7% females) from Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic as an ongoing collective traumatic event. Based on a cutoff score of 14 of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed two optimal points of 39.5 and 30.5 for the IES-R in the samples (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.86 & 0.91, p values = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92 & 0.87 to 0.94, sensitivity = 0.85 & 0.87, specificity = 0.73 & 0.83, Youden index = 0.58 & 0.70, respectively). Different cutoffs were detected for the six subscales of the IES-R, with numbing and avoidance expressing the lowest predictivity for distress. Meanwhile, hyperarousal followed by the irritability expressed stronger predictive capacity for distress than all subscales in both samples. In path analysis, pandemic-related irritability resulted from direct and indirect effects of key PTSD symptoms (intrusion, hyperarousal, and numbing). Irritability contributed to traumatic symptoms of sleep disturbance in both samples while the opposite was not true. The findings suggest usefulness of the IES-R at a score of 30.5 for detecting adults prone to trauma related distress, with higher scores needed for screening in psychiatric patients. Various PTSD symptoms may induce dysphoric mood, which represents a considerable burden that may induce circadian misalignment and more noxious psychiatric problems/ co-morbidities (sleep disturbance) in both healthy and diseased groups.