Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed
Hard Coating is Because of Oppositely Worked Force-Energy Behaviors of Atoms
: Received: 3 February 2018 / Approved: 5 February 2018 / Online: 5 February 2018 (15:39:20 CET)
: Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (06:00:30 CEST)
: Received: 23 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (07:43:20 CEST)
: Received: 15 August 2018 / Approved: 17 August 2018 / Online: 17 August 2018 (03:18:21 CEST)
: Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (09:34:45 CEST)
: Received: 22 October 2018 / Approved: 22 October 2018 / Online: 22 October 2018 (11:08:20 CEST)
: Received: 11 December 2018 / Approved: 11 December 2018 / Online: 11 December 2018 (11:01:24 CET)
: Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 14 January 2019 / Online: 14 January 2019 (11:30:44 CET)
: Received: 28 March 2019 / Approved: 2 April 2019 / Online: 2 April 2019 (12:41:20 CEST)
: Received: 30 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (09:03:14 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies 2020
Coatings of specific materials in few atoms of thickness to several microns on certain substrate is the basic need of society and they attend the regular attention of scientific community working in different domains; decorative and protective coatings, transparent and insulating coatings, coating medical implants and surgical instruments, coatings for drug delivery and security purposes, ultra-precision machine coatings, coating cutting tools, coatings for MEMS and NEMS, and so on. Different coatings develop under significant composition of atoms where certain force-energy behaviors provide the provision for electrons (of gas atoms) to deal double clamping of energy knots of unfilled states (of solid atoms). Under certain process conditions, different nature atoms oppositely-switch force-energy behaviors to the ones originally owned where they locate common mid-points of their ground points at accommodating level resulting into deal binding. Because of adjusting contraction-expansion of clamping energy knots under varying potential energy of electrons, they develop structure of their atoms termed as hard coating, which is known since antiquity. Different properties and characteristics of hard coatings like hardness, adhesion, roughness and friction coefficient, etc. are emerged under attained mid-points of transformed atoms in evolving structure. This work describes the science of depositing hard coating opening several new areas. Keywords: Hard coating; TiN; Atomic nature; Expansion and contraction of clamping energy knot; Potential energy of electron; Ground point; Structure evolution
Hard coating; TiN; Atomic nature; Expansion and contraction of clamping energy knot; Potential energy of electron; Ground point; Structure evolution
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