Preprint Article Version 10 This version is not peer-reviewed

Hard Coating Deposits: Incompatible Working Energy and Forced Behaviors of Gas and Solid Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 3 February 2018 / Approved: 5 February 2018 / Online: 5 February 2018 (15:39:20 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (06:00:30 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 23 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (07:43:20 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 15 August 2018 / Approved: 17 August 2018 / Online: 17 August 2018 (03:18:21 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (09:34:45 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 22 October 2018 / Approved: 22 October 2018 / Online: 22 October 2018 (11:08:20 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 11 December 2018 / Approved: 11 December 2018 / Online: 11 December 2018 (11:01:24 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 14 January 2019 / Online: 14 January 2019 (11:30:44 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 28 March 2019 / Approved: 2 April 2019 / Online: 2 April 2019 (12:41:20 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 30 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (09:03:14 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M.. Hard Coating Deposits: Incompatible Working Energy and Forced Behaviors of Gas and Solid Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018020040 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201802.0040.v10). Ali, M.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M.. Hard Coating Deposits: Incompatible Working Energy and Forced Behaviors of Gas and Solid Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018020040 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201802.0040.v10).

Abstract

Coating of suitable materials having thickness of a few atoms to several microns on a substrate is of great interest to the scientific community. Hard coatings develop under the significant composition of suitable atoms, where their energy and forced behaviors in certain transition state favour binding. In the binding mechanism of suitable atoms, electron belonging to outer ring filled state of gas atom undertakes another clamp of energy knot belonging to outer ring unfilled state of solid atom. Set process conditions develop the coating of different atoms when processing their suitable composition in a system. Atoms of different nature develop structure in the form of hard coating by locating their ground points between the original ones. Here, gas atoms increase the potential energy of their electrons under decreasing levitational force in a controlled manner, whereas solid atoms decrease the potential energy of their electrons under decreasing gravitational force in a controlled manner. In TiN coating, Ti–Ti atoms bind under the difference of expansion of their lattices, called nets of energy knots, where one atom just lands on the already landed atom. An adhered N-atom to a Ti-atom occupies an interstitial position among four Ti-atoms. As per set conditions of the process, different natured atoms deposit at substrate surface to develop structure of coating. So, hard coating is deposited because of nearly opposite working energy and forced behaviors of different natured atoms. The rate of ejecting or dissociating solid atoms depends on the nature of source, parameters and processing technique. In random arc-based vapor deposition system, depositing coating at substrate depends on several parameters. In addition to intrinsic nature of atoms, different properties and characteristics of coatings emerge as per engaged forces for involved non-conserved energies. The present study sets new trends in the field of coatings and others.

Subject Areas

fundamental science; atomic nature and behavior; hard coating; expansion and contraction; energy and force; surface and interface

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