Preprint Article Version 10 This version is not peer-reviewed

Hard Coating Deposits: Incompatible Working Energy and Forced Behaviors of Gas and Solid Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 3 February 2018 / Approved: 5 February 2018 / Online: 5 February 2018 (15:39:20 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (06:00:30 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 23 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (07:43:20 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 15 August 2018 / Approved: 17 August 2018 / Online: 17 August 2018 (03:18:21 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (09:34:45 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 22 October 2018 / Approved: 22 October 2018 / Online: 22 October 2018 (11:08:20 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 11 December 2018 / Approved: 11 December 2018 / Online: 11 December 2018 (11:01:24 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 14 January 2019 / Online: 14 January 2019 (11:30:44 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 28 March 2019 / Approved: 2 April 2019 / Online: 2 April 2019 (12:41:20 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 30 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (09:03:14 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M. Hard Coating Deposits: Incompatible Working Energy and Forced Behaviors of Gas and Solid Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018020040 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201802.0040.v10). Ali, M.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M. Hard Coating Deposits: Incompatible Working Energy and Forced Behaviors of Gas and Solid Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018020040 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201802.0040.v10).

Abstract

Coating a suitable material on substrate in thickness of nano to micro metres is a great interest for the scientific community. Hard coatings develop under the significant composition of different natured suitable atoms, where their energy and forced behaviors in that transition state favour binding. In the binding mechanism of gas and solid atoms, electron belonging to outer ring (filled state) of gas atom undertakes another clamp of energy knot belonging to outer ring (unfilled state) of solid atom. The set process conditions develop the coating of gas and solid atoms when they process for a suitable composition. Atoms of suitable elements jointly develop the structure in the form of hard coating by locating a common ground point, which is in their central ground points. Here, gas atoms increase the potential energy of electrons by decreasing levitational force exerting at electron levels in a controlled manner, whereas solid atoms decrease the potential energy of electrons by decreasing gravitational force exerting at electron levels in a controlled manner. Thus, hard coating is deposited because of incompatible working energy and forced behaviors of the atoms. In TiN coating, Ti–Ti atoms bind due to the difference of expansion in their lattices when one atom is deposited and one is being deposited. So, one Ti atom just lands on the already landed Ti atom. While adhering N atom to Ti atom, it occupies the interstitial position in the titanium. As per set conditions of the process, atoms of different behaviors deposit at substrate surface to develop the structure of coating. The rate of ejecting or dissociating solid atoms depends on the type of source, parameters and the processing technique. In random arc-based vapor deposition system, depositing coating at substrate depends on several parameters. In addition to intrinsic behavior of atoms, different properties of coatings emerged as per the nature of forces engaged under the involved energy. In developing hard coating of different natured atoms, their energy and forced behaviours work in the non-conservative modes. Hence, this study sets a new direction in the field of hard coating and related areas.

Subject Areas

fundamental science; atomic behavior; hard coating; expansion and contraction; energy and force; surface and interface

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