Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed
Hard Coating Deposits: Incompatible Working Energy and Forced Behaviors of Gaseous and Solid Atoms
: Received: 3 February 2018 / Approved: 5 February 2018 / Online: 5 February 2018 (15:39:20 CET)
: Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (06:00:30 CEST)
: Received: 23 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (07:43:20 CEST)
: Received: 15 August 2018 / Approved: 17 August 2018 / Online: 17 August 2018 (03:18:21 CEST)
: Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (09:34:45 CEST)
: Received: 22 October 2018 / Approved: 22 October 2018 / Online: 22 October 2018 (11:08:20 CEST)
: Received: 11 December 2018 / Approved: 11 December 2018 / Online: 11 December 2018 (11:01:24 CET)
: Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 14 January 2019 / Online: 14 January 2019 (11:30:44 CET)
: Received: 28 March 2019 / Approved: 2 April 2019 / Online: 2 April 2019 (12:41:20 CEST)
: Received: 30 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (09:03:14 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies 2020
Coating a suitable material on substrate in thickness of nano to micro metres is a great interest for the scientific community. Hard coatings develop under the significant composition of suitable gaseous and solid atoms, where their energy and forced behaviors under certain transition states favour the binding. In the binding mechanism of gaseous and solid atoms, electron belonging to outer ring (filled state) of gaseous atom undertakes another clamp of energy knot belonging to outer ring (unfilled state) of solid atom. The set process conditions develop the coating of gaseous and solid atoms when energy of non-conservation is involved. Different natured atoms develop the structure in the form of hard coating by locating a common ground point, which is in their central ground points. Here, gaseous atoms increase the potential energy of electrons by decreasing levitational force (at electron level) in a controlled orientating manner, whereas solid atoms decrease the potential energy of electrons by decreasing gravitational force (at electron level) in a controlled orientating manner. Thus, hard coating is deposited under the oppositely switched energy and forced behaviors of different natured atoms. In TiN coating, Ti–Ti atoms bind due to the difference of expansion in their lattices when one atom is deposited and one is being deposited. So, one Ti atom just lands on the already landed Ti atom. While adhering N atom to Ti atom, it occupies the interstitial position in the Ti atoms. The rate of ejecting solid atoms depends on the type of source, parameters and a processing technique. In random arc-based vapor deposition system, depositing coating at substrate depends on several parameters. As per set conditions of the process, different natured atoms deposit at substrate surface to develop the structure of coating. In addition to intrinsic behavior of atoms, different properties of coatings materialised as per the nature of forces engaged under the involved energy. In developing hard coating of gaseous and solid atoms, an involved energy of non-conservation engages force of non-conservation, too. Hence, this study opens new avenues not only in the fields of hard coatings but also in the fields of functional coatings, medical and surgical implant coatings, protective and sensitive coatings, etc.
fundamental science; atomic behavior; hard coating; expansion and contraction; energy and force; surface and interface
MATERIALS SCIENCE, Surfaces, Coatings & Films
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