Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed
Hard Coating is Because of Oppositely Worked Force-Energy Behaviors of Atoms
: Received: 3 February 2018 / Approved: 5 February 2018 / Online: 5 February 2018 (15:39:20 CET)
: Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (06:00:30 CEST)
: Received: 23 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (07:43:20 CEST)
: Received: 15 August 2018 / Approved: 17 August 2018 / Online: 17 August 2018 (03:18:21 CEST)
: Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (09:34:45 CEST)
: Received: 22 October 2018 / Approved: 22 October 2018 / Online: 22 October 2018 (11:08:20 CEST)
: Received: 11 December 2018 / Approved: 11 December 2018 / Online: 11 December 2018 (11:01:24 CET)
: Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 14 January 2019 / Online: 14 January 2019 (11:30:44 CET)
: Received: 28 March 2019 / Approved: 2 April 2019 / Online: 2 April 2019 (12:41:20 CEST)
: Received: 30 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (09:03:14 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies 2020
Coatings of suitable materials having thickness of few atoms to several microns on the viable substrates are the basic need of society and they attend the regular attention of scientific community working in various fields of science and technology. Decorative and protective coatings, transparent and insulating coatings, coatings of medical implants and surgical instruments, coatings for drug delivery and security purposes, ultra-precision machine coatings and coatings of miscellaneous uses are in the routine demand of research and commercial objectives. Different hard coatings develop with significant composition of differently natured atoms where their force-energy behaviors under recovering of certain transition state provide the provision for electrons (of outer ring) belonging to gas atoms to undertake another clamp of energy knot, in each case, clamping to unfilled states (of outer ring) belonging to solid atoms. Set process conditions switch force-energy behaviors of differently natured atoms as per at the ground surface where they nearly worked oppositely to the original state behaviors. Different natured atoms develop structure in the form of hard coating by locating the ground point between original points where gas atoms increase potential energy under the decreasing levitational force exerting at electron levels while the solid atoms decrease potential energy under the decreasing gravitational force exerting at electron levels. Ti-atom to Ti-atom binding is through the difference of expansion of their lattices when one atom is just landing on the landed atom where the position of nitrogen atoms (dealing double clamping of their electrons) becomes nearly in their interstitial sites. Under suitable set parameters, different nature atoms deposit in the form of coating at substrate surface positioned in the deposition chamber. In random arc-based vapor deposition system, depositing different nature atoms at substrate surface depends on the input power where involved non-conserved energies engaged the non-conservative forces to keep them adhered. Different properties and characteristics of hard coatings emerged as per engaged forces under the set conditions of involved energy. The present study sets new trends not only in the field of films and coatings but also in the diversified class of materials, wherever, atoms recall their roles.
atomic behavior; hard coating; expansion and contraction; force-energy behaviors; surface and interface
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