Preprint Article Version 5 This version is not peer-reviewed

Hard Coating is Because of Oppositely Worked Force-Energy Behaviors of Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 3 February 2018 / Approved: 5 February 2018 / Online: 5 February 2018 (15:39:20 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (06:00:30 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 23 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (07:43:20 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 15 August 2018 / Approved: 17 August 2018 / Online: 17 August 2018 (03:18:21 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (09:34:45 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 22 October 2018 / Approved: 22 October 2018 / Online: 22 October 2018 (11:08:20 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 11 December 2018 / Approved: 11 December 2018 / Online: 11 December 2018 (11:01:24 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 14 January 2019 / Online: 14 January 2019 (11:30:44 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 28 March 2019 / Approved: 2 April 2019 / Online: 2 April 2019 (12:41:20 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 30 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (09:03:14 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M.. Hard Coating is Because of Oppositely Worked Force-Energy Behaviors of Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018020040 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201802.0040.v5). Ali, M.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M.. Hard Coating is Because of Oppositely Worked Force-Energy Behaviors of Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018020040 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201802.0040.v5).

Abstract

Coatings of suitable materials having thickness of few atoms to several microns on the viable substrates are the basic need of society and they attend the regular attention of scientific community working in various fields of science and technology. Decorative and protective coatings, transparent and insulating coatings, coatings of medical implants and surgical instruments, coatings for drug delivery and security purposes, ultra-precision machine coatings and coatings of miscellaneous uses are in the routine demand of research and commercial objectives. Different hard coatings develop under the significant composition of differently natured atoms where their force-energy behaviors as per recovering of transition states provide the provision for electron (of outer ring) belonging to gas atom to undertake another clamp of unfilled energy knot (of outer ring) belonging to solid atom. Set process conditions switch force-energy behaviors of differently natured atoms as per at the ground surface where they nearly worked oppositely to the original state behaviors. Different natured atoms develop structure in the form of hard coating by locating the ground point between original points where gas atoms increase potential energy under the decreasing levitational force at electron levels while the solid atoms decrease potential energy under the decreasing gravitational force at electron levels. Ti-atom to Ti-atom binding is through the difference of expansion of their lattices when one atom is just landing on the appropriately already landed atom where the adhered nitrogen atoms nearly incorporated in their interstitial sites. Under suitable set parameters, different nature atoms deposit in the form of coating at substrate surface in the deposition chamber of certain energy source-based technique. In random arc-based vapor deposition system, depositing different natured atoms at substrate surface depends on the input power where involved non-conserved energies engaged the non-conservative forces to keep the structure adhered. Different properties and characteristics of hard coatings emerged as per engaged forces under the set conditions of involved energy. The present study sets new trends not only in the field of coatings but also in the diversified class of materials and their counterparts, wherever, atoms recall their roles.

Subject Areas

atomic behavior; hard coating; expansion and contraction; force-energy behaviors; surface and interface

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