ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: perceived well-being in friendship relationships; basic psychological needs; self-regulation; self-determination theory (SDT)
Online: 1 October 2023 (09:50:25 CEST)
Background and Objective: Intimate relationships hold significant importance during emerging adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the critical determinants of perceived well-being in friendship relationships during emerging adulthood.Method: Using a quantitative approach, a sample of 726 undergraduate students from the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad were selected through convenience sampling. They completed the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ), the Compassionate and self-image goals scale (CSIGS), the Basic Need Satisfaction in Relationships Scale (BNS-RS), the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ-10), Friendship Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-F), Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire-Self (IBQ-self), State Level Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS-SL), the Perceived Relationship Quality Component (PRQC), and the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). Data analysis was conducted using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM).Results: The results indicated that the critical determinants in predicting perceived well-being in friendship relationships were, in order, goals in friendship relationships, friendship self-regulation, perceived support of basic psychological needs by friends, satisfied basic psychological needs, frustrated psychological needs, and supporting the basic psychological needs of friends.Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that self-determination theory (SDT) provides a coherent framework for explaining perceived well-being in friendships.
Sat, 30 September 2023
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Climate communication; storytelling; public engagement; climate action; sustainability
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:19:00 CEST)
For achieving climate targets, public engagement is key. Climate communication can play an important role here. Telling regional stories of successful climate action seems a promising form of climate communication: It may convey a feeling of ‘So this is what climate action looks like – and it is people like you and me who are starting to take action.’ This transformative research project (1) formulates hypotheses on what could make such local climate stories effective, (2) then identifies, produces and disseminates stories in the region of Konstanz, Germany, following a rapid prototyping approach, and (3) analyzes the effect of the stories by using focus groups. So far, two prototyping series of filmic story production have been completed in 2022/2023 and some initial insights were derived: Potential protagonists seem willing to tell their stories, and the stories have a potential to inspire people. Technical film quality is relevant. The stories must be selected and told carefully (who is portrayed, which actions are interpreted as success, through which channels are the stories shared), in order to create resonance with different target groups. Next steps are continuation of film production prototyping, a broader sharing of stories, and thorough impact research by focus groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2105.v1
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:49:09 CEST)
In an increasingly changing world, critical thinking is one of the key skills that ensure organisations' competitive advantage. Thus, in higher education institutions there is an accelerating emphasis on developing critical thinking (CT) among students. This paper presents the results of three experimental courses (Pedagogy and didactics of financial accounting, Virtual Learning Environments in Economics, Business Communication), using a blended learning method, aimed at improving students' CT skills. The three courses were delivered by both higher education teachers and trainers from the labour market. After analysing the data from the three experimental courses, it will be possible to assess whether the intervention of labour market trainers contributed to the improvement of students' critical thinking skills, and, in particularly at the level of which components improvements have been identified.
Fri, 29 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2087.v1
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:42:33 CEST)
In times of war, civilians experience a heightened risk of exposure to traumatic experiences. This can lead to a greater risk of developing mental health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can impact individuals and communities. Research suggests that the severity of the reactions to traumatic events is likely to be influenced by the level of exposure to the traumatic events and personal characteristics. This paper examines the correlation between symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and various factors such as the extent of exposure to missile alarms, personal traits, and socioeconomic elements among Israeli civilians impacted by rocket attacks from Hamas. Our specific focus is on the influence of these rocket attacks on Israel's populace during the military operation conducted by the Israeli army, "Guardian of the Walls," in May 2021.Our findings suggest that, typically, individuals who have experienced less exposure to missile attacks and alarms, those belonging to larger families, and those with a higher level of education and income are less prone to experiencing post-traumatic symptoms. The study was carried out using surveys that gathered demographic information about the participants, as well as a specific questionnaire designed to evaluate the presence and extent of post-trauma symptoms.These findings could aid in devising preventative strategies to mitigate the PTSD risk among vulnerable groups. They indicate the importance of considering socio-economic elements when delivering mental health services to those impacted by violent incidents and trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: sustainable cities; sustainable mobility; women-friendly cycling; spatial justice; mobility justice
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:11:16 CEST)
Cities have witnessed a booming interest in cycling in recent years. However, the implementation of cycling networks rarely followed a strategy to make them more accessible to specific social groups, such as women. To address this gap in knowledge, this paper provides a holistic perspective of women’s cycling mobility. Specifically, the study’s goal is to look into the social and environmental implications of cycling for women in Turin, Italy. Hence, this paper provides insights for ensuring a woman-friendly cycling system in a city and ensuring women’s participation as vital stakeholders in promoting a bike-friendly identity. We clarify women’s perceptions of cycling and outline the requirements for more inclusive bike infrastructures. Thus, we identify strategies to improve women’s access to bike lanes and investigate the environmental benefits of reduced air pollution by such a bike system. All this information is intended to define a more socially inclusive and environmental-friendly transport system in Turin for everyone, as depicted in Goal 11 of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Thu, 28 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1958.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: regulatory regimes; control devices; cannabis; rights extension; rights denial
Online: 28 September 2023 (13:12:07 CEST)
This article analyzes laws, normative reforms and regulations surrounding the practices and mechanisms of control over the consumption, cultivation and commercialization of cannabis. On the one hand, I investigate regulatory practices that deny rights for the consumption of cannabis classified as recreational. On the other hand, I study regulatory practices that extend rights for the production, consumption and commercialization of cannabis classified as medicinal and industrial. The empirical moment is composed of four stages and methodological tools. First, I conduct an analysis of state policies. Then, I analyze nine laws and codes on cannabis regulation from 1970 to the present. Next, I perform five semi-structured interviews. Finally, I develop two life stories of former people deprived of their liberty for cannabis cultivation and trade. In this way, I trace forms of regulation on multiple demands, knowledge, interests and beliefs. This research focuses on state regulation. Cannabis regulatory regimes are conceived as constructions of political, social and economic truths, meanings and rights. In sum, the answer to the question of how collective demands around cannabis are regulated in Ecuador stipulates that state action reinforces stigmatization and criminalization. In addition, it legitimizes moral entrepreneurs and counter-movements around cannabis.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: vocational colleges; campus culture; connotation definition; basic characteristics
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:14:14 CEST)
A comprehensive understanding of the connotation and basic characteristics of campus culture in vocational colleges is a prerequisite for ensuring their sustainable development. Campus culture in vocational colleges is a concentrated reflection of their educational philosophy, ideal beliefs, and value pursuits. It possesses basic characteristics such as practicality, vocational orientation, ethics, contemporaneity, integration, and regionality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1963.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sexual health; psychological well-being; women; systematic review
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:57:48 CEST)
(1) Background: Psychological well-being (PWB) and female sexual health are two important areas for women’s quality of life and research, and they are closely related. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the existing literature to explore the association between PWB and sexual health in women. (2) Methods: This review was carried out following PRISMA. The inclusion criteria were studies with samples of adult women, that evaluated and associated sexual functioning and mental health. Scientific articles were identified on Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO (PsycInfo, PsycArticles, and Psicodoc), ProQuest, and PubMed. The search was limited to years between 2010 and 2023. (3) Results: 14 selected articles were analyzed, in which population samples and variables related to mental and sexual health were examined. 42.9% of the studies included clinical samples, 71.4% focused on anxiety and depression as main mental health variables, and 50% examined female sexual functioning as a sexual health variable. (4) Conclusions: This review provides more up-to-date information about valuable insights into the possible determinants of female sexual health. The association between PWB and female sexual health has been demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1903.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: destination management; tourism planning; indicator systems; local authorities; sustainable tourism; governance.
Online: 28 September 2023 (08:39:06 CEST)
Local Authorities have significant tourism planning responsibilities and can benefit from evidence-based approaches. Qualitative interviews with 29 Local Authorities identified impediments to adopting indicators. Key barriers included more knowledge of indicator systems, training in using systems and understanding sustainability value and governance issues. However, transitioning to sustainable tourism through monitoring requires efficient resourcing of Local Authorities. Statutory adoption of indicators may be needed to enable evidence-based planning and policymaking. More informed planning approaches can help destinations respond to tourism issues and sustainability threats. Findings have implications for facilitating indicator implementation and evidence-based planning in other tourism destinations internationally.
Wed, 27 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1716.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Policy proposal, elderly government officials, the employment, public sector organizations.
Online: 27 September 2023 (16:01:19 CEST)
A promoting work for the elderly is an important way of empowering the participation of the elderly in society for economic development, which will lead to the well-being of the elderly. This is presented the policy proposal for elderly government officials employment in public sector organizations landscape study by policy research on EDFR which combines MACR, especially, elderly civil servants in public sector organizations of 56 - 60 years, and aged of 60 years to over, include the experts into the data. Comparing the employment forms elderly civil servants in public sector organizations of flexible employment and new employment models to differences at statistical significance level of 0.01, 0.05, respectively. Significance the policy proposal for elderly government officials employment at “Key” factors of the strategies, goals, measures, and operational guidelines to effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1799.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Risk Perceptions; Driving; Economic Risks; Road Environment
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:35:45 CEST)
While studies that examined risk perceptions in various environments have been previously conducted, the relationship between risk perceptions measured in such environments had not been examined. Such a relationship, if found, may indicate that when one learns to identify risks in one environment, they may identify risks more easily and quickly in another.This study examined the relationship between measures of risk perception in several separate environments. The findings suggest that when learning to identify and assess risks in a particular environment, one may better identify and assess risks in a similar environment – for example, learning to identify and assess risks while driving makes it easier to identify and assess risks when crossing a road. Conversely, the findings also indicate that learning to identify and assess risks in one environment does not make it possible to better identify and assess risks in a disparate environment – for example, learning to identify and assess risks while driving does not make it easier to identify and assess risks in a workplace environment. This may also suggest that while disparate environments such as the road environment and the workplace environment are perceived as two separate environments, the road environment is experienced as one single environment by both drivers and pedestrians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1804.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological anti-doping intervention; serious game; sport high school
Online: 27 September 2023 (02:55:45 CEST)
The use of substances to improve sports performance is a widespread phenomenon among adolescents. Several anti-doping programs have been developed, mainly based on knowledge-based evidence. The main aim of the present study was to implement an anti-doping intervention in sports high school students, based on psychological framework, such as Socio-Cognitive Theory, through the development of a Serious Game (SG), i.e., a digital learning based on the game. The experimental design included an intervention group (n=167; F=37.7%; Meanage=17.5 years) and a control group (n=112; F=42%; Meanage=17.6). Both of groups completed the same questionnaire in two different occasions (i.e., time 1 and time 2), for measuring doping intention, self-regulatory efficacy to resist social pressure for the use of substances, moral disengagement, and doping knowledge. Data were analyzed through repeated measures of Group X Time ANOVA, demonstrating some degree of efficacy of the intervention, in particular, in terms of decrease of doping intention and the strengthening of doping knowledge. Moreover, we demonstrated that the score obtained during the implementation of the Serious Game partially could represent a coherent measure of the participants’ beliefs regarding doping. These results could be considered a starting point for future research to better develop technological anti-doping interventions.
Tue, 26 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1774.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: golf; pro-player; full swing; biomechanics
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:24:38 CEST)
Background: Pro-golfers are increasingly trained scientifically, but swing technique characteristics have not yet been conclusively determined for golf performance. We investigated the relationship between the player's thorax, pelvis and club based on a wireless biofeedback system. We also determined whether thoracic and pelvic changes during different swing phases have different effects on ball striking. Methods: Eight male professionals performed 10 successful full-swing shots using a 5-iron and applied the K-vest wireless biofeedback system for analysis. Results: Peak angular velocities between the pelvis, torso, and clubs were all significantly different (p<0.05) in the men's professional players. All players deviated more from the PGA players range metrics during the preparation stance. Excessive lateral pelvic bending angle, over-rotation, and hyperextension of the trunk were prevalent at the top of the backswing. Conclusions: Most players have an irrational sequence of pelvic, trunk and club rotation times, which is not conducive to improving club head speed and distance. Excessive pelvic rotation in the closed direction at the apex of the backswing is not conducive to maximizing the X-factor. At the moment of striking the ball, maintain a moderate forward trunk lean and full trunk rotation to avoid sports injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1595.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching styles; model-based practice in physical education; physical fitness
Online: 26 September 2023 (08:11:07 CEST)
In recent years the study of the teacher-student relationship in the teaching-learning processes in physical education has had great emphasis. Previous studies have shown that the use of the Spectrum of teaching Styles can enhance intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, adherence to physical activity and physical activity levels in children and adolescents. The present study aims to assess if a physical education (PE) intervention based on the variations in teaching styles, with reference to production ones, can also have positive effects on physical fitness. The sample involved 4 primary school classes (n = 124 children, mean age = 8-10 years) recruited from the SBAM (Health, Wellness, Food Education and Movement at School) Project in Apulia, Southern Italy. Classes were randomly assigned to Experimental Group (EG) and Control Group (CG). EG followed a 5months experimental intervention based on the variation of teaching styles, while CG performed regular PE lessons. Physical fitness test was assessed with Standing Long Jump (SLJ), Medicine Ball Throw 1kg (MBT), and 20m sprint (20m), while two validated questionnaires were used to evaluate physical self-perception (PSP) and enjoyment. A 2x2 (intervention group x time) ANOVA was carried out to assess significant difference and interaction effect pre (t0) and post (t1) intervention protocol. Data analysis showed a significant improvement of physical fitness in both EG and CG, while PSP and enjoyment increased only in EG. Moreover, significant interaction (p<. 05) effects were found for 20m sprint, PSP and Enjoyment with low effect size (η2 ~. 20). The results of the present study highlight the effectiveness of a PE intervention based on the variation of teaching styles in improving physical fitness, self-perception, and enjoyment. Moreover, the use of production teaching styles significantly impacts self-perception and enjoyment, that are important mediating factors for guarantee better adherence to physical activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1730.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: environmental behaviour, experiential learning, nature experience, nature-based learning, outdoor learning, outdoor experience, experiential contact with nature
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:53:39 CEST)
A small but growing body of literature suggests that outdoor experiences during childhood affect environment-related behaviors in adulthood. However, research on the magnitude of the effect (effect size) of outdoor experience on learners’ behaviors remains scarce. In this study, we explore the extent to which outdoor experiences associate with environmentally responsible behaviors. Our sample consisted of 143 ninth- and tenth-grade students living on a Greek island. The data were collected using a properly adjusted environmental literacy instrument. Two different methodological pathways, i.e., a quasi-experimental approach and correlation analysis, were used to analyse the data. A tentative variable representing the frequency and intensity of students’ experiential contact with nature was found to be the strongest available predictor of their self-reported pro-environmental behaviors. The findings of this study support the significance of outdoor, experiential learning during childhood in shaping individuals’ environmental behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1696.v1
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:15:19 CEST)
In contemporary sociological discourse, social trust emerges as a fundamental determinant in catalyzing positive socio-economic interactions. The nexus between social relationships and the inherent trust within them is quintessential for the holistic well-being of individuals. The current research undertook a rigorous examination of the variations in generalized trust levels across distinct age cohorts. For this empirical investigation, a dataset comprising 2,232 observations, exclusively from the United States, was meticulously sourced from the World Value Survey.The empirical findings elucidated a significant disparity in generalized trust levels across age cohorts. Notably, the geriatric demographic manifested elevated levels of generalized trust in juxtaposition to their younger counterparts. Such an observation posits the hypothesis that the construct of trust may indeed possess an age-related dimensionality. Furthermore, a robust statistical analysis accentuated the significance of these observed disparities. The divergences in trust levels across age cohorts retained their statistical significance even post the incorporation of confounding variables such as gender, socio-economic status, educational attainment, ethnic lineage, and religious affiliations. This seminal finding underscores the imperative for further academic explorations into the intricate dynamics of trust within the socio-cultural fabric of our society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1732.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: high variability phonetic training (HVPT); lexical tone; perception-production link; cochlear implant (CI); perceptual learning
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:00:33 CEST)
Purpose: This study builds upon an established effective training method to investigate the advantages of high variability phonetic identification training for enhancing lexical tone perception and production in Mandarin-speaking pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients, who typically face ongoing challenges in these areas. Method: Thirty two Mandarin-speaking children with CIs were quasi-randomly assigned into the training group (TG) and the control group (CG). The sixteen TG participants received five sessions of high variability phonetic training (HVPT) within a period of three weeks. The CG participants did not receive the training. Perception and production of Mandarin tones were administered before (pretest) and immediately after (posttest) the completion of HVPT via lexical tone recognition task and picture naming task. Both groups participated in the identical pretest and posttest with the same time frame between the two test sessions. Results: TG showed significant improvement from pretest to posttest in identifying Mandarin tones for both trained and untrained speech stimuli. Moreover, perceptual learning of HVPT facilitated trainees’ lexical tone production as rated by a cohort of 10 Mandarin-speaking adults with normal hearing. In contrast, CG did not exhibit significant changes in either perception or production. Conclusion: The results represent initial evidence of HVPT-induced transfer of perceptual learning to lexical tone production in CI users, which supports the application of this speech training protocol to aural rehabilitation practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1636.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Autism spectrum conditions; Atypical resource allocation; Listening effort; Pupillometry; Speech-in-noise recognition
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:10:24 CEST)
Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) often experience difficulties in speech-in-noise (SiN) perception, leading to increased listening effort that impacts their well-being and academic performance. This study aimed to investigate the SiN processing challenges faced by Mandarin-speaking children with ASC and its impact on their listening effort. Methods: Participants completed sentence recognition tests in both quiet and noisy conditions, with a steady-state noise masker presented at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio in the noisy condition. We compared recognition accuracy and task-evoked pupil responses from 23 Mandarin-speaking children with ASC to 19 age-matched neurotypical (NT) counterparts to gauge their behavioral performance and listening effort during these auditory tasks. Results: The ASC group demonstrated notably decreased accuracy in noise compared to their NT peers, suggesting poorer SiN perception. Pupillometric data further revealed significantly larger peak dilations in the ASC group than in the NT group under comparable conditions. Importantly, the ASC group's peak dilation in quiet mirrored the NT group's in noise. However, the ASC group exhibited shorter peak latencies and reduced mean dilations than the NT group in similar conditions. Such patterns indicate the ASC group might initially experience a heightened cognitive load but utilize fewer cognitive resources as the task continued, indicating an atypical allocation of cognitive resources and a potential tendency towards relatively superficial and automated auditory processing. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the unique SiN processing challenges children with ASC face, underscoring the importance of a nuanced, individual-centric approach for interventions and support.
Mon, 25 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1633.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: radon, radon action plan, indicators, review, radiation, assessment
Online: 25 September 2023 (12:54:41 CEST)
Radon, a carcinogenic radioactive gas, is a leading cause of lung cancer according to the World Health Organization. European Member States are required to develop and implement National Radon Action Plans (RAPs) to address its dangerous health effects. However, assessing the effectiveness of these RAPs presents challenges for authorities. This study aims to explore the possibility for a systematic and standardised assessment method to evaluate the effectiveness of RAPs strategies and its implementation. The method involved analysing the strategies of 27 EU Member States and the UK, conducting legal document analysis and group interviews with responsible authorities. Additionally, four regional workshops and one final European workshop were held. The research took place from March 2021 to May 2023. Findings indicate that evaluating RAP effectiveness is challenging due to limited existing common criteria or indicators. To address this, the study proposes guiding questions for each element required by the EU Directive, as well as additional questions related to education and training. This contribution benefits RAP owners and European regulatory authorities, supporting the development of effectiveness indicators for RAPs. BY improving assessment methods, we can enhance the effectiveness of strategies in mitigating the risks associated with radon exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1678.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: company law; development studies; sociology; corporate social responsibility; education; human development; human dignity
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:26:47 CEST)
This paper aims to argue the fundamental significance of education in addressing notable gaps in the constitutive, performance, and evaluation criteria for corporate social responsibility (CSR) and endeavours to showcase the complementarity between education, human security, sustainable human development, and the pursuit of CSR as an ideal normative paradigm. An abstractive approach to studying CSR engages with corporate philanthropy, which has not been helpful outside traditional CSR paradigms without looking at key dynamics that can robustly underpin successful CSR. It relies on the systematic analysis of written data sources to theoretically explore the central significance, and complementarity between human security, education, and human dignity and how they can orchestrate a holistic CSR paradigm. In 1994, the UNDP in formulating the human security doctrine recognised the syncretic correlation between human security, education, and sustainable human development as fundamental elements that should underpin CSR. This paper contends that these are necessary intrinsic components of human dignity as the central factor that justifies a multi-dimensional and proactive approach to CSR. Despite the criticisms against human security, this paper identifies it as an important concept that could instrumentally orchestrate a model of CSR that uniformly mainstreams sustainable human development and human dignity that leverages education which has routinely and traditionally been seen as a constitutive component of CSR. It reveals how a holistic path to CSR can reinvigorate the central pillars of human security and human dignity using education as a springboard and makes a compelling case for supporting explicit references to education in company law with appropriate human security informed constitutive, performance, and evaluation criteria which are absent in existing legally orchestrated CSR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1617.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: nurses; México; logistic regression; predictors; mental health; Spanish burnout inventory
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:48:40 CEST)
The aim of this study was to use latent profile analysis to identify specific profiles of burnout syndrome in combination with work engagement and to identify whether job satisfaction, psychological well-being, and other sociodemographic and work variables affect the probability of presenting a profile of burnout syndrome and low work enthusiasm. A total of 355 healthcare professionals completed the Spanish Burnout Inventory, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Job Satisfaction Scale, and the Psychological Well-Being Scale for Adults. Latent profile analysis identified 4 profiles: 1) burnout with high indolence (BwHIn); 2) burnout with low indolence (BwLIn); 3) high engagement, low burnout (HeLb); and 4) in the process of burning out (IPB). Multivariate logistic regression showed that a second job in a government health care institution; a shift other than the morning shift; being divorced, separated or widowed; and work load are predictors of burnout profiles with respect to the HeLb profile. These data are useful for designing intervention strategies according to the needs and characteristics of each type of burnout profile.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1608.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: literature path; land use optimization methods; land use allocation theories and concepts; bibliometric method
Online: 25 September 2023 (05:47:19 CEST)
Land-use planning review seems relatively lower in publication rate and in coverage of content. This review contributes its part in two dimensions. First, it assesses ability of the popularly growing bibliometric method in tracking the real contribution of publications. Then it summarizes developments in the land use planning literature in three themes - general literature path building, land use planning context, and development of methods. It is observed that bibliometric method rewards information carriage paper more than the original contributors. Key planning context gaps include detachment of the general goal-oriented objective formulations from the basic land use allocation theories and models and certain urban land use optimization objectives even contradict the original though of sustainable city. Key research frontiers include: linking basic land use allocation and utility theories in urban land use planning; shifting the current urban land use planning from spatial optimization to activities into optimizing flow resources to available spatial configurations; evaluating existing built environment for optimality; transferring knowledge from rural land-use planning to urban land use planning. In method development, the key frontier would be advancing the current loosely coupled methods into more integrated systems.
Fri, 22 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Internalizing Mental Health Problems; Externalizing Mental Health Problems Adolescence; Educational setting; Violence prevention; Gender issues
Online: 22 September 2023 (13:15:23 CEST)
Background/aim: Sexual harassment has become a serious social and public health problem in adolescence, causing adverse effects on mental health. Nevertheless, some behaviours arise that, due to their characteristics, might be misinterpreted as sexual harassment. A field study, a survey with a non-probabilistic accidental sampling, was designed in order to estimate the prevalence of sexual harassment victimization in the Spanish adolescent population, as well as to quantify the harms. Method: 1028 Spanish adolescents, 54.3% females and 45.7% males, aged 13-17 years (M = 15.21, SD = 1.03), responded to a diagnostic measure of sexual harassment victimization and an inventory measure of internalizing and externalizing Mental Health Problems (MHPs). Results: The results showed a significant prevalence of diagnosed sexual harassment victimization of school-aged adolescents, 24.1%, 95% [.215, 267], with adverse effects on internalizing and externalizing MHPs. As for the internalizing MHPs, the results showed moderate adverse effects on depression, anxiety, somatic burns, posttraumatic symptoms, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms; and mild adverse effects on social anxiety. With regard to externalizing MHPs, the results revealed moderate adverse effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity, anger control and antisocial behaviour; and mild adverse effects on attention problems, aggression and defiant behaviour. In addition, it was corroborated that sexual harassment victimization affects adolescent females to a greater extent, with the effect being significantly greater in internalizing than in externalizing MHPs. Conclusions: The results obtained are discussed and future lines of research and intervention are proposed to promote the implementation of prevention and intervention programs that address this phenomenon and, in turn, improve the physical, psychological, and social well-being of adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: public transport; sustainable mobility; satisfaction with travel; service experience; travel mode reasons
Online: 22 September 2023 (11:42:13 CEST)
Knowing the reasons for mobility choices, how users evaluate the characteristics of public transport and how satisfied they are with the travel experience is essential to promote the use of LTP (Local Public Transport), especially in rural or suburban areas where the use of private car is often prevalent. The present study aimed to investigate the mobility experience and the reasons for use and non-use of the LPT in a suburban area by the people travelling to a large Hospital Centre in a Province of the North-east of Italy. An anonymous questionnaire was completed by people from different categories travelling to the hospital (students, employees, clients), user and non-users of the LPT. The results showed that insufficient hourly coverage and accessibility of the service are the primary reasons for opting not to use LPT and together with reliability and comfort, these factors contribute to user satisfaction with their travel experience. Perceived sustainability of LPT contributes to overall travel satisfaction. However perceived sustainability alone does not appear to influence the choice of LPT if the service lacks adequate accessibility and does not meet the needs of travelers in terms of hourly coverage
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1554.v1
Online: 22 September 2023 (11:29:01 CEST)
This paper examines the potential of large language models, specifically ChatGPT, BingChat, and Bard, in enhancing the work of teachers in various educational settings. These models, powered by cutting-edge artificial intelligence, offer a wide range of applications that can aid educators in curriculum development, personalized instruction, student engagement, and administrative tasks. By harnessing the capabilities of these language models, teachers can not only streamline their workload but also improve the overall quality of education. This paper explores the ways in which these models can empower educators and revolutionize teaching practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1543.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: quality physical education; spectrum of teaching styles; student-teacher relation
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:51:26 CEST)
The enhancement of physical and sports literacy in school setting are prerogatives and development aim for the physical education (PE) teachers. Therefore, as part of the teaching of motor activities, the proposal of motor tasks through different organizational modes (individual tasks, in pairs, in small groups, circuits, relay, paths, team games, etc.) is functional to the achievement of the educational objectives set in the didactic learning units. The present study aims to assess PE teachers’ perception about the use of teaching styles during curricular lessons. The sample involved a total of 83 PE teachers (M= 41, F= 42, main age= 43,74±10,76) divided according to years of service (0-4 = 36%, 5-10 = 34%, and over 10 = 30%) and academic training (ISEF= 44% and master’s degree= 56%). Teachers complete a digitalized version of a self-produced questionnaire to assess how many times they use each teaching styles during the last month. Results can be summarized as follows: (a) academic training is significantly associated with the command, inclusion, and guided-discovery styles in PE; (b) command and practice Styles are often used by PE teachers, regardless of years of service and academic training, and (c) guided discovery and convergent/divergent Discovery Styles are most frequently used by graduate teachers, regardless of years of service. The preliminary results of the analysis of PE teachers’ perception of teaching styles reveals the prevalence of the use of some styles over others, and this presuppose not only a different (but similar) teacher’s behavior, but also limits children’s way of learning a certain motor task. Future research and analysis will investigate the perception of different teaching styles according to seniority, school grade and academic training to design training courses for teachers adapted to children’s needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; technology acceptance; generative pre-trained transformer; curriculum design; academia
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:39:44 CEST)
Artificial intelligence (AI)-based models hold the potential to transform higher education if adopted properly and ethically. A prime example is ChatGPT with earlier studies indicating its widespread adoption in academia and by university students. The current study aimed to identify the factors influencing the attitude towards ChatGPT and its usage among university students in Arab countries. A previous survey instrument termed Technology Acceptance Model Edited to Assess ChatGPT Adoption (TAME-ChatGPT) was administered online using a convenience-based approach among the contacts of the authors. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the survey constructs was done using root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), standardized root mean square residual (SRMR), comparative fit index (CFI), and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI). The final study sample comprised a total of 2240 participant divided as follows: Iraq (n=736, 32.9%), Kuwait (n=582, 26.0%), Egypt (n=417, 18.6%), Lebanon (n=263, 11.7%), and Jordan (n=242, 10.8%). A total of 1048 respondents heard of ChatGPT before the study (46.8%), of which 551 used ChatGPT (52.6%). The mean scores of TAME-ChatGPT constructs showed that the ease of ChatGPT use, positive attitude towards technology and social influence, higher perceived usefulness, the influence of behavioral/cognitive factors, low perceived risks and low anxiety were the determinants of positive attitude to ChatGPT and its use. For both the attitude and usage scales of TAME-ChatGPT, CFA collectively yielded satisfactory fit indices as indicated by low RMSEA and SRMR together with high CFI and TLI. Multivariate analysis showed that attitude to ChatGPT use was significantly influenced by country of residence, age, university type, and the latest grade point average of the students. The current study confirmed the validity of TAME-ChatGPT as a survey instrument to assess the possible determinants of ChatGPT use among university students in Arab countries. The study findings highlighted that successful adoption of ChatGPT in higher education could be dependent on perceived ease of use, usefulness, positive attitudes to technology, social influence, behavioral/cognitive factors, lower anxiety, and minimal perceived risks. The utility of ChatGPT in higher education requires policies that should be tailored for various settings, considering the differences observed in attitude towards ChatGPT among participating students in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Financial inclusion; Financial access; Unbanked; Motivational Workshop; Village Defense Party; Randomized Controlled Trial.
Online: 22 September 2023 (06:39:12 CEST)
Despite the expansion of financial institutions and proliferation of mobile financial services, reaching the unbanked and bringing them under formal financial services has become a policy concern in many developing countries. Due to the lack of financial accounts, unbanked people prefer informal, risky, and inconvenient mechanisms for receiving, sending and transferring money. Previous studies rely much on common intervention like no account maintenance and opening fees, easy documentation processes and money subsidies for opening financial accounts. This study aims to examine the impact of the motivational workshop on opening savings accounts through causality among the unbanked people in a setting where the respondents are unbanked despite having all the requirements and many institutional offers for opening savings accounts. We encouraged the unbanked people through a one-hour-long motivational workshop to open saving account. Based on our cross-sectional data and randomized controlled trial experiment among 505 unbanked Village Defense Party (VDP) members at Dhubil Union under Sirajganj in Bangladesh, we have the evidence that motivational workshop positively impacts opening ac-counts by 32.33 percent. However, the account opening rate differs in terms of respondent’s pref-erence for financial institutions. Our study also finds that unbanked people have the highest pref-erence for mobile financial services for opening accounts resulting in 15.33 percent. The result of the study has some policy implications for adopting effective strategies of financial access in many developing countries.
Thu, 21 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1157.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: industrialization; intermediate cities; urbanization; railway station; railway corridor; regional integration
Online: 21 September 2023 (14:10:55 CEST)
This article examines evolution of trans-regional Ethio-Djibouti railway corridor and its impact on urbanization. Exploratory and descriptive research methods were employed to examine the impact of this railway corridor. Case study also applied to examine eight selected intermediate cities. The article points out that, the Ethio-Djibouti railway corridor conceived different kinds of linear urban centers ranging from small towns to intermediate cities around stations. Those urban centers have been attracting industries along their fringes that leads to rural urban continuum ribbon urbanization. As the old railway line deteriorated, these linear urban centers on the railway corridor had also been declining from time to time. In 2011 new project was started to construct the Ethi-Djibouti standard gauge railway parallel to the old railway line. This new standard gauge railway infrastructure adopts ‘peripheral station’ development approach, which provides a room for width expansion for station based urban centers. It also attracts industries in a form of special economic zones, which causes for labour migration from rural and nearby small urban centers that caused rural-urban continuum of ribbon settlement; strengthen trade gate way for the landlocked Ethiopia that caused trans-regional integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1453.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: carbon neutrality; climate policy; climate politics; fairness under the Kyoto Protocol; Keidanren; Japan
Online: 21 September 2023 (07:24:15 CEST)
This study contextualises the background of Japan’s “carbon neutrality and net-zero” (CNN) policy announced in October 2020, thereby identifying important changes in the country’s climate policy between 1990 and 2020. Using four research questions, four main findings were extracted from a narrative technique-based analysis of Japan’s policy documents related to CNN. The following are the findings: [i] the framing of climate change as a “climate crisis” by influential Japanese climate stakeholders was a key motivation for Japan to formally announce its CNN policy in October 2020, [ii] pressure from the international community and the political leadership of the Yoshihide Suga administration are essential factors that led the Japanese government to change its stance and announced this policy, [iii] Japan unintentionally delayed announcement of the policy until 2020 due to the concern among Japanese climate stakeholders about the problem of fairness in Kyoto Protocol’s emission reduction targets, and [iv] this delay was also due to Keidanren’s (or business sector) consistent opposition to the introduction of regulatory schemes. These results emerge for the first time in a study of Japan’s CNN politics, particularly in terms of the broader context of climate politics. Finally, we offer a possible explanation for Suga’s deliberate announcement of the CNN policy. This opens up space for future research to complement our study by providing important indicators on the trajectory of this important policy.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1446.v1
Online: 21 September 2023 (05:15:07 CEST)
This article aims to highlight the intricate interplay between psychological knowledge and local wisdom. Ethiopia is a diverse and multicultural country, with a rich diversity of languages, cultures, and traditions. Ethiopian local stories, proverbs, and poems have long served as vessels of wisdom, offering valuable life lessons and insights into human behavior. This article seeks to uncover the local wisdom through psychological lenses by demonstrating the psychological richness embedded within Ethiopian local stories, proverbs, and poems. Thus, valuable insights can be found by drawing connections between these traditional forms of wisdom and contemporary psychological theories. Moreover, researchers can foster a more inclusive and culturally sensitive approach to understanding and addressing psychological issues by bridging the gap between academic knowledge and local wisdom. This symbiotic relationship has the potential to expand the boundaries of psychological knowledge and encourage innovative ideas and principles, ultimately enriching both domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1427.v1
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:54:17 CEST)
The association between depressive symptomatology and cognitive decline has been examined using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), however, concerns have been raised about this self-report measure. Here, we examined how the CES-D total score from the 14- and 10-item versions compared to the 20-item version in predicting progression to cognitive decline from a cognitively unimpaired baseline. Data from 1,054 participants were analysed using ordinal logistic regression, alongside moderator and receiver-operating characteristics curve analyses. All baseline total scores significantly predicted progression to cognitive decline. The 14-item version was better than the 20-item version in predicting consensus diagnosis, as shown by their AICs, while also showing the highest accuracy when discriminating between participants by diagnosis at last visit. We did not find sex to moderate the relationship between CES-D score and cognitive decline. Current findings suggest the 10- and 14-item versions of the CES-D are comparable to the 20-item version, and that the 14-item version may be better at predicting longitudinal consensus diagnosis compared to the 20-item version.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1378.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD / CRPD); Social Work Practice; Mental Health Social Work Practice; Mental Health and Capacity Law reform; Human Rights; Supported Decision-Making; Social Model of Disability
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:20:41 CEST)
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (hereafter CRPD) has provided a radical imperative for the reform of mental health and capacity legislation around the world. The interpretation of the CRPD has been controversial, ranging from complete abolition of detention, forcible treatment and substitute decision making, to acceptance that elements of these measures need to be retained but based on non-discriminatory criteria, additional safe-guards and a comprehensive shift towards supported decision-making. While the potential ef-fects of the CRPD on mental health social work and social work generally are considerable given their shared commitment towards social justice, to date there has been no review of research evi-dence exploring their relationship. In addressing this knowledge gap, this study held a prelimi-nary discussion with practitioners and academics at the European Association of Social Work Mental Health Special Interest Group in Amsterdam 2022, followed by a scoping literature re-view on the question: What impact, if any, has the CRPD had on social work practice? The review produced four main findings: impact on legislation; positive impact on practice; limited impact on practice; and impact on social work education and research. In sum, while there were some positive indications of social work and mental health social work practice being influenced by the CRPD, these were scant. Barriers to change included tendencies among some social workers to practise substitute decision-making, in part related to resourcing and policy contexts, and under-standings of disability aligned to individualised/medical rather than social perspectives. The results indicate that legal reform on its own is insufficient to impact social work practice, and that realising the potential of the CRPD will necessitate good quality training, as well as improv-ing social workers’ knowledge of the human rights of people with mental impairment.
Wed, 20 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: virtual worlds; video games; players statistics; COVID-19 lockdown; digital-real crossovers; digital society
Online: 20 September 2023 (11:08:42 CEST)
The expansion of Open World Video Games (OWVGs) has seen the emergence of multiple new fictional worlds. This type of video game is characterized by total immersion in a world built for the players entertainment. What videogames developers want when players enter an OWVG is that they could feel like if they were open a door to an entirely new world and leave the real world behind. These virtual worlds manifest as a complement, an alternative, or the successor to the physical universe, and in some way continue the philosophical tradition of possible worlds begun by Leibniz. Accustomed to ‘surviving’ in hostile environments, millions of people continued to improve their skills in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic while locked in their homes. Once the pandemic seems to start to be left behind, the paper analyzes the virtual worlds created by the video games and the relations between the pandemic and these fictional worlds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: artificial Intelligence; medicine; advances; challenges; technology
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:43:19 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a disruptive technology in various areas, and medicine is no exception. In the last decade, there has been rapid progress in the application of AI in healthcare, from diagnosing and prognosticating diseases to improving operational efficiency in hospitals. This literature review explores the advances of artificial intelligence in the field of medicine, discusses its benefits, and discusses the ethical and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed to maximize its potential.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1316.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: chicken; value; chain; imports; employment
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:44:42 CEST)
The development of the chicken value chain in The Gambia has immense potentials to lead to the modernisation of agriculture and creating employment for young people and women. Chicken can be raised throughout the year in most parts of The Gambia. With increasing populations, environmental degradation and loss of rangelands, chicken is easier to producer than other livestock, such as cattle and small ruminants. The development of the chicken value chain in The Gambia is also mainly constrained at commercialisation. Commercial farmers in The Gambia are not able to compete with cheap import. Critical inputs such as day-old chicks and feed are imported. Most farms are operating below 40% capacity and only less than 4% utilisation of the available processing capacity. At full capacity and with some needed investments along the value chain, The Gambia has the capacity to meet the demand for chicken and eggs. 88% of the value chain actors believe that the imposition of tariffs on chicken imports will lead to the upward transformation of the chicken value chain being able to employ at least 10% of the Gambian population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: hippocampus; narrative; mental health; positive health outcomes
Online: 20 September 2023 (02:23:01 CEST)
Concerning the hippocampal mechanisms that simultaneously function to map environmental position and to generate episodic memories, a developing consensus emerged by the early 21st century. The hippocampus was recognized as embodying the primary location of personal narrative development, with the ability to create stable and coherent narrative largely representing the mental health of individuals. Determining recent advances regarding the relationship among the hippocampus, narrative, and mental health, a limited, six-database review was conducted for peer reviewed articles published since 2019. Of the 127 records located, 14 reports were included for study. The results support the necessity of creating and maintaining a stable and coherent narrative as fundamental to human mental health such that facts will be distorted in personal accounts, sleep will be disrupted, and DNA altered to retain one’s personal narratives. With narrative development fundamental to human mental health, a goal of interventions concerning hippocampal function and positive health outcomes is enhancing personal narratives in providing individuals with the ability to construct and recall those that are robust and effective. One such intervention that has proven successful in this regard, the Health Narratives Research Process, is outlined with its most recent results presented, offering opportunity for further such research.
Tue, 19 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Tourism gentrification; Traditional industrial areas; Relocation decision; Residents’ stress
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:40:56 CEST)
Tourism gentrification presents issues of privatization of public space, the transformation of public services to cater to tourists, the erosion of community social bonds, and the commodification of regional consumption, which has far-reaching impacts on the well-being of local residents and a desire to relocate. Thus, tourism gentrification in traditional industrial areas is defined as a process driven by the reconfiguration of spatial functions and the transformation of service provisions, resulting in displacement. This study employs Q methodology aims to understand the residents’ perceptions of tourism gentrification with a specific focus on the 798 Industrial Art Zone in Beijing, China. The results reveal four dimensions that form residents’ stress: neighboring environment, community attachment, economic interest, and cultural identity. Based on the stress threshold theory, this study further proposes a framework to explain the decision-making processes of residents in relation to their intent to relocate due to stress from interactions with migrants and visitors and changes in the place functions of industrial areas and communities. The findings offer valuable theoretical knowledge surrounding tourism gentrification from residents’ perspectives and suggest practical guidance for policymakers and destination managers in reducing residents’ stress and promoting sustainable development of industrial tourism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: insight problem-solving; Aha! Moment; pupillometry; Gestalt; perception; attention; creativity
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:09:14 CEST)
The Gestalt psychologists’ theory of insight problem-solving was based on a direct parallelism between perceptual experience and higher-order forms of cognition (e.g., problem-solving). Simi-larly to the sudden recognition of an ambiguous figure, they contended that problem-solving in-volves a restructuring of one's initial representation of the problem’s elements, leading to a sud-den leap of understanding phenomenologically indexed by the "Aha!" feeling. Over the last centu-ry, different scholars discussed the validity of the Gestalt psychologists’ perspective foremost us-ing the behavioral measures available at the time. However, in the last 2 decades, scientists gained a deeper understanding of insight problem-solving due to the advancements in cognitive neuroscience. This review aims to provide a retrospective reading of Gestalt theory based on the knowledge accrued by adopting novel paradigms and investigating their neurophysiological correlates. Among several key points that the Gestalt psychologists underscored, we focus specif-ically on the role of the visual system in marking a discrete switch of knowledge into awareness, as well as the perceptual experience and the holistic standpoints. While the main goal of this paper is to read the previous theory in light of new evidence, we also hope to initiate an academic dis-cussion and encourage further research about the points we raise.
Mon, 18 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Career adaptability; Resilience; Mental health service users; IPS model
Online: 18 September 2023 (02:50:50 CEST)
The employment rate of people who face severe mental health issues is extremely low, while the vast majority expresses their willingness to work. There are various obstacles that impede their work re-integration process. Apart from the illness’ symptoms and the employers’ stigma, these barriers are strongly associated with the effects of long-term unemployment and the lack of positive psychosocial resources, such as career adaptability and resilience. The present study aims at investigating career adaptability and resilience of mental health service users who receive career counseling services. The career counseling approach that was used combines elements from the IPS model and the career construction approach that has been developed to address the contemporary world of work challenges. We investigated how mental health service users view themselves in terms of career adaptability and resilience, and which factors contributed to their development or impeded them. We used a qualitative approach, which allows for an in-depth exploration of the participants’ views. Fifteen mental health users who receive career counseling services were interviewed. Results showed that mental health service users believe that they can overcome any difficulties and setbacks, when they have adequate support from their social network and when they receive career counseling services. They highlighted the importance of counseling services to maintain their work and cope with stressful events. Further implications of the results regarding vocational rehabilitation of mental health users as means for social inclusion are discussed.
Thu, 14 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0999.v1
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:56:43 CEST)
The debate surrounding the scientific interpretation of Yijing has been ongoing, yet thus far, a systematic, comprehensive, and objective explanation of its scientization remains elusive. The intricate nature of Yijing' scientific content makes it challenging to gain universal acceptance. The emergence of ChatGPT presents a new opportunity to delve into the scientific aspects of Yijing. Leveraging the support of ChatGPT, this paper explores the potential for scientization of Yijing and the possibility of establishing a new scientific research paradigm through in-depth dialogue with ChatGPT. It examines various aspects including the evolution of scientific paradigms, perspectives from detractors and opponents of Yijing, as well as existing challenges and approaches to its scientization. The ideas presented in this paper may offer enlightening insights for further exploration of Yijing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Disabled children; Learners; Inclusion; Rights; Parents; Schools; Community; Society
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:55:50 CEST)
Universal education is an elusive goal in many countries, especially for disabled children. Nonetheless determined efforts around the globe have shown that it can become a reality once existing systems were re-imagined by practitioners who arguably have been to the fore more so than academic researchers. Their efforts have identified new ways of thinking about children’s disabilities, the introduction of new practices in schools, forging partnerships between teachers and parents, and mobilising community resources. Societal change is both a consequence of, and a support to these local systems. The complexity of creating education for all may be daunting but it is achievable when driven by committed, creative and inspirational leadership from practitioners as is evident from the examples provided in this paper which have been further validated by research and evaluation into their efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: medium-sized cities; employment; production specialisation; COVID-19; Northern Italy.
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:40:51 CEST)
In a globalised economy, metropolises seem to have an ‘extra gear’ compared to other urban centres: they attract the most skilled businesses, drive innovation in many fields and can count on material and immaterial assets that foster greater resilience to adverse events of various kinds. Against this backdrop, what lies ahead for medium-sized cities (MSCs)? This paper focuses on the case of Northern Italy and explores employment trends between 2012 and 2020 in 189 MSCs with a population of between 20,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. Using a descriptive approach, we investigate the evolutionary trajectories of these cities and their varying specialisations, over a period marked by a moderate recovery of the Italian economy following the Great Recession and by a further setback caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In general, in terms of employment performance, the 189 cities in question were less dynamic than the metropolises, but it is nevertheless necessary to look at their individual circumstances in detail. Furthermore, the work shows significant differences between the MSCSs of the North-West and North-East in evolutionary trajectories and specialisation profiles. The most problematic situations also relate to cities with hub status in the wider context and are not focused only where there is a production structure linked to industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0971.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: processing speed; developmental trajectories; primary school education; cross-country longitudinal study; mixed effects growth modeling; latent class growth modeling
Online: 14 September 2023 (08:46:02 CEST)
This cross-country four-year longitudinal study investigated the development of processing speed throughout primary school education. The analyses were conducted on data collected from 441 schoolchildren in Grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 (aged 6.42 to 11.85 years) in the Kyrgyzstan and Russia. Mixed effects growth modeling was applied to estimate average and individual growth trajectories for processing speed at two cross-country samples. Latent class growth modeling was conducted to identify different types of growth trajectories for processing speed and to compare the distribution of the types within the analyzed samples. According to the results, processing speed significantly increases across primary school years. The trajectory is characterized by nonlinear changes with more intensive growth between Grades 1 and 2, which later slows down until Grade 4. There were no significant cross-country differences in the initial score of processing speed or developmental changes in processing speed across primary school years. The development of processing speed is described by a model with three quadratic growth types but minimally differs. It is concluded that in both samples, the development of processing speed may be characterized by homogeneity, with the most intensive growth from Grade 1 to Grade 2 and subsequent linear improvement until Grade 4.
Wed, 13 September 2023
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0887.v1
Online: 13 September 2023 (11:15:16 CEST)
This single case study aims to address a gap in literature regarding the establishment of microenterprises for people with physical disability in Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven people with physical disability including the Director of a non-government organisation supporting six entrepreneurs with physical disability who were engaged in teaching English to school aged children after school. Data was analysed utilising Lingelbach, De La Vina and Asel’s (2005) three characteristics that improve probability of entrepreneurial success in developing countries. This framework aided in examining the approach of establishing microenterprises by the non-government organisation. The entrepreneurs with physical disability reported earnings above average wages and feeling empowered by participating in the microenterprises. These feelings of empowerment were reportedly associated with greater independence, increased self-efficacy and a confidence in planning for their futures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0868.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: inequalities; digital media; communications; pedagogy; mental health
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:42:06 CEST)
This paper applies conceptualization from Paulo Freire, Tracey Nicholls, and bell hooks to develop a framework to understand art- and media-based communication of knowledge. Increasing use of art and digital media in research and formal educational settings emphasize knowledge-communication intent, and the theory attempts to rationalize why individuals potentially devalue, discard, or misconstrue messaging. Drawing upon two case studies: children’s literature, and existing scholarship on true crime as a media genre, the framework proposes art and media consumption based on perceived task-applicability of art and media. Stemming from the complex nature of socially-imposed, self-determined, and art- & media-instated tasks that an individual may face throughout their lifetime, an individual may be drawn to Freirean power and privilege - even fictional depictions - as societal structures can grant power and privilege with universal task-applicability. Potential usage of this framework towards participatory, qualitative inquiries conclude the paper, in attempt to support future art and media designed with knowledge-communication intent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0832.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: positive impact; needs satisfaction; prosocial motivation; benevolence; innovative work behavior; creativity
Online: 13 September 2023 (09:03:01 CEST)
In recent research, a growing body of empirical evidence, suggests that prosocial impact at work can play a significant role in enhancing creativity and innovativeness. Drawing from Self Determination Theory, we hypothesized that basic psychological needs and benevolence satisfaction could serve as a mediating factor in the relation between employees perceived social impact and innovative work behavior and creativity, thus illuminating the manner in which contentment of psychological needs fosters inventive proclivities within the organizational milieu. Results from a study in Greece and Canada (N=528) showed that both perceived social impact and prosocial motivation are positively associated with innovative work behavior and creativity while autonomy and competence satisfaction mediate the relation between perceived social impact and the work outcomes examined within this study. Moreover, prosocial motivation was found to moderate the relation between benevolence satisfaction and innovativeness. Findings extend prior research on the role of prosociality on creative behavior at work and provide supporting evidence for the organizations that encourage and support employees’ initiatives to make a positive difference in the lives of others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0807.v1
Online: 13 September 2023 (05:16:44 CEST)
Flood is one of the most common disaster in Assam.The situation gets worse when pandemic hits the place during the flood time. The paper indicates about women’s flood related lived experiences during pandemic. It is thought that floods will increase the global burden of disease, morbidity, mortality, social and economic disruptions, and will place a continuing stress on health services, especially in low-resource countries. Natural disaster hampers both the men and women. Pandemic means the disease whose prevalence has been all over the world. Covid 19 has been the recently developed pandemic that touches each and every corner of the world. But within such obstruction, both the male and female’s lived experiences of health might be different from each other. This paper articulates the gendering lived experiences of pandemic during the time of flood. However here an attempt has been made to understand women’s negotiation with their everyday life during such time and whether different social, political and cultural capital have been significant factors as far as the negotiation is concerned that has also been discussed through this study. However, on the descriptive note, narrative analysis has been done to understand the women’s negotiation in their everyday life.The study is conducted at different places of Nalbari and Golaghat Districts of Assam. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated into English and qualitative analysis was done . How disaster made adverse impact on women's everyday life that has been tried to understand through this paper. Keywords- Flood. Pandemic, Lived Experiences, Women, Everyday.
Tue, 12 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0744.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: subjects of publications; bibliometric analysis; text clustering; energy transition; social issues
Online: 12 September 2023 (10:54:09 CEST)
The article aims to explore social aspects in the area of energy research by using bibliometrics methods and tools. The study is based on the data of Energy Research & Social Science journal publications exported from ScienceDirect database during 2019-2023. Methodologically, the work included clustering of the bibliometric records under consideration. This allowed to identify the main topics of publications and those in which the research of social problems prevails. This stage of the work was carried out using carrot2, an engine for clustering search results. Next, the analysis of publication topics related to social issues research was carried out using VOSviewer — a software tool for visualizing scientific landscapes. The topics of the four clusters obtained at this stage were described by key terms with the maximum total link strength. For the principal ones, a definition was made on the basis of the texts of publications that most fully disclose the meaning of these terms. The 1537 publications in the journal during the period under review deal with many aspects of energy transition research, renewable energy, energy policy, energy justice and energy systems, but only 78 of them are dominated by social issues. The paper reveals the main social issues in the field of energy research: sociology of energy, socio-technical system, community energy, energy democracy, sociology of the future, energy sovereignty, socio-technical imaginary and shows the insufficient attention to this topic, especially to the investment of such research.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: heuristic model; system; complexity; method; intercultural communication studies; gregory bateson; anthropology; informational realism; Quebec
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:23:37 CEST)
This article focuses on methods for designing heuristic models within the paradigm of systems theory and in the disciplinary context of intercultural communication. The main question arises from the striking observation that the common language is insufficient to develop knowledge about human communication, especially when many factors of complexity (such as ambiguity, paradoxes, or uncertainty) are involved in the composition of an abstract research object. This epistemological, theoretical, and methodological problematic is one of the main challenges to the scientificity of anthropological theories and concepts on culture. Moreover, these questions lie at the heart of research in intercultural communication. Authors and theorists in the complexity sciences have already stressed the need, in such case, to think in terms of models or semiotic representations, since these tools of thought can mediate much more effectively than unformalized language between the heterogeneous set of perceptions arising from the field of experience, on the one hand, and the philosophical principles that organize speculative thought, on the other. This sets the scene for a reflection on the need to master the theory of heuristic models when it comes to developing scientific knowledge in the field of intercultural communication. In this essay, my first aim is to make explicit the conditions likely to ensure the heuristic value of a model, while my second aim is to clarify the operational function and required level of abstraction of certain terms such as concepts, categories, headings, models, systems, or theories that are among the most commonly used by academics in their descriptive accounts or explanatory hypotheses. To achieve this second objective, I propose to create cognitive meta-categories to identify the three (nominal, cardinal or ordinal) roles of words in the reference grids we use to classify our ideas, and to specify how to use these meta-categories in the construction of our heuristic models. Alongside the theoretical presentation, examples of application are provided, almost all of which are drawn from my own research into the increased cultural vigilance of the majority population in Quebec since the reasonable accommodation crisis in this French-speaking province of Canada. The typology I propose will perhaps help to avoid the confusions regularly committed by authors who attribute only cosmetic functions to words that nevertheless have a highly heuristic value, and who forget to consider the logical leaps of their theoretical thinking in the construction of heuristic models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0715.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: augmented reality; immersive virtual classroom; synchronous remote learning
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:05:46 CEST)
Previous research has explored different models of synchronous remote learning environments supported by videoconferencing and virtual reality platforms. However, few studies have evaluated the preference and acceptance of synchronous remote learning in a course streamed in an immersive or augmented reality platform. This case study uses ANOVA analysis to examine the engineering students´ preferences for receiving instruction during the COVID19 pandemic in three classroom types: face-to-face, conventional virtual (mediated by videoconferencing) and an immersive virtual classroom (IVC). Likewise, structural equation modeling, was used to analyze the acceptance of the IVC perceived by students, this includes four latent factors: ease of receiving a class, perceived usefulness, attitude towards IVC and IVC use. The findings showed that the IVC used in synchronous remote learning has a similar level of preference to the face-to-face classroom, and higher than the conventional virtual one. Despite the high preference for receiving remote instruction in IVC, aspects such as audio delays that affect interaction still need to be resolved. On the other hand, a key aspect for a good performance of these environments is the dynamics associated with the teaching-learning processes and the instructor´ qualities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0683.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: school; security; police officer; trust; perception; sustainable; development; serbia
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:35:52 CEST)
The study aims to determine the trust and presence of police officers in schools in Serbia, as well as the perception of the principals and secretaries, teachers and staff, parents and students on how successful the certain police units dedicated to schools were in fulfilling their tasks. The ex–post analysis was conducted through PEST/SWAT analysis, mapping of the key actors and using batteries of online questionnaires. Besides interviews with the MOI representatives, there were conducted: Survey with personal interviewing, Computer–aided surveying and Desk analysis and content analysis. The survey was conducted in the period from September 2021 to June 2022. The research methods were implemented in 1140 schools in Serbia and 8,617 people were included in surveys: police officers (308); principals and secretaries (1085); the team for protection against discrimination (982); teachers and staff (2988); parents (938) and students (2316). The relationships between the covariates and perception were investigated using the t–test, one–way ANOVA, multivariate linear regression, and binary regression. The results showed that a project of school police officers was not fully recognized as one of the strategically important instruments for safe schools, trust is low but presence is high. Besides that, the results suggest that the entire public believe that a police is needed in schools and that it has a very positive effect on school safety. Regarding school safety policy, it is necessary to undertake three types of measures for sustainable development of trust and presence of police in school: regulatory, informa-tive-educational and institutional-organizational.
Mon, 11 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0708.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Parent-child perceptual discrepancies in parental phubbing; parent-child relationship; smartphone dependence.
Online: 11 September 2023 (14:56:58 CEST)
Parental phubbing behavior is a significant factor in predicting adolescent smartphone dependence, but prior research has predominantly focused on a unidirectional perspective from the child's viewpoint, overlooking potential perceptual differences between parents and their children regarding parental phubbing. Therefore, are there differences in the perceptions of parental phubbing between parents and their children? Based on the "Discrepancy-Maladaptive" hypothesis, the presence of perceptual discrepancies in family factors can lead to adverse developmental outcomes in children. Does the parent-child perceptual discrepancy in parental phubbing influence adolescent smartphone dependence? And what role does parent-child relationship play in this context? This study selected 728 families from a middle school in Wuhan, and surveys were administered to both children and parents. The findings reveal: (1) There exist significant parent-child perceptual discrepancies in parental phubbing. (2) Parent-child perceptual discrepancies in parental phubbing significantly positively predict adolescent smartphone dependence and negatively predict parent-child relationships, while parent-child relationships significantly negatively predict adolescent smartphone dependence. (3) The parent-child relationship plays a mediating role between parent-child perceptual differences in parental phubbing behavior and adolescent smartphone dependence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Basic income, Poverty, Machine learning, Bayesian beliefs
Online: 11 September 2023 (13:49:28 CEST)
Appeals to governments for implementing basic income systems are contemporary. The theoretical background of the basic income notion, only prescribes transferring equal amounts to individuals irrespective of their socioeconomic attributes. However, the most recent basic income initiatives all around the world are attached to certain attributes of the households to become the eligible receivers. Iran is known as the first country in the world to provide a de facto based on the definition basic income to all its citizens irrespective of their socioeconomic attributes. Since the recent years and in the face of budget constraints, the Iranian government has been attempting to consider a set of rules with regard to the welfare attributes of the receiver households to become eligible. This approach is facing significant challenges with regard to appropriate classification of the relative vulnerable from the relative wealthier groups. Can integrating machine learning contribute to reliable recognition of households’ eligibility? In this paper, we analyze this question by utilizing the official welfare statistics of one and a half million Iranian citizens and a Bayesian network approach. Our analysis provides insight into whether machine learning will forward the future of the original basic income notion towards an intelligible direction.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Adult learners; Transformative learning; Personal story; Role positioning
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:02:37 CEST)
Transformative learning is an emerging and unique learning theory for adults. Foreign adult education scholars, represented by Mezirow, have produced significant research results in this field. However, research in this area in China is relatively lacking. This paper interprets the personal story of an English teacher through six stages and combines transformative learning theory to position the roles of adult learners in transformative learning. The author believes that adult learners today must take on six missions and play the roles of discerners, reflectors, communicators, integrators, aspirers, and resilient individuals in the transformative learning process.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0654.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: PPP Loans, Economic Disparity, Gender Disparity
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:39:16 CEST)
It is well known that the size of initial loans approved by private lending agencies (banks, credit unions etc.) corresponds with the median income of the location of the individual, it also corresponds with gender. We wanted to show if it was the case with the PPP. We use standard machine learning techniques such as Lasso and found statistically significant association between gender of business owner and size of initial loan approvals for the State of Arkansas, and Least Squares Regression and Decision Tree regression to find a somewhat tenuous relationship between median income and initial loan approval amount and finally a strong association with the size of business. This has important applications for the equity of access to credit for marginalized peoples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0491.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Pollutant Emissions; Highways; CO2; Developing Countries
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:46:15 CEST)
Air pollution is a global issue, and the transportation sector is recognized as the third-largest contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Vehicles emit a range of chemical compounds as a direct result of the combustion process. The nature and quantity of these emissions depend on the vehicle's characteristics, road, and local weather conditions. As a result, these emissions require special attention due to the adverse effects contributing to global warming and significantly impacting human health. In this regard, diagnosing and monitoring air quality is crucial for understanding the nature and quantity of emissions generated by various sources. However, in developing countries, the necessary inputs, and data for conducting such analyses are not always available. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate emissions specifically generated from road operations. To achieve this, HDM-4 calculation tool is utilized to quantitatively estimate these emissions. This tool was applied in Baja California, Mexico, on the Centinela-La Rumorosa highway. The results obtained show that annually, 372.5 tons of pollutant emissions are generated, composed of HC, CO, CO2, NOx, Par, SO2, and PB, covering a mere 128 kilometers of length within a state road network spanning 11,429 kilometers. This highlights the necessity of implementing strategies to reduce emissions or the environmental impact generated by vehicular operations on roads in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0604.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city ecosystem; urban economy; smart city; entrepreneurship; smart economy
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:08:09 CEST)
As digital technology has become an integral part of urban’s daily operations; the urban landscape is constantly evolving with the needs of its society. This new reality allowed Municipalities to exert a higher influence in the national and local economy. Through deliberate planning and executing initiatives, they can ignite the local financial ecosystem to growth. In line with this, the paper aims to understand the possibilities available to the Greek Municipalities to exploit the smart city benefits to foster economic development. It is essential to understand the role of different factors including the strategy during the planning and implementing phases of initiatives concerning economy and innovation in a smart city. To achieve this, a tailor-made questionnaire and advanced statistical techniques are applied. The main findings highlight the importance to plan initiatives aligned with the needs of the municipality and the business environment. The existence of a smart city strategy has a catalytic effect on the final impact of the implemented initiatives on the urban environment. A systematic analysis of the smart cities’ dynamics and the new state of the urban environment can help the local actors focus on the value creation and public service provision, fostering innovation and profitability.
Fri, 8 September 2023
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Education 6.0; Personalized learning; Adaptive pedagogy; Intelligent tutoring systems; Ethical considerations; chatbot
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:29:02 CEST)
This article aims to investigate the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in revolutionizing the education sector and further advancing the vision of Education 6.0. This study explores how AI can foster personalized learning experiences and adaptive pedagogy. By analyzing recent developments and real-world applications of AI in education, this article offers insights into how AI can support educators in tailoring instruction to individual students' needs, promoting engagement, and optimizing learning outcomes. The article also discusses ethical considerations and challenges associated with the integration of AI in education, emphasizing the importance of responsible implementation and human supervision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0585.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: babble noise; lexical tone; emotional prosody; masking
Online: 8 September 2023 (11:14:25 CEST)
How people recognize linguistic and emotional prosody in different listening conditions is essential for understanding the complex interplay between social context, cognition, and communication. The perception of both lexical tones and emotional prosody depends on prosodic features including pitch, intensity, duration, and voice quality. However, it is unclear which aspect of prosody is perceptually more salient and resistant to noise. This study aimed to investigate the relative perceptual robustness of emotional prosody and lexical tone recognition in quiet and in the presence of multi-talker babble noise. Forty young adults with normal hearing listened to monosyllables either with or without background babble noise and completed two identification tasks, one for emotion recognition and the other for lexical tone recognition. Compared with emotional prosody, lexical tones were more perceptually salient in multi-talker babble noise. Native Mandarin Chinese participants identified lexical tones more accurately and quickly than vocal emotions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Lexical tone perception is also more robust against babble speech noise degradation than emotional prosody perception for native Mandarin Chinese listeners. Acoustic and cognitive dissimilarities between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody may have led to the phenomenon, which calls for further explorations into the underlying psychobiological and neurophysiological mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: E-Loyalty; E-Marketing; E-Trust; culture; hotel industry; China
Online: 8 September 2023 (10:31:45 CEST)
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to further explore how e-loyalty and E-marketing influences E-trust and satisfy the demand by offering fresh perspectives based on research as well as emphasis on the factors influencing the E-trust such as culture as a mediator. This study not only contributed theoretically but also presented practical implementations. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey was used to obtain data by focusing the Hospitality sector (Hotel Industry) and verifying the conceptual framework. Data was collected in multiple time lags. Findings: Findings showed that the E-trust influenced by E-loyalty and E-Marketing. E-trust comes from the previous experiences, e-loyalty and e-marketing. Further, some trends such as culture influenced the e-trust. Research limitation/implications: The present study is quite suitable for those Researchers interested in learning more about the effects of E-loyalty and E-marketing on user E-trust and how to mitigate cultural influences can benefit from the current study. This research also has implications for those who wish to improve market allure and survival in digital world. This study focused on the hospitality sector (Hotel Industry) in China; however, the sector and geography could be altered to suit the needs of the study's participants. Practical implications: The present study delivers the practical guidelines which are quiet suitable for understanding the formation of E-loyalty, E-marketing, and E-trust through which specific E-marketing strategy can be designed to deal with the consumer’s E-loyalty and their expectations as per their Cultural perspective. At some particular regions/countries, cultural trends are more important than practical market. This research study practically showed that how culture changed the consumer set of mind. Originality/value: The relationship between E-loyalty, E-marketing, E-trust, specifically with the cultural influence in digital market has been the subject of few research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0590.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: Ageing; contemporary issues; demographic correlates; grandparent caregiver
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:56:23 CEST)
Background: In the 21st century, grandparenthood is a significant phenomenon in the fields of demography, gerontology and sociology. It is mainly explored in the context of ageing, as it is poised to become one of the most significant demographic phenomena and social issues in contemporary South Africa. Therefore, this study examined the determinants associated with grandparents who are parenting as caregivers and the health challenges they are exposed to as a caregiver. Methods: The National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS) Wave 5 dataset was utilized, and a total of 302 476 grandparents aged 25 years and older, who reported to be primary caregivers of double orphans, were included in the analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate binary logistics regression were performed to determine the predictors of the determinants of grandparents parenting as a caregiver and their health challenges in South Africa. Estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used, and the threshold for statistical significance was established at ρ< 0.05. Results: A majority of the male and female grandparent caregivers are aged 24-34 years, were black Africans (69.8%), had secondary education (46.9%), reported health challenges (HC) (59.7%), with 26.4% reporting headaches in the last 30 days. Logistic regression revealed that grandparent caregivers aged 55-64 years were 8.9 times more likely to report health challenges as compared to those aged 25-34 years. Non-black African grandparent caregivers were found to be 0.61 times less likely to be report health challenges, compared to Black African grandparent caregivers. Those with perceived poor health status were 3.3 times more likely to report health challenges, compared to those with excellent perceived health status. Conclusion: Therefore, there is an urgent need to redesign health interventions to address these health burdens among grandparent caregivers and to take cognizance of providing economic and social support for these vulnerable populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0557.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cyberethics; cybercivility; health professions education; scoping review; pedagogy; theoretical frameworks; digital professionalism; e-professionalism; cultural sensitivity; emerging technologies
Online: 8 September 2023 (08:58:51 CEST)
As digital technologies rapidly integrate into Health Professions Education (HPE), gaining a comprehensive understanding of cyberethics becomes crucial. This scoping review aimed to explore the pedagogy of cyberethics within HPE, with an emphasis on its definitions, conceptualizations, theoretical foundations, and interventions. Drawing from 37 documents spanning 2012-2022, primarily originating from the U.S. and encompassing both peer-reviewed and grey literature, the study highlighted a significant gap in the explicit definition and conceptualization of cyberethics. Additionally, the evident lack of specific theoretical frameworks in the majority of these documents could hamper the progression and replicability of research. Among the reviewed articles, only four introduced cyberethics educational interventions, indicating a substantial avenue for future research. While the study utilized comprehensive search methods, limitations such as language biases and the potential omission of pertinent documents were present. Future investigations should broaden the cyberethics discourse to encompass emerging technologies and their ethical implications within HPE. Crafting comprehensive, culturally sensitive, and inclusive guidelines is pivotal in nurturing ethical digital practices in the health care community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0547.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: stakeholder; perception; biometric data protection; face recognition technology
Online: 8 September 2023 (02:42:47 CEST)
This research aims to thoroughly understand the delicate interplay between stakeholders' perspectives, biometric data protection policies, and the deployment of face recognition technologies in Indonesia's dynamic digital world. Adopting a qualitative methodology, the study conducts Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with various stakeholders, including government agencies, technology developers, regulatory agencies, civil society groups, and data subjects as end-users. Face-to-face group discussions facilitate an in-depth exploration of participants' perspectives, yielding rich qualitative data that reveals nuanced insights into the delicate balance between technological innovation, ethical considerations, and socioeconomic repercussions associated with implementing face recognition technology. The research comprehensively explains the difficulties and opportunities associated with responsible technological progress and biometric data security. The findings from the FGDs influence the development of strategies that effectively balance technical advancement with individual rights, privacy, and social well-being within the growing digital landscape of Indonesia. The regulatory function of the government seeks to bridge the gap between public expectations and technological advancements. Collaboration between academic institutions, government agencies, the private sector, and data subjects as end-users emerges as a crucial element, fostering an all-encompassing strategy integrating research, law, technology deployment, and user empowerment. This holistic approach is necessary to ensure that biometric data and facial recognition technology are utilized responsibly, thereby laying the way for Indonesia's technologically sophisticated and ethically aware digital future.
Thu, 7 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0522.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban vitality; social media; subdistrict form; subdistrict function; spatio-temporal heterogeneity
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:28:56 CEST)
Urban vitality is an important reflection of a city's development potential and urban quality. This study uses exploratory spatio-temporal big data such as social media check-ins to portray the spatio-temporal evolution of urban vitality at the subdistrict scale in Changsha, a city in central China, from 2013-2021, and finds that urban vitality in Changsha exhibits central agglomeration and outward circling expansion over time; and then use Geodetector and spatial regression analyses are used to explain the interactive effects and spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the spa-tial elements of subdistrict form, subdistrict function and subdistrict economy on urban vi-tality. The results show the following: (1) The subdistrict form and subdistrict function dimen-sions have a significant effect on urban vitality, and the effect of the economic dimension of the subdistrict is not significant. (2) The interaction effect of the density of entertainment and leisure facilities and the density of business office facilities in subdistrict function is the dominant factor in the change of urban vitality. (3) Under the spatio-temporal effect, land use diversity and park facility density have the strongest positive effect on urban vitality; road density and shopping facility density have the weakest effect. The study aims to provide a reference for the optimization and allocation of spatial elements of subdistricts in sustainable urban development and urban renewal, to achieve the purpose of urban vitality creation and enhancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable cooperation; evolutionary game theory; school; enterprise; government
Online: 7 September 2023 (10:15:37 CEST)
Promoting close and sustainable cooperation between schools, enterprises, and government has become an important concern in many countries. Based on evolutionary game theory, this paper constructs a tripartite evolutionary game model of schools, enterprises, and government in order to analyze the stability of strategies of the different players. The results show that the main factor that influences the stability of the strategies of schools and enterprises is the reward of positive cooperation from sources other than the government, and the main factor that influences the stability of the strategy of the government is the benefit of positive cooperation strategy under the scenario where schools cooperate with enterprises. Therefore, the government should focus on implementing more effective policies, such as increasing the incentives and penalties, improving the mechanism for managing conflicts, ensuring the fairness of benefits distribution, and clarifying the responsibilities of different departments; schools should focus on providing more practical curricula and programs for students, training high-quality teachers, and perfecting talent cultivation to meet the needs of enterprises; and enterprises should focus on providing job experiences for students and transforming the results of schools’ teaching and theoretical research into practical productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: running; energy expenditure; running efficiency; upper-trunk; lower-trunk; movement; inertial measurement units; biomechanics; elite
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:31:02 CEST)
Running is a basic form of human locomotion and one of the most popular sports worldwide. While the leg biomechanics of running have been studied extensively, few studies have focused on the upper-body movement. However, an effective arm swing and longitudinal rotation of the shoulders play an important role in running efficiency as they must compensate for the longitudinal torques generated by the legs. The aim of this study is to assess the upper-body rotation using wearable inertial sensors and to elucidate its relation to energy expenditure. Eighty-six junior elite middle and long-distance runners (37 female, 49 male) performed an incremental treadmill test with sensors attached on both shoulders, tibiae and the sacrum. Mean and total horizontal shoulder and pelvis rotation per stride were derived while energy costs were determined using respiratory gas analysis and blood sampling. Results show that shoulder and pelvis rotation increase with running speed. While shoulder rotation is more pronounced in female than in male runners, there is no sex difference for pelvis rotation. Energy cost of running and upper trunk rotation prove to be slightly negatively correlated. In conclusion, upper body rotation appears to be an individual characteristic influenced by a sex-specific body mass distribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0516.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification; university students; higher education; gamer profile
Online: 7 September 2023 (08:19:50 CEST)
In recent years, the use of gamified systems in education has increased due to the growing empirical evidence of their usefulness in improving motivation and participation in learning processes. In order to take advantage of the opportunities for improvement in education presented by gamification, plus the decision to create gamified systems in higher education, this article investigates the willingness of student teachers to learn with gamified systems. The research method is quantitative with validated instruments to measure: 1) student perception of gamification; 2) player profile; and 3) screen time, with an n=569 student teachers from the fifteen regions of Chile. The results show that students prefer to learn with gamified systems than in a traditional way with a significant difference (Wilcoxon z= -18.86, p < 0.01). There are significant positive and negative relationships in correspondence with the Gamer Profile. However, as a finding, a negative relationship was found between the number of hours spent playing video games and the perception of learning through gamified systems. In conclusion, Chilean student teachers present a favorable disposition to teacher training with gamified systems. However, the disposition varies in relation to the number of hours spent playing video games.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0493.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: LAMN; cytoreductive surgery; HIPEC; pseudomyxoma peritonei
Online: 7 September 2023 (07:12:58 CEST)
Patients with low-grade appendiceal mucinous carcinomas (LAMN) treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have a favorable prognosis. A subgroup presents a clinically aggressive course with disease progress despite any treatment. The purpose of the study is to report the experience with clinically aggressive LAMN patients treated by the same team and review the literature. Four patients with clinically aggressive LAMN were reviewed. Clinical and histopathological characteristics were re-examined. Recurrences and the time of recurrence, as well as the survival time, were recorded. There were 4 men with clinically aggressive LAMN treated with CRS plus HIPEC. One of them underwent CC-0 surgery, two underwent CC-1, and one CC-3 surgery. All received systemic chemotherapy after surgery. Recurrence was recorded in 3 patients in 4-23 months after initial treatment. Two of them underwent secondary CRS. Three patients died of disease recurrence in 13-23 months, and one is alive with disease relapse 49 months after initial surgery. LAMN was identified in both initial specimens and in specimens of reoperation. The prognosis of LAMN patients treated with CRS plus HIPEC is favorable. A small number of them presents clinically aggressive course unresponsive to any treatment. Molecular and genetic studies are required to identify this group of LAMN patients who have an unfavorable prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0441.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: language brokering; mental health; anxiety; depression; psychological well-being; Latino children
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:34:28 CEST)
There are few studies of the psychological effects of language brokering (speaking on behalf of) among minors migrated to Europe, even though language brokering is becoming more current in many migrant families. As the psychological implications of language brokering remain controversial, further investigation is needed. Earlier studies have documented that language brokering is sometimes linked with emotional maladjustment and developmental drawbacks, but other studies have shown faster acquisition of social and Language skills. The present study assessed the relation of language brokering with psychological well-being in a sample of Latino migrant adolescents living in Italy; the dependent variables were depression, anxiety, and emotions. Statistically significant differences between boys and girls confirmed the sex-specificity of language brokering and the lack of statistically significant negative association between language brokering and psychological well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0395.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: autonomous shuttle; autonomous vehicle acceptance; intention to use; veterans
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:29:37 CEST)
Veterans face difficulties accessing vital health and community services, especially in rural areas. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) can revolutionize transportation by enhancing access, safety and efficiency. Yet, there is limited knowledge about how Veterans perceive AVs. This study fills this gap by assessing Veterans' AV perceptions before and after exposure to an autonomous shuttle (AS). Using a multi-method approach, 23 participants completed pre- and post-AS Autonomous Vehicle User Perception Survey (AVUPS), with 10 participants also taking part in post-AS focus groups. Following exposure to the AS, differences were observed for three out of the four AVUPS domains: an increase in Intention to Use (p < 0.01), a decrease in Perceived Barriers (p < 0.05), and an increase in Total Acceptance (p = 0.01); Well-being remained unchanged (p = 0.81). Feedback from focus groups uncovered six qualitative themes: Perceived Benefits (n=70), Safety (n=66), Shuttle Experience (n=47), AV Adoption (n=44), Experience with AVs (n=17), and Perception Change (n=10). This study underscores AVs' potential to alleviate transportation challenges faced by Veterans, contributing to more inclusive transportation solutions. The research offers insights for future policies and interventions aimed at integrating AV technology into the transportation system, particularly for mobility-vulnerable Veterans in rural and urban settings.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: climate change; mental health; policies; interventions; support; vulnerable communities
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:05:17 CEST)
The complex and interconnected challenges of climate change, water stress, disasters, and health crises have far-reaching implications for sustainable development and global sustainability agendas, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, one critical issue that has been overlooked is the nexus between climate change impacts and mental health (CCMH). Recognizing and addressing the negative emotions associated with this global phenomenon is essential to fostering a holistic approach to climate action planning and building long-term resilience. In this assessment, we present a set of narratives to argue that CCMH research requires a collaborative, transdisciplinary approach that integrates socio-economic and socio-cultural complexities. For this assessment, we used a case study approach to elucidate that the mental health impacts of climate change are unequally distributed, disproportionately affecting vulnerable groups based on age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status. The assessment presented in this study concluded that adequate mental health support programs are limited due to sociocultural stigmas and limited socioeconomic resources in some regions. Existing climate-related mental health services mechanisms lack coordination and specific action plans, leaving affected populations underserved. Unlike traditional understandings of the climate-health nexus, this research calls for experts from multiple fields to work together and for enhanced attention to and investment in CCMH research to bridge the gap between scientific knowledge and practical solutions. Such solutions will lead to scalable and lasting change as communities can implement research findings to support those in need and enhance disaster resilience. Furthermore, by collectively recognizing the climate and mental health nexus, global commitments such as the SDGs and the Paris Declaration can advance awareness and action in climate-related mental health, ultimately promoting a healthier relationship between humanity and nature.
Wed, 6 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0408.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: venezuelan migration; urban growth; colombia; remote sensing analysis; social network data
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:25:31 CEST)
This study investigates the intricate relationship between Venezuelan migration and urban growth in Colombia from 2018 to 2021. The study employs remote sensing data and social network metrics to uncover migration patterns and their impact on urban expansion. The methodology consists of three stages. Firstly, nighttime satellite imagery is used to analyze year-over-year urban growth in Colombia. Secondly, social network data estimates Venezuelan migration, overcoming challenges of underreporting and informal border crossings. Lastly, an econometric analysis explores the quantitative link between Venezuelan migration and urban growth, integrating socioeconomic variables to address endogeneity. The findings reveal the complex interplay of Venezuelan migration, socioeconomic factors, and urban growth. The study outlines remote sensing analysis, introducing the Anthropogenic Footprint Expansion Index (AFEI) to quantify urban growth. Facebook API data estimates migration trends and explores socioeconomic impacts on urban expansion. The analysis uncovers migration, poverty, aging, and urban population proportion as key factors affecting Colombia's urban landscape. Furthermore, the research underscores how Venezuelan migration affected short-term urban expansion pre- and post-COVID-19. Migration had a notable effect before the pandemic, but this influence waned afterward. The study highlights migration's short-term nature and emphasizes age demographics' role in medium-term dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0388.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Electoral systems; Strategic voting; Condorcet voting; Voting efficiency
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:54:31 CEST)
In the quest to develop a more effective and representative electoral system that offers a higher global satisfaction while also resisting strategic voting, this paper introduces the Bipartisan/Range method. This electoral system operates in two separate rounds: a first round where voters rank candidates, and if no Condorcet winner emerges, a second round where voters score candidates within a small head set known as the bipartisan set. The proposed method takes inspiration from randomized Condorcet voting system, probably the most strategy-resistant Condorcet methods, but eliminates the non-determinism while improving efficiency in the case of paradoxes. By introducing an unpredictable second round spaced in time and prohibiting predictive surveys, voters face difficulties in anticipating paradoxes, and insincere votes carry inherent risks. Furthermore, the Bipartisan set's limited size mitigates the range voting problem of exaggerated votes. Thus, the method has the potential to be both efficient in reflecting voters' preferences and resistant to strategic voting, exceeding expectations from Arrow's theorem. The method's versatility allows for extensions to multiple candidates, enhancing its applicability across various electoral contexts. Additionally, we have developed BipartiVox, an online platform specifically designed to conduct elections using the Bipartisan/Range method, making it accessible to a wider audience. In conclusion, the Bipartisan/Range method represents a substantial contribution to the field of voting systems, providing a practical, strategy-resistant, and efficient alternative that aligns closely with genuine voter preferences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: assessment model; sustainable city; crowdsourced data; design science; smart cities; general system theory
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:26:08 CEST)
Historically, the lack of comprehensive and real-time data is the main challenge in city sustainability assessments. However, with the increase in the availability of crowdsourced data over the last decade, a rich and real-time data source provides detailed images of urban systems. This has opened up new opportunities for practitioners, including geographers, social researchers, and data scientists, to gather and utilize social media data as a core source for studying cities and assessing their sustainability. This paper proposes an assessment model for the sustainability of cities based on crowdsourced data and the principles of General System Theory. The model aims to utilize crowdsourced data for the analysis and decision-making processes to enhance the sustainability and resilience of smart future cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0383.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: older community renovation; all-age retrofitting; anxiety; PLS-SEM; payment behavioral response mechanisms
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:25:15 CEST)
Intergenerational integration has given rise to a novel aging paradigm known as all-age communities, which is garnering international attention. In China, the aging population and the implementation of the three-child policy have resulted in increased demand for retirement and childcare services among residents in older neighborhoods. Consequently, there is a pressing need to retrofit these older neighborhoods to accommodate all-age living arrangements given the high demand they generate. Therefore, this study undertakes research interviews with residents and constructs an exploratory theoretical model rooted in established theory. To assess the significance of our model, we employ Smart PLS 3.0 based on 297 empirical data points. Our findings indicate that anxiety has a significant negative effect on payment behavior; objective perception, willingness to pay, and government assistance exert significant positive effects on payment behavior. By comprehensively analyzing the mechanisms underlying residents’ payment behavior, this study provides valuable insights to the government for promoting the aging process within communities and formulating effective transformation policies.
Tue, 5 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0294.v1
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:38:38 CEST)
Background: There is a significant role for mind in health and disease. Subjective well-being (SWB) is an important indicator of a person’s psychological status beyond the traditional anxiety and depression. Shell and core (S&C) model of SWB is new modular framework has placeholders for various forms of positive feeling that can be adopted as an assessment tool in clinical settings.Method: 416 subjects recruited using social media platforms to complete an anonymous online survey probing into their demographic information, financial status, several well-being attributes, and personality traits. The obtained information was analyzed and the factors that most closely correlated with the sense of overall SWB were included in the model.Results: Overall, 73% of the subjects indicated that they are happy and the overall sense of SWB did not depend on gender or household income. Only those psychological traits with significant correlation with SWB were used to construct the proposed S&C model. The model comprises three main components—the shell of happiness that represents experiential happiness, i.e., positive feelings as a result of one’s experiences with their environment. The core of happiness represents inner happiness. The interface layer, between the shell and core of happiness consists of a set of coping and defense mechanisms that protects the core of happiness denoted as a happiness suit of armor (HSOA).Conclusion: The S&C model is a comprehensive model of SWB that is used as a framework to capture various aspects of happiness under a unifying umbrella. It can thus be used as an assessment tools at both personal and population level. It could also be adopted to identify the personality traits and coping mechanisms that are important for the overall sense of well-being, which could then be targeted as a part of psychological interventions aimed at individuals with different medical conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable development; Energy management; Environmental protection; Economic management
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:11:19 CEST)
This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Tai-wan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs in Taiwan and Scotland, respectively, attracting numerous high-tech and startup enterprises. Various means facilitate the growth of industries and foster innovations in different industrial spheres. Important factors contributing to this growth include policy support, availability of research materials, and provision of infrastructure. This research paper compares the successful case studies of two industrial parks, along with their environmental and economic management strategies. It explores the management principles that ensure the sustainable development and economic growth of industrial parks, aiming to assist decision-makers and relevant stakeholders in evaluating the sustainable development planning of industrial parks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: resistance; physical resistance; crisis preparedness; anticipation ability; security measures; critical infrastructure resilience
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:43:19 CEST)
Technical sectors are an inseparable and elementary part of a critical infrastructure (CI) complex system. The services they provide are essential to the functioning of all the dependent sectors of CI on whose services society depends, especially in areas with high levels of urbanisation. The starting point for effective CI elements protection of is permanent assessing and strengthening their resilience to the negative effects of internal and external threats. Current perceptions of resilience focus primarily on repressive components responsive to incident (i.e., robustness, recoverability, and adaptability), while little attention is paid to preventative components. Therefore, the benefit of the article is to define resistance which could be seen as the CI element ability or characteristic to prevent the occurrence of incidents. Based on that, the article defines 1) the individual factors (variables and parameters) determining the CI resistance and 2) the methodological procedure for infrastructure elements resistance assessment in order to identify weak points and subsequently strengthen them. The essence of the article is defining the starting points for extending the CIERA method by a component strengthening the critical infrastructure resilience in the prevention phase. A practical example of resistance assessment for a selected critical energy infrastructure element is presented at the end of the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0159.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: eye-tracking; reading modality; audio-assisted reading; text type; reading comprehension; school-age children
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:26:49 CEST)
This study examined the eye movement patterns of 317 elementary students across reading conditions (audio-assisted reading (AR) and reading-only (R)) and text types (fiction and non-fiction), and identified eye movement parameters that predict their literal comprehension (LC) and inferential comprehension (IC). Participants, randomly assigned to either reading condition and either text type, answered questions assessing their LC and IC. Average fixation duration (AFD), total fixation duration (TFD), and scanpath length were used as eye movement parameters. There were main effects of age on all parameters and interaction effects between age and reading condition on TFD and scanpath length. Controlling for age, TFD had a positive impact on LC of both text types in the AR, while under the R, it affected negatively on IC of both text types. Longer scanpaths predicted IC of fiction in the AR, LC and IC of non-fiction under the AR, and LC of non-fiction within the R. AFD influenced negatively on IC of fiction in the AR, LC and IC of non-fiction in the AR, and LC of non-fiction under the R. These eye movement patterns and predictors indicate children employ different reading strategies based on reading modality and text type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0157.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Biodiversity; Representations; school program; primary school; secondary school; Education for sustainable development.
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:19:03 CEST)
The preservation of biodiversity has become a major concern in contemporary society. It is essential to understand teachers' representations of biodiversity to effectively guide educational efforts because of the significant role of education in raising awareness and promoting sustainable behavior. Through a survey of a sample of 118 teachers, we adopted a mixed-method approach combining both a closed questionnaire and interviews. We used these methods to explore teachers' representations of the concept of biodiversity as an integral part of the school curriculum, as well as to gather their views on certain features of its teaching. The results state that the majority of teachers perceive biodiversity as a whole and in its most complex relationships. During their professional experience, they have developed a biocentric and anthropocentric conception of biodiversity. This study provides valuable information to guide future pedagogical practices and educational policies in sustainable education.
Mon, 4 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: instagram; social networking sites (SNS); social comparison orientation; well-being
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:29:23 CEST)
Social networks are experiencing great popularity, with Instagram currently being the most intensively used network. On these platforms, users are continuously exposed to self-relevant information that fosters social comparisons. A distinction is made between ability-based and opinion-based comparison dimensions. To experimentally investigate the influence of these comparison dimensions on users' subjective well-being, an online exposition experiment (N = 409) was conducted. In a preliminary study (N = 107), adequate exposition stimulus material was selected in advance. The results of the main study indicated that exposition of ability-related social comparisons in the context of social media elicited lower well-being than exposition of opinion-related social comparisons. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for future work were outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0076.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Young carers; Informal carers; Life satisfaction; Social support; Family functioning; Academic functioning; Caring activities
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:05:23 CEST)
Caring for an ill or disabled relative can present significant challenges that may exceed the per-sonal resources of the caregiver. Young carers (YCs) often take on this role, providing support to family members or friends, which can have far-reaching effects on various aspects of their lives. This study involved 235 adolescents, 106 YCs and 129 non-carers (NCs), who completed ques-tionnaires assessing life satisfaction, social support, family functioning, academic functioning, and caring activities. Group effects measured with MANOVA and MANCOVA (controlling for age effects), showed YCs to have higher amounts of caregiving activities than NC (as expected) but lower satisfaction with life. Hierarchical regressions also found that, for YCs, academic func-tioning, social support and the negative impact of caregiving predicted satisfaction with life; and that the negative impact of caregiving on YCs is explained by their family functioning and the amount of their caregiving activities. For NCs, only academic functioning, social support and family functioning predicted satisfaction with life. In conclusion, caregiving has a negative im-pact on YC’s life satisfaction, but this effect is determined by their social support, academic func-tioning and negative impact of caring, which in turn depends on their familiar functioning and amount of caring activities.
Fri, 1 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: heritage sites; cultural resources management; overtourism; tourism carrying capacity; sustainability; Alhambra.
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:57:38 CEST)
For a number of years heritage resources have suffered the negative effects of tourist pressure. Overtourism has been generating a wide-ranging debate on this issue. This work focuses on the strategies and measures adopted to address overtourism during the last 30 years in heritage attractions, which are much less studied than urban heritage centres. Specifically, it analyses measures relating to the management of site capacities, based on the concept of tourist carrying capacity, using the content analysis as a methodology. We have used the Alhambra in Granada as a case study, as one of the most visited Spanish World Heritage Sites. The results obtained reflect a strong consensus on the need to introduce measures to restrict tourist activity, although these measures imply a great effort in terms of management and tend to be taken advantage of by some stakeholders for their own benefit. The extensive time frame of the measures adopted allows us to reflect on the possibilities and limitations of dealing with overtourism by using capacity management strategies, and to extract useful conclusions for other heritage sites with similar problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2200.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: ADHD; hyperactivity; impulsivity; treatment; narrative review
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:55:20 CEST)
Treatment of the ADHD types (hyperactive-impulsive, inattentive, and combined) in children has rarely been studied separately, although their prognostic courses differ widely. In addition, data show that improvements in hyperactivity/impulsivity are hard to achieve. Thus, we focused on treatments tailored for hyperactivity/impulsivity. We examined meta-analyses and systematic reviews within the inter- and intra-individual treatments and found that psychoeducation and training for parents, school-based interventions, reinforcement strategies, and neurofeedback consistently showed small to moderate effect sizes in reducing hyperactivity/impulsivity in children. Conversely, emotional self-regulation, social skills, and cognitive trainings showed unsatisfactory results. In summary, we found that the quality of usual care can be surpassed when the designated interventions are purposefully combined into a multimodal treatment program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mindfulness; mindfulness awareness attention scale; construct validity; concurrent validity; reliability
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:08:45 CEST)
Mindfulness interventions have been implemented in many countries. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of English and Thai-version of the 15-item mindfulness attention awareness scale (MAAS) across five samples. A descriptive correlation research was conducted in the Philippines and Thailand, and five data sets were generated using self-reported and online questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the factorial structure of the MAAS. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test measurement invariance across samples. Concurrent validity was tested by examining relationships between the MAAS and psychological well-being (PWB). A unidimensional structure of the MAAS was documented across the five samples. The MAAS demonstrated measurement invariance across samples for both English and Thai versions. Concurrent validity was displayed through significant correlations with PWB. This study produced evidence to support the construct validity, concurrent validity, and reliability of the English and Thai versions of MAAS. This study was not registered.
Thu, 31 August 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban green spaces; human activities; Convolutional Neural Networks; computation vision; urban parks
Online: 31 August 2023 (13:18:41 CEST)
Understanding park events and their categorization offer pivotal insights into urban parks and their integral roles in cities. This study utilized images and event category data from the New York City Parks Events Listing database to train a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for image-based park event categorization. Different CNN models were tuned to complete this multi-label classification task, their performances compared. Preliminary results underscore the efficacy of deep learning in automating the event classification process, revealing the multifaceted activities within urban green spaces. The CNN showcased proficiency in discerning various event nuances, emphasizing the diverse recreational and cultural offerings of urban parks. Such categorization has potential applications in urban planning, aiding decision-making processes related to resource distribution, event coordination, and infrastructure enhancements tailored to specific park activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: traumatic brain injury; social cognition; emotion recognition; eye tracking; fixation; visual processing; dynamic stimuli
Online: 31 August 2023 (13:16:58 CEST)
Emotion recognition and social inference impairments are well-documented post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) yet the mechanisms underpinning these are not fully understood. We examined dynamic emotion recognition, social inference abilities, and eye fixation patterns between adults with and without TBI. Eighteen individuals with TBI and 18 matched non-TBI participants were recruited and underwent all three components of The Assessment of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The TBI group were less accurate in identifying emotions compared to the non-TBI group. Individuals with TBI also scored lower when distinguishing sincere and sarcastic conversations but scored similarly to those without TBI during lie vignettes. Finally, those with TBI also had difficulty understanding the actor’s intentions, feelings, and beliefs compared to participants without TBI. No group differences were found for eye fixation patterns and there were no associations between fixations and behavioural accuracy scores. This conflicts with previous studies and might be related to an important distinction between static and dynamic stimuli. Visual strategies appeared goal- and stimulus-driven, with attention being distributed to the most diagnostic area of the face for each emotion. These findings suggest that low-level visual deficits may not be modulating emotion recognition and social inference disturbances post-TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mentorship; mentoring culture; minority higher education leadership; leadership; higher education; minority faculty; diversity; inclusivity
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:11:59 CEST)
Recent years have seen organizations increasingly shift towards the development of a mentoring culture, as opposed to the imposition of formalized mentoring programs. This original research paper set out to explore the utility of fostering mentoring cultures within higher education settings with a particular emphasis placed on the ways in which a mentoring culture may support the nurturing of leadership potential and serve underrepresented minority faculty and staff members. Primary data was gathered using an open-ended qualitative survey, which was followed up by semi-structured interviews. One hundred faculty members in diverse academic and administrative leadership roles across the United States were sent online surveys, with 18 individuals expressing interest in participating in a semi-structured interview. Those who responded affirmatively were then contacted via telephone to follow up with further questions. Analysis of their insights, in conjunction with analysis of other literature, suggests that the cultivation of a mentoring culture offers diverse benefits for mentees advancing into leadership positions; for mentors; and for the institution as a whole. Overall, the development of a mentoring culture characterized by informal, spontaneous exchanges, and tailored to the needs of underrepresented minority faculty members, appears to be a useful tool in enhancing leadership potential in higher education contexts.
Wed, 30 August 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: Grand Canal water transport; transportation mode; collaborative development
Online: 30 August 2023 (11:29:02 CEST)
With the realization of the Grand Canal's full water supply and the strong pursuit of green and low-carbon transportation in contemporary society, the value of the Grand Canal's water transport has been further affirmed, and its coordinated development with other transportation modes has become inevitable and important. This paper analyzes and combs through the characteristics, development status and existing problems of Grand Canal water transport and other transport modes in depth, and takes Jiangsu as an example. A collaboration model of Grand Canal water transport and other transport modes was built and their collaboration degree has been calculated. It is believed that the coordinated development of Grand Canal water transport and other transport modes can be greatly promoted via four aspects: optimizing the construction and governance of Grand Canal water transport, building an integrated management platform of transport modes, improving the integrated transport network structure, and promoting the deep integration of integrated shipping and tourism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2050.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Dark Triad; deception; cognitive ability; pseudo-information; bullshit sensitivity
Online: 30 August 2023 (11:21:29 CEST)
Persons high in the manipulative, misanthropic trait Machiavellianism have been shown to make use of various forms of deception to attain their goals. A recent study has furthermore shown that different facets of Machiavellianism account for the production and detection of deception. Intelligence is another substantial predictor of successful deception production and detection. This research examined the interactions between different facets of Machiavellianism and verbal reasoning to predict both the production and detection of empty and vague, but effective pseudo-information that is supposed to help achieve desired states or prevent undesired ones (co-called bullshit). In a sample of 525 participants, and consistent with the hypotheses, individuals with high scores in the goal-oriented (harm-avoiding) facet of Machiavellianism produced bullshit more frequently to achieve certain goals (to circumvent any disadvantageous situations) if they also possessed high scores in verbal reasoning. In addition, verbal reasoning helped individuals high in the distrustful facet of Machiavellianism discriminate bullshit from non-bullshit. Thus, Machiavellianism combined with verbal skills helps produce and recognize deception.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1826.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: policy; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education; South Africa; educational policy; policy analysis; youth empowerment
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:25:14 CEST)
Entrepreneurship education in South Africa holds significant promise in empowering the youth and fostering economic growth. This article explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on youth empowerment, focusing on case studies of successful young entrepreneurs, evaluation of entrepreneurial skills development, and analysis of employment and economic outcomes. While effective models of entrepreneurship education emphasize experiential learning and collaboration with local businesses, resource constraints and infrastructure gaps pose challenges. Moreover, socio-cultural perceptions and gender disparities influence youth's willingness to engage in entrepreneurship, hindering inclusivity. Evaluating the long-term impact remains challenging, requiring robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. The article concludes with recommendations to enhance the impact of entrepreneurship education, including increasing funding, challenging stereotypes, fostering collaboration, and developing evaluation mechanisms to support South Africa's youth in realizing their entrepreneurial potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2019.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Modeling of Spatial Data; Accuracy Value; Slum Areas Distribution
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:13:56 CEST)
This study focused on analyzing the distribution of slum areas in Palembang City, Indonesia, which is a consequence of urbanization in the urban areas through the Modeling of Spatial Data on Accuracy Value. To achieve this objective, the study employed a quantitative methodology with GPS data collection techniques to gather data on families living in slum areas. The data collected were analyzed using inverse distance weighted, kernel density, and spatial data modelling techniques. The results showed that slum areas near riverbanks have a higher population density, whereas those near riverbanks have a lower population density. The spatial data modelling analysis demonstrated that the distribution of slum areas was widely spread along the Musi River, with an accuracy value of 96.8%, which falls within the range of >0.9-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: minimum housing standard; housing rights; Korea housing survey; semi underground house
Online: 30 August 2023 (08:36:50 CEST)
Minimum housing standards aim to safeguard housing rights and enhance residential conditions. Governments develop housing policies, including provision, preservation, and support for welfare programs, guided by the status of households below these standards. Growing nations commonly utilize this approach to decrease the proportion of households not meeting these criteria. In South Korea, the ratio of households below these standards was 4.5% in 2021, down from 16.6% in 2006, as indicated by the initial Korea Housing Survey. However, this downward trend has stalled over the past decade. With the 2004 and 2011 revisions, the standards have been effective for 12 years, yet no longer mirror current housing realities due to ongoing improvements. This study aimed to propose enhancements to Korea’s minimum housing standards. Through analyzing laws, prior research, present household statuses, international cases, and expert insights, recommendations emerged. Categorizing households by size, we developed precise standards covering area, facility, and location aspects. These new standards led to an 8.4% non-compliance rate in 2021. This research’s findings anticipate aiding the revision of minimum housing standards, formulating pragmatic policies for enhancing residential conditions in line with present situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2041.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: school effectiveness (research); SER; school performance/outcomes; systematic literature review
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:07:40 CEST)
This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the literature on school effectiveness, with a focus on identifying the main factors that contribute to successful educational outcomes. The research question that this paper aims to address is: What are the main factors of school effectiveness? The research was interested in several descriptors such as school, effectiveness/efficiency theories, effectiveness/efficiency research, and factors. Studies were reviewed through two databases: JSTOR and ERIC (published within the 2016-2022 period). The paper defines several categories that are exposed within school effectiveness research. Within these categories, various factors that affect the students’ outcomes and the defined effectiveness at school are listed. As the results show, the issue of school effectiveness is a multifaced challenge as the effectiveness of schools is a complex concept that can be measured through various indicators such as academic achievement, student engagement and teacher satisfaction. The review of school effectiveness has revealed that several factors contribute to effective schools, such as strong leadership, effective teaching practices, a positive school culture and parental involvement. Additionally, school resources, such as funding and facilities, can impact school effectiveness, particularly in under-resourced communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1992.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: university business collaboration; critical thinking; curriculum co-design, development and delivery; employability; research project; labour market; higher education; soft skills
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
University-Business partnership for collaborative curriculum design, development and delivery is possibly the less explored dimension of University Business Collaboration (UBC). Even if some models for curricular design and development might be available, scarce information exists on how the partnership is constructed, the new curricula are designed, developed and how they are implemented. This article intends to present and discuss the experience obtained during a three-year European funded Project, namely Think4Jobs. This project exemplifies the significance and benefits of UBC in the design, development and delivery of curricula that meet the evolving demands of the labour market while promoting Critical Thinking (CT) as a foundational 21st century skill to contribute to graduates' employability. Think4Jobs project brought together a multidisciplinary team of researchers and business organisations from five European countries (Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Portugal and Romania) with interests in promoting and developing CT and mitigating eventual competence gaps. The project's success was attributed to key practices, including defining a common conceptualization of CT, employing participatory co-design, and providing common training for university and business partners. Clear objectives, explicit roles, effective communication, and ongoing evaluation further enhanced the collaboration. Experiential learning, real-work problems, and case studies reinforced the curricula, bridging the gap between academia and the labour market. By embracing these insights, future UBC initiatives can empower graduates with the necessary skills to stand out in an ever-changing labour market, contributing to enhanced education and successful careers.
Tue, 29 August 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1953.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; student engagement; self-regulated learning; self-efficacy
Online: 29 August 2023 (11:15:22 CEST)
Online education allows learners to develop knowledge and skills flexibly and conveniently—such observation among students whose characteristics involve student engagement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy. However, studies to characterize Filipino online learners seem lacking. Thus, this study aimed to characterize science education tertiary students in the Philippines concerning their online student engagement (OSE), self-regulated learning (SRL), and online learning self-efficacy (OLSE). The unprecedented events brought by COVID-19 pandemic also urged the implementation of online modalities while there is no available information on students’ online learning profiles. Hence, researchers used a survey research employed through ex post facto approach to determine the effects of the demographic profile on OSE, SRL, and OLSE. The survey was participated by N=373 respondents who answered the questionnaire with informed consent administered via Google Forms. Results revealed that OSE indicators moderately characterized students, while SRL and OLSE indicators are true of them, substantiated by the overall mean M=3.85(SD=0.90), M=3.86(SD=0.92), and M=3.14(SD=0.73), respectively. Also, multivariate tests showed no significant effect among the independent groups (p>0.05), except for gender and OLSE interaction (p<0.05) so, only in OLSE was a significant difference found in gender. In conclusion, Filipino online learners are moderate across aspects of student engagement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1935.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainable development goal 11, sustainable cities, urban sustainability, good practices.
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:46:38 CEST)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent a central framework to guide sustainable urban development (2030 Agenda). However, it is not clear how and where SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities) is being implemented, and how such implementation might be improved. We investigated this subject by analyzing United Nations (UN) SDG Good Practices data from 2018 to 2021. We applied five criteria to the 336 SDG 11 responses: (1) geography; (2) actors; (3) progress toward targets; (4) areas of implementation; and (5) scale of action. Overall, 86 of the 193 countries that adopted the 2030 Agenda submitted at least one SDG 11 good practice. 33 countries contributed 73.8% of the total, and most developing countries did not make submissions. A very small number of responses (between 2.6 and 9.1%) addressed equity-related targets. Good practices from developed countries were usually more technology-based and system-forming; developing countries typically focused on issues of day-to-day concern. Overall, this analysis points to the need for better and more systematic reporting on SDG 11 implementation, a more active public sector role in SDG implementation and reporting, more focus on dimensions related to social equity, and better formulation of urban sustainability targets and indicators in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1886.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: cultural identity; tourism development; tourism; attributes; potential; multi-attribute model
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:18:11 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to present a multi-criteria model designed to evaluate the potential of Sincelejo's cultural identity for tourism development. A descriptive quantitative methodology was used, which included a survey of 211 participants. A decision support method was applied, using the Weighted Additive Sum approach, following the multi-attribute method. Based on the information gathered, the elements of cultural identity shared by most of the criteria were identi-fied, highlighting the gastronomic, social, and cultural traditions and customs of the region, the results of which made it possible to design a composite indicator to evaluate the tourism potential of cultural identity in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1876.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; anxiety; depression; stress; symptom self-management intervention; virtual reality device
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:42:07 CEST)
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to test the efficacy of a newly-developed symptom self-management program on health outcomes among inpatients post-AMI. A pilot randomised, controlled trial was utilised. A convenience sample of 90 was recruited from a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Adult inpatients with post-AMI were randomly assigned to the three groups: IManage-HSet, IManage-FF or control group. Sample size was computed using power analysis. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires and physiological instruments. Data analyses included univariate statistics, analysis of variance and repeated measure analysis of variance. Ninety participants were recruited with 30 in each group. Participants in the IManage-HSet and IManage-FF group had significantly greater relaxation (ηp2 = 0.11), lower objective stress (ηp2 =0.14), and greater knowledge (ηp2 = 0.62) than those of the control group. The two intervention groups had lower subjective stress (ηp2 = 0.04), depression (ηp2 = 0.01), and anxiety (ηp2 = 0.03) than the control but such differences did not achieve statistical significance. Furthermore, most participants reported that they were satisfied with the programs and they provided positive comments on the contents, educational materials and relaxation practice. This pilot study supports the potential benefits and feasibility of the IManage-VR and IManage-FF interventions on stress, perceived relaxation, knowledge and patient satisfaction. Contents of the symptom management interventions could be added into current cardiac rehabilitation programs. Future RCTs with multi-centered sites and larger sample size are required to further test the intervention. This study was prospectively registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial on the 5th August 2014 with registration number ISRCTN61027816.