Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed
Hard Coating is Because of Oppositely Worked Force-Energy Behaviors of Atoms
: Received: 3 February 2018 / Approved: 5 February 2018 / Online: 5 February 2018 (15:39:20 CET)
: Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (06:00:30 CEST)
: Received: 23 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (07:43:20 CEST)
: Received: 15 August 2018 / Approved: 17 August 2018 / Online: 17 August 2018 (03:18:21 CEST)
: Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (09:34:45 CEST)
: Received: 22 October 2018 / Approved: 22 October 2018 / Online: 22 October 2018 (11:08:20 CEST)
: Received: 11 December 2018 / Approved: 11 December 2018 / Online: 11 December 2018 (11:01:24 CET)
: Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 14 January 2019 / Online: 14 January 2019 (11:30:44 CET)
: Received: 28 March 2019 / Approved: 2 April 2019 / Online: 2 April 2019 (12:41:20 CEST)
: Received: 30 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (09:03:14 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies 2020
Coatings of suitable materials of thickness of few atoms to several microns on certain substrate is the basic need of society and attend the regular attention of scientific community working in different domains; decorative and protective coatings, transparent and insulating coatings, coating medical implants and surgical instruments, coatings for drug delivery and security purposes, ultra-precision machine coatings, coating cutting tools, coatings for MEMS and NEMS, and so on. Different coatings develop under significant composition of certain nature atoms where their force-energy behaviors while certain transition state provide the provision for electron in outer ring of gas atom to clamp another energy knot clamped unfilled state in the outer ring of solid atom. Under certain process conditions, different nature atoms upto a certain extent oppositely-switch force-energy behaviors to the ones which possess those behaviors originally where they locate ground points at common mid-points of accommodating levels resulting into grasp binding. Because of adjusting expansion-contraction of clamped energy knots to electrons under different potential energy as per exerting orientational force of gravitation-levitation behaviors, different nature atoms develop structure at near ground surface substrate termed as hard coating, which is known since antiquity. On arresting different nature atoms under their binding at nearly oppositely-worked force-energy, non-conservative energies of ground surface are involved to engage the non-conservative forces exerting their neutral behavior viable at electron level. Different properties and characteristics of hard coatings such as hardness, adhesion, roughness, friction coefficient, resistivity and morphology-structure are emerged as per order of rescued force-energy of their structure. Here, hard coatings invent science opening to several new areas.
hard coating; TiN; atomic nature; expansion-contraction; potential energy; force-energy behaviors; ground point; structure evolution
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