Preprint Article Version 7 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Hard Coating is Because of Oppositely Worked Force-Energy Behaviors of Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 3 February 2018 / Approved: 5 February 2018 / Online: 5 February 2018 (15:39:20 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (06:00:30 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 23 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (07:43:20 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 15 August 2018 / Approved: 17 August 2018 / Online: 17 August 2018 (03:18:21 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (09:34:45 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 22 October 2018 / Approved: 22 October 2018 / Online: 22 October 2018 (11:08:20 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 11 December 2018 / Approved: 11 December 2018 / Online: 11 December 2018 (11:01:24 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 14 January 2019 / Online: 14 January 2019 (11:30:44 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 28 March 2019 / Approved: 2 April 2019 / Online: 2 April 2019 (12:41:20 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 30 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (09:03:14 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies 2020
DOI: 10.1080/2374068X.2020.1822055


Coatings of suitable materials having thickness of few atoms to several microns on a substrate have caught the regular attention of scientific community working in various fields of science and technology. Decorative and protective coatings, transparent and insulating coatings, coatings of medical implants and surgical instruments, coatings for drug delivery, ultra-precision machine-tool coatings and coatings for miscellaneous uses are in the routine demand. Different hard coatings develop under the significant composition of suitably different natured atoms where their force-energy behaviors, when in their certain transition states, provide the provision to bind (adhere). In the binding mechanism of different nature suitable atoms, electron (of outer ring) belonging to filled state gaseous nature atom takes another clamp of energy knot (of outer ring) belonging to unfilled state solid-natured atom. Set conditions of the process provide the provision of binding different nature atoms in a technique or method meant for it. Different natures of atoms develop structure in the form of hard coating by locating ground points between their original ones where gaseous nature atoms increase potential energy under the decreasing levitational force at electron-level while the solid atoms decrease potential energy under the decreasing gravitational force at electron-level. Ti–Ti binding occurs through the difference of expansion of their energy knots nets when one atom just lands on the already landed atom while the adhered nitrogen atom incorporates at their interstitial position. Under suitable set parameters, differently natured atoms deposit in the form of coating at substrate surface under the given conditions. The rate of solid-natured atoms ejecting or dissociating from the source depend on its nature, process parameters and the processing technique or approach. In random arc-based vapor deposition system, depositing differently natured atoms at substrate surface depends on the input power. In addition to intrinsic nature of atoms, different properties and characteristics of coatings emerge as per engaged forces under the involved energy. The present study sets new trends in the field of coatings involving the diversified class of materials and their counterparts.


fundamental science; atomic behavior; hard coating; expansion and contraction; force-energy behaviors; surface and interface


MATERIALS SCIENCE, Surfaces, Coatings & Films

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