Preprint Article Version 8 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Early Universe Plasma Separation and the Creation of a Dual Universe

Version 1 : Received: 14 May 2020 / Approved: 15 May 2020 / Online: 15 May 2020 (09:49:54 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 18 May 2020 / Approved: 18 May 2020 / Online: 18 May 2020 (11:37:59 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 12 June 2020 / Approved: 12 June 2020 / Online: 12 June 2020 (14:30:54 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 25 August 2020 / Approved: 25 August 2020 / Online: 25 August 2020 (13:50:33 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 23 September 2020 / Approved: 23 September 2020 / Online: 23 September 2020 (10:41:14 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 7 October 2020 / Approved: 8 October 2020 / Online: 8 October 2020 (09:43:17 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 12 October 2020 / Approved: 13 October 2020 / Online: 13 October 2020 (09:38:38 CEST)
Version 8 : Received: 16 December 2020 / Approved: 17 December 2020 / Online: 17 December 2020 (11:45:26 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 29 April 2021 / Approved: 29 April 2021 / Online: 29 April 2021 (09:10:40 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 21 June 2021 / Approved: 21 June 2021 / Online: 21 June 2021 (11:43:55 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 28 December 2022 / Approved: 29 December 2022 / Online: 29 December 2022 (11:31:00 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Al-Fadhli, M.B. On Spacetime Duality and Bounce Cosmology of a Dual Universe. The 1st Electronic Conference on Universe 2021, doi:10.3390/ecu2021-09291. Al-Fadhli, M.B. On Spacetime Duality and Bounce Cosmology of a Dual Universe. The 1st Electronic Conference on Universe 2021, doi:10.3390/ecu2021-09291.


The Planck Legacy recent release revealed a closed and positively curved early universe with a confidence level greater than 99%. In this study, the Friedmann–Lemaîtree–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric is enhanced to model early universe plasma, incorporating its reference curvature radius upon the emission of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the reference scale factor of the energy flux. The universe evolution from early plasma is modelled utilising quantised spacetime worldlines, where they revealed both positive and negative solutions implying that matter and antimatter in the plasma could be separated by electromagnetic fields and evolved in opposite directions as distinct sides of the universe, corroborating the CMB dipole anisotropy. The model indicates a nascent hyperbolic expansion is followed by a first phase of decelerating expansion during the first 10 Gyr, and then, a second phase of accelerating expansion. The model theoretically resolves the tension in Hubble parameter measurements, with a predicted density at the phase transition of 1.16. Further, it predicts a final time-reversal phase of rapid spatial contraction leading to a Big Crunch, signalling a cyclic universe. Simulations of the quantised spacetime continuum flux through its travel along the predicted worldlines demonstrated the fast-orbital speed of stars resulting from an external momentum exerted on galaxies via the spatial curvature through imaginary time dimension. These findings indicate that early universe plasma could be separated and evolved into distinct sides, collectively and geometrically influencing the universe evolution.


Plasma; accelerated expansion; parallel universe; duality; antimatter


Physical Sciences, Acoustics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 17 December 2020
Commenter: Mohammed Al-Fadhli
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Dear Editor, 

I hope you are doing very well

The main changes in this version as follows. The mathematical model section has been divided into three subsections including two new illustrative figures. In addition, an appendix was added to included detailed derivations of the metric model. The two figures in the simulation of a spiral galaxy have been combined into one figure.

Merry Christmas and best wishes

Kind regards,
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