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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: e-commerce; brick-and-mortar shopping; life cycle assessment; environmental sustainability
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:28:38 CEST)
E-commerce has gained increased popularity over the last decade. To date, there is an open debate as to whether e-commerce or brick-and-mortar shopping is environmentally less sustainable, especially due to the growing mobility resources needed for e-commerce distribution. The analysis at hand compares the CO2-equivalent emissions of e-commerce and brick-and-mortar shopping of pharmaceutical products considering spatial aspects and the typical transport modal mix of consumers when doing online and offline shopping. The object of analysis is a retailer of pharmaceutical products, more precisely medicines, which offers, both, brick-and-mortar shop and online shopping possibilities. The results show that spatial aspects concerning the residential location of consumers, the vehicles used for shopping trips, the shopping basked size, and trip-chaining effects have a crucial impact on the mobility demand and CO2-equivalent emissions of the two commerce forms. In general, for rural and sub-urban areas, e-commerce results in lower CO2-equivalent emissions, while in urban areas, brick-and-mortar shopping is the favourable solution, if the consumers walk or cycle to the next pharmacy.
Wed, 19 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: Sustainability; Transportation; Climate Change; Carbon Emissions
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:59:55 CEST)
The build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is causing warmness in the Earth’s atmosphere, resulting in climate change. The transport sector is one of the active members of GHG emissions and it is imperative to use sustainable transport sources to control climate change. The measure aims to encourage citizens to stop using their private vehicles as their choice of transport and instead opt for joint sustainable mobility during traveling. In this study, a quantitative research method was used and data were collected from a sample of 410 respondents through questionnaire. On the other hand, study also took a simulation-based (N=10000) sample size of private vehicle data. The data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. The results revealed that sustainable transportation, climate change technologies and electric rail vehicles reduce climate change in the ecoregions of China. We conclude that sustainable transportation policies could be formulated and implemented to reduce climate change. In response to the research results, it is recommended that, since climate change is a multi-level governance issue and the outdated pyramidal transport industry models must be shifted to a sustainable transportation system model.
Mon, 26 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0386.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: micromobility; sustainable transport; electric vehicles; active travel; LEV; so-cio-technical analysis
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:51:42 CEST)
While micromobility has seen a significant rise of interest across policy, industry and academia, a detailed conceptualisation of it has so far been missing from the scientific literature. This paper develops a multi-dimensional conceptualisation of micromobility, in conjunction with a new socio-technical definition. To do so, it reviews related concepts; it analyses how the term micromobility has been used; and it critically engages with existing definitions most frequently cited in this literature. Building on these insights, we develop a multi-dimensional conceptualization of micromobility. Our definition of micromobility covers a wide range of mobility options that can typically be manoeuvred by one human without motor assistance, at least for short distances, and that are ‘micro’ in terms of energy demand, environmental impact, and use of road space, relative to automobility. According to our conceptualisation, micromobility modes comprise fully human powered, partially motor assisted and fully powered options. They typically do not exceed 25 kilometres per hour (or 45 for faster ones) and weigh (often significantly) less than 350 kilogram, while often providing some (public) health benefits. Trip lengths are typically less than 15 kilometres and daily distance travelled less than 80 kilometres. This new definition has relevance for future transport and mobility scholarship, as well as policy and evaluation. Advantages of a new and widely accepted definition and conceptualisation of micromobility could include more robust design standards, legislation, as well as evaluation metrics and methods, all leading to greater understanding of, and attention paid to, this form of mobility. This paper highlights the important role that micromobilities could play in moving beyond automobility, to create more sustainable and just mobility futures.
Tue, 13 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: transportation integration; service industry agglomeration; Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration; urban agglomeration transportation integration index system; knowledge spillover effect.
Online: 13 September 2022 (16:02:29 CEST)
This study selected the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration as the research area, combining it with the current situation of the transportation development of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration to construct the urban agglomeration transportation integration index system and evaluate the development status of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration transportation integration. The study examined the influence mechanism of transportation infrastructure on service industry agglomeration. The results are as follows: (1) From 2011–2020, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration’s transportation integration index showed a clear upward trend. (2)The development of transport integration in urban agglomerations has heterogeneous effects on local service agglomeration. The development of the integration level of local transportation has a certain inhibitory effect on the agglomeration of local service industry. The transportation integration of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration plays an important role in promoting the agglomeration of local wholesale and retail industry, transportation, storage and postal services. (3) The transportation integration of urban agglomeration can affect the agglomeration of service industry through the knowledge spillover brought by the free flow of various factors. The knowledge spillover effect caused by local transportation integration can promote the agglomeration of local service industry to a certain extent. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration needs to accelerate the construction of trans-provincial and trans-municipal transportation infrastructure, and further improve the connectivity level of the urban agglomeration, so as to promote the integrated development of high-quality transportation in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration.
Wed, 6 July 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: elderly study; mobility; transportation; scoping review
Online: 6 July 2022 (10:12:39 CEST)
The rapid development of transportation infrastructure in Malaysia had changed the mobility landscape of the country. While it would be a welcome advancement for many, older adults might find it difficult to keep up with their transportation uses and remain active. This study reviewed published articles on the travel behavior of older adults and its associated transportation determinants to explore how sustainable the transportation system is for this vulnerable cohort. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost. Inclusion criteria were older respondents, living in a community in Malaysia, addressing any travel behavior characteristics and written in English language. Review paper, letters, book citations, comments, editorials, and experimental and animal studies were excluded from this study. All in all, this review included seven studies extending from the year 2007 to 2020. The result showed that transportation use of older adults had shifted from relying on public transports to driving their own vehicle to move around. According to the finding of this study, besides personal and health factors, transport use of older adults was affected mainly by cost, public transport availability, road traffic and safety, the complexity of the transportation system, distance to public transit, availability of parking space, road condition and signage. It is concluded that an effective strategy to improve the transportation system is lauded to prevent unmet travel needs among the older adults in Malaysia.
Wed, 25 November 2020
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0629.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: road safety; advanced driver assistance; safe system approach; LMIC
Online: 25 November 2020 (10:06:33 CET)
Abstract: Traffic collisions cause a huge problem of public health in low and middle income countries.. The safe system approach is generally considered as the leading concept on the way to road safety. Based on the fundamental premise that humans make mistakes, the overall traffic system should be ‘forgiving’. Sustainable safe road design is one of the key elements of the safe system approach. However, the road design principles behind the safe system approach are certainly not leading in today’s infrastructure developments in most LMICs. Cities are getting larger and road networks are expanding. In many cases, existing through-roads in local communities are up-graded, resulting in heavy traffic loads and high speeds on places, that are absolutely not suited for this kind of through-traffic. Furthermore a safe system would require that functional design properties of cars and roads would be conceptually integrated, which is not the case at all. Although advanced driver assistance systems are on their way of development for quite a long period, their potential role in the safe system concept is mostly unclear and at least strongly underexposed. The vision on future cars is dominated by the concept of automation. This paper argues that the way to self-driving cars, should take a route via the concept of guidance, i.e. vehicles that guide drivers, both on self-explaining roads and on more or less unsafe roads. Such an in-vehicle support system may help drivers to choose transport mode, route and speed, based on criteria related to safety and sustainability. It is suggested to develop a driver assistance system using relatively simple and cheap technologies, particularly for the purpose of use in LMICs. Such a GUIDE (Generic User Interface for Driving Evolution) may make roads self-explaining - not only by their physical design characteristics - but also by providing in-car guidance for drivers. In future the functional characteristics of both cars and roads should be conceptualized into one integrated safe system, in which the user plays the central role. As such GUIDE may serve as the conceptual bridge between vehicle and roadway characteristics. It is argued that GUIDE is necessary to bring a breakthrough in road safety developments in LMICs and also give an acceleration towards zero fatalities in HICs.
Sun, 28 June 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: Optimal bus dispatching system; Modular bus units; Frequency setting problem; 3D-MFD
Online: 28 June 2020 (20:13:46 CEST)
This study proposes a novel flexible bus dispatching system where a fleet of fully automated modular bus units, together with conventional buses, serves the passenger demand. These modular bus units can either operate individually or combined (forming larger modular buses with a higher passenger capacity). This provides enormous flexibility to manage the service frequencies and vehicle allocation, reducing thereby the operating cost and improving passenger mobility. We develop an optimization model used to determine the optimal composition of bus units and the optimal service frequency at which the buses (both conventional and modular) are dispatched across each bus line. We explicitly account for the dynamics of traffic congestion and complex interactions between the modes at the network level based on the recently proposed three-dimensional macroscopic fundamental diagram (3D-MFD). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of the 3D-MFD and modular bus units for the frequency setting problem in the domain of bus operations. Numerical results show the improvements in the total system cost made by adapting the number of combined modular bus units and their dispatched frequencies to the evolution of both, the car and the passenger demand. A comparison with the commonly used approach that considers only the bus system (neglecting the complex multimodal interactions and congestion propagation) reveals the value of the proposed modeling framework.
Fri, 26 June 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: Bus network design; Trip length distribution; Bi-modal MFD; Space allocation; Bus operations
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:26:27 CEST)
Public transport systems are considered to be a crucial aspect of a sustainable urban development, as they allow more passengers to efficiently travel across an urban area at low environmental and economic costs. Multiple factors can influence the public transport level of service. All take roots in the network structure and the operating regime, i.e. how bus lines are arranged atop the street network and how the service frequency is adjusted to meet urban mobility patterns. This is known as the bus network design problem and has been the subject of several studies. The problem is so challenging that most studies until now resort to strong assumptions such as a static description of the peak hour demand, homogeneous user behavior, and equal trip lengths. Potential effects of different types of user behavior and trip lengths patterns on the user and/or operator cost function have not been investigated whatsoever. Moreover, the existing studies have not considered the effects of the bus network structure on private car users, the level of interactions between the two modes, and the passenger mode choice that depends on the traffic conditions. This paper aims to close this gap and provide a general framework considering multiple trip length patterns, two types of user behavior, and the effects that the bus network structure might have on the traffic performance and passenger mode choice. For modeling different trip length patterns, the proposed approach combines all origin-destination pairs with the same trip length and uses the trip length distribution as an intermediate level of abstraction. As such, it allows to solve the optimal bus network design problem in an analytical way, while considering a more realistic setting including network congestion, mixed traffic, and different mode choice decisions depending on trip lengths and walking preferences. Numerical analysis reveals that both, the user behavior and the trip length patterns, have significant effects on the operator and user cost function. Results show that the probability of choosing any given mode is not constant across the user trip lengths, but follows certain distribution. This distribution is not unique, but varies across the trip length patterns, indicating the importance of modeling the mode choice at the trip length level. Finally, the analysis demonstrates the significance of addressing simplifications made in previous studies.
Thu, 18 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0227.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: optimal parking occupancy rate; macroscopic traffic and parking model; multiple vehicle types; electric vehicles; cruising-for-parking; parking policies
Online: 18 June 2020 (08:29:48 CEST)
A very high parking occupancy can negatively influence the traffic performance of an area by causing very long cruising times. A very low parking occupancy, on the other hand, is inefficient from a space utilization perspective. Thus, this paper proposes a framework to compute the optimal parking occupancy rate over a given time horizon based on a macroscopic traffic and parking model. This rate is set high enough to ensure an efficient usage of the parking infrastructure. However, it should also guarantee a high likelihood of finding parking in order to eliminate the drivers’ time wasted in cruising for parking and the added congestion it causes. The model outputs are based on small data collection efforts and low computational costs, and they can be generated without complex simulation software using a simple numerical solver. Multiple vehicle types are included into our methodology allowing us to generate insights about the optimal parking occupancy with or without differentiated parking (i.e., parking for specific vehicles, such as fuel and electric vehicles). In times of a modal shift towards electric vehicles, cities can use our model to evaluate how much parking supply (with battery charging opportunities) they would like to dedicate to electric vehicles in order to achieve optimal traffic and parking results, and whether a differentiated or semi-differentiated parking policy is desirable. We illustrate our framework in a case study of a central area within the city of Zurich, Switzerland, showing the traffic and parking impacts (e.g., average searching time for parking, total revenue created by parking fees, optimal parking occupancy rate) for different proportions of fuel and electric vehicles in the parking demand and/or supply. Our results confirm that optimal occupancy rates are between and for most realistic scenarios. We then discuss how these rates might change depending on various demand and supply relationships, and according to different parking policies. We show that equal proportions between electric vehicles in the demand and their parking spaces in the supply lead to the best traffic performance in the area. We also provide the tools for cities to analyze their loss in performance if they do not react, e.g., to an increasing demand for electric vehicles over time. Moreover, we illustrate how some of these risks can be mitigated by having more flexible parking policies, e.g., allowing electric vehicles to use parking spaces for fuel vehicles.
Wed, 18 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0234.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: land locked countries; Africa; supply chain management; sea ports
Online: 18 December 2019 (03:41:18 CET)
Abstract: Many countries around the world suffer from the lack of a sea port directly linked to the rest of the world. Such countries are called "landlocked countries". This leads to Weak competitiveness of their products in the global market, as well as to the high cost of the imports. Africa has the largest share of these countries, with 16 of the 43 landlocked countries around the world. The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for criteria that can be used to choose between ports in transit countries that can be used for import or export. These criteria are related to the assessment of the sea ports in terms of infrastructure and tariffs. It is also related to transport infrastructure from the transit country to the landlocked country and the level of safety. The study identified nine criteria that could be used to compare between ports in transit countries. Using Full Consistency Method (FUCOM) to evaluate those criteria showed that the number of navigation lines is the most important criteria followed by the port service level.
Mon, 24 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: city logistics; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; urban bus transport; IPA; AHP
Online: 24 December 2018 (05:09:11 CET)
Logistics in urban areas are currently suffering a radical transformation due to increasingly population concentration and the massive use of cars as the preferred transport mode. These issues have resulted in higher pollution levels in urban environments and traffic congestion impacting the world globally. Facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes is widely regarded as a necessity to cope with these adverse effects on citizens’ life quality. Hence, some regions, as the European Union, are encouraging bus transport firms to make their business models more environmentally and socially sustainable. The aim of this research is thus to explore how practices adopted by urban bus companies can improve cities’ sustainability. With this in mind, a combined Importance Performance Analysis (IPA)-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied. In this way, both environmental and social sustainability effects of developed practices were represented through hierarchical structures separately. Subsequently, importance and performance ratings of practices in each sustainability dimension were estimated, and thus two IPA grids were generated. These grids support managers in the establishment of more effective action plans to improve logistics sustainability in cities. Findings also provide guidance to governments on the practices that should be promoted in future urban mobility plans.
Sat, 30 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: India; active commuting; public transit; physical activity; built environment
Online: 30 June 2018 (14:55:26 CEST)
Background: Few studies have assessed built environment correlates of active commuting in low-and-middle-income countries, but the different context could yield distinct findings. This cross-sectional study investigated associations between home neighbourhood environment characteristics and active commuting in Chennai, India. Methods: Adults (N = 370, 47.2% female, mean age = 37.9 years) were recruited from 155 wards in the metropolitan area of Chennai in southern India between January and June 2015. Participants self-reported their usual mode of commute to work, with responses recoded into three categories: (1) multi-modal or active commuting (walking and bicycling); (2) public transit; and (3) private transport. Environmental attributes around participants’ homes were assessed using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-India (NEWS-India). Associations between environmental characteristics and likelihood of active commuting and public transit use were modelled using logistic regression with private transport (driving alone or carpool) as the reference category, adjusting for age, gender, and household car ownership. Results: Consistent with other international studies, participants living in neighbourhoods with a mix of land-uses and a transit stop within a 10-minute walk from home were more likely to use active commuting (both p < 0.01). Land-use mix was significantly associated with the use of public transit compared to private transport (aOR = 5.2, p = 0.002). Contrary to findings in high-income countries, the odds of active commuting were reduced with improved safety from crime (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.003), aesthetics (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.05) and street connectivity (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Different environmental attributes were associated with active commuting, suggesting that these relationships are complex and may distinctly differ from those in high-income countries. Unexpected inverse associations of perceived safety from crime and aesthetics with active commuting emphasize the need for high quality epidemiologic studies with greater context-specificity in the study of physical activity in LMICs. Findings have public health implications for India and suggest that caution should be taken when translating evidence across countries.