Paper, Wood and Textiles
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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2090.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: flax fibre; tensile testing; crack propagation; fractography; high-speed optical imaging; microstructure; in-situ tensile testing
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:50:22 CEST)
This study aims at better understanding the damage and fracture kinetics in flax fibres elements at both the unitary and bundle scales using an experimental setup allowing optical observation at high recording rate in the course of tensile loading. Defects issues from flax unitary fibre extraction are quantitated using polarized light microscopy. Tensile loading is conducted according to a particular setup adapted to fibres of 10 to 20 µm in diameter and 10 mm in length. Optical recording using high speed camera is performed during loading up to the failure at acquisition speed ranging from 108,000 to 270,000 frames per second. Crack initiation in polymer layers of fibre elements, propagation as well as damage mechanisms are captured. The results show different failure scenarios depending on the fibre element nature. In particular, fractured fibres underline either a fully transverse failure propagation or a combination of transverse and longitudinal cracking with different balances. Image recordings with high time resolution down to 3.7 μs suggest unstable system and transverse crack speed higher than 4 m/s and a slower propagation for longitudinal crack deviation.
Thu, 25 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1806.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: phenol-formaldehyde resin; soybean meal; soy-based adhesives; curing; plywood
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:55:13 CEST)
To develop a lower-cost, excellent performance, and environmentally friendly phe-nol-formaldehyde (PF) resin, soybean meal was used to modify PF resin, and soybean meal-phenol-formaldehyde (SMPF) resins were prepared. Their physicochemical properties and curing performance were investigated, showing that SMPF resins have higher curing tempera-tures than PF resin. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that the cross-linking reaction occurred between the amino groups of soybean protein and the hy-droxymethyl phenol. Moreover, with the addition of soybean meal, the viscosity of SMPF in-creased while the gel time decreased. It is worth mentioning that SMPF-2 resin has favorable viscosity, short gel time, low curing temperature (135.78 °C), and high water resistance and bonding strength (1.01 MPa). Finally, all the plywoods bonded with SMPF resins have good water resistance and bonding strength, which could meet the Standard (GB/T 17657-2013, type I) for plywood. The optimized SMPF resins showed the potential application to replace part of PF resin in the wood industry.
Tue, 23 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1640.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: forensic sciences; crime scene; trace evidence; spectroscopy; polyethylene.
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:31:46 CEST)
Forensic assessments may involve the sampling of textile fibers when examining crime scenes. The need to characterize and identify those fibers is crucial as they can provide extensive information relating to a crime, linking a suspect to a location. Fibers in particular may contain issues in terms of both size and quantity of sample, and micro Fourier transform Infrared in attenuated total reflectance mode (micro FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy presents a non-destructive method to identify those fibers. In this study we carried out a rapid forensic assessment via micro FTIR-ATR of sixty textile fibers recovered from twenty white fabrics relying on tape lifting method, in order to discriminate those materials. Two dimensional principal component analysis and radar chart were applied to enhance the visual comparison of the fibers. Results of infrared spectra revealed that the technique allows the discrimination of textile fibers according to their spectral composition (cellulose, polyamide, polyester, or mixture of these composites) and to some characteristics, as number and width of peaks, peak position according to the wavenumber, absorbance index related to peak sharpness, etc. The technique was deemed useful in the forensic assessment of the fibers, presenting rapid and enlightening results.
Thu, 18 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1313.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: laser induced graphene; flexible pressure sensor; micro-structures; capacitance sensors; laser engraving
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:35:48 CEST)
In recent years, laser engraving has received widespread attention as a convenient, efficient, and programmable method, which has enabled the obtaining of high-quality porous graphene from various precursors. Laser engraving is often used to fabricate the dielectric layer with micro-structure for capacitive pressure sensors, however, the usual choice of electrodes remains poorly flexible metal electrodes, which greatly limits the overall flexibility of the sensors. In this work, we propose a flexible capacitive pressure sensor made entirely of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and laser-induced graphene (LIG) derived from wood. The capacitive pressure sensor consisted of a flexible LIG/TPU electrode (LTE), a LIG/TPU electrode with micro hole array, and dielectric layer of TPU with micro-cone array molded from laser-engraved hole array on wood, which provided high sensitivity (0.11 kPa-1), ultra-wide pressure detection range (100Pa to 1.4MPa), fast response (~300 ms) and good stability (>4000 cycles, at 0-35 kPa). We believe that our research makes a significant contribution to the literature because the easily available materials derived from wood and overall consistent flexibility meet the requirements of flexible electronic devices.
Mon, 8 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0496.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: wool; cashmere; fine animal fibers; analytical methods; identification
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:44:42 CEST)
The identification and quantitative determination of wool and fine animal fibers are of great interest in the textile field because of significant price differences between them and common adulterations in raw and processed textiles. Since animal fibers have remarkable similarities in their chemical and physical characteristics, specific identification methods have been studied and proposed following advances in analytical technologies. The identification methods of wool and fine animal fibers are reviewed in this paper and the results of relevant studies are listed and summarized, starting from classical microscopy methods which are still used today not only in Small to Medium Enterprises but also in large industries, research studies and quality control laboratories. Particular attention has been paid to image analysis, Nir spectroscopy and proteomics which constitute the most promising technologies of quality control in the manufacturing and trading of luxury textiles and can find application in forensic science and archeology.
Thu, 4 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0270.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: textiles; clothing; thermal resistance; hot plate; multi-purpose differential conductometer
Online: 4 May 2023 (13:48:23 CEST)
This paper describes methods for evaluating the thermal properties of textile materials, clothing composites, and clothing using an integrated measurement system that includes a hot plate, a multi-purpose differential conductometer, a thermal manikin, a temperature gradient measurement device, and a device for measuring the physiological parameters of the human body during the exact evaluation of garment thermal comfort. In practice, measurements were taken on four types of materials widely used in the production of conventional and protective clothing. The measurements were carried out using a hot plate and a multi-purpose differential conductometer, determining the thermal resistances of the material in its uncompressed form and a force that was ten times greater than that needed to determine its thickness. Using a hot plate and a multi-purpose differential conductometer, thermal resistances of textile materials were assessed at different levels of material compression. On hot plates, both conduction and convection had an impact on thermal resistance, but in multi-purpose differential conductometer, only conduction did. Moreover, the reduction of thermal resistance was observed while compressing textile materials.
Sat, 29 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1221.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: Carbon footprint; Wood residuals; Sawdust; eucalyptol; Odor release; Plywood; carbon footprint
Online: 29 April 2023 (07:27:51 CEST)
A sustainable matrix based on eucalyptol essential oil/sawdust was developed and applied on one-sided laminated plywood. This finish aims to serve as a eucalyptol odor slow release. Eucalyptol odor release was monitored with gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC – FID: Limits of Detection and Quantification of 0.70 g/m3 and 2.11 g/m3, respectively, and with linearity up to 18.6 g/m3). Measurement of the eucalyptol odor released was performed during a six-month period and it was found that the release followed a first-order exponential decay with a decay rate constant of 0.0169 per day. The half-life was determined to be of 48 days. The granulometry and particle size porosity of sawdust were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Sawdust size fraction between 112 – 200 μm showed best eucalyptol absorption capacity with 1:3 masses ratio (sawdust:eucalyptol). The time capacity of eucalyptol release depends of composite eucalyptol – sawdust quantity. Where this relation was determined: 15.0 grams of composite eucalyptol-sawdust by 0.8 mm diameter aperture gave 6 months of eucalyptol release, that was considered very positive, understanding high volatility of eucalyptol and a small quantity of composite for further products. The new product is characterized by a carbon footprint (considering the industry frontiers) of 5.94 kg CO2eq/m2 of plywood floor.
Thu, 27 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1043.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: nanocomposites; polypropylene; wood; processing technology; SEM; TGA; DSC; DMA
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:45:27 CEST)
The goal of this study is to find out how some properties of wood-polymer nanocomposites are affected by the processing technology, the nanomaterials, and the ratio of coupling agents. To meet this objective, the extruded and dry blended samples are made from wood flour with MAPP, ZnO nanoparticles (0, 1, 3, and 5 wt%), and polypropylene. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites improve significantly with ZnO and MAPP loading. Due to the more homogeneous structure of nanocomposites, better mechanical results are obtained with the extrusion method. With ZnO and MAPP loading, the thermal stability of nanocomposites improves. The storage and loss modulus values indicate that the processing technology of nanocomposites could be a key factor in the resistance of the materials obtained by extrusion. The storage and loss modulus of nanocomposites manufactured by the extrusion technology are determined to be higher than those of the samples produced by the dry blending method.
Mon, 17 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0379.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: freeze thaw cycling; screw direct withdrawal resistance; plywood; screw orientation; screwing time
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:14:06 CEST)
Wood has been used in the construction, furniture, and automotive industries since ancient times. In areas where wood material is used, it is combined with various fasteners. The durability of the products produced using wooden materials depends on the performance of the fasteners. Since wood is a hydroscopic and biodegradable material, various changes occur in its structure when exposed to external weather conditions. Wood materials used especially in the field of construction and urban furniture are exposed to effects such as extreme temperatures, freezing, moisture, or drying depending on the seasons. In this study, the effect of freeze-thaw cycling (FTC) process on screw direct withdrawal resistance (SDWR) of plywood produced from beech, ozigo, and okoume species was investigated. In this context, the effects of screwing time (before or after), screw orientation (face or edge), number of cycles (0 to 7) in the FTC process and plywood type parameters on SDWR were investigated. As a result of the tests, when the mean SDWR values were examined according to the plywood type, the highest values were obtained in beech, ozigo, and okoume plywood, respectively. Considering the screwing time parameter, it was determined that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean SDWR values in other plywood types except beech plywood (p<0.05). When the screw orientation parameter is examined, screwing in the face direction gave better results than screwing in the edge direction in all plywood types. There was a decrease in the mean SDWR values inversely proportional to the increase in the number of cycles in FTC-treated plywood.
Fri, 22 October 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0323.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: Hydrogel; Blended paper; Slow-release fertilizer; Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose; polyvinyl alcohol
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:48:48 CEST)
In this study, a slow-release urea fertilizer hydrogel was synthesized from hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol and glycerol blends with paper (blended paper) as second layer. The fertilizer hydrogel was characterized by SEM, XRD and FTIR. Its retention in sandy soil, swelling behavior in distilled and tap water as well as slow-release behavior to urea were investigated. The results indicated that the fertilizer had good slow-release properties and ability to retain water in soil. However, the addition of blended paper as a second layer matrix was found to help improve the release properties of the fertilizer. The swelling kinetic of the hydrogel followed the Schott’s Second order model. The release kinetics of urea in water was best described by the Zero order model signifying that the release behavior was independent of fertilizer concentration
Mon, 5 October 2020
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: wood pellet; torrefaction; hydrophobicity; water resistance
Online: 5 October 2020 (16:39:37 CEST)
To examine the hydrophobicity of torrefied wood fuel, the water resistances of torrefied pellets prepared by two different methods were evaluated using exposure tests under indoor and outdoor conditions. Torrefied pellets from the xylem of Japanese cedar (Sugi, Cryptomeria japonica) and oak (Konara, Quercus serrata) were prepared by two methods: the torrefaction of wood chips followed by pelletization and the pelletization of wood chips followed by torrefaction. It was found that the pellets prepared by pelletization followed by torrefaction had much lower moisture levels than those prepared by the other method and they showed almost no change in diameter after an outdoor weathering test. These characteristics are unique and indicate that the pellets can be applied not only for industrial use but also for residential and commercial purposes.
Wed, 22 July 2020
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: Tension Controlled; Elastic Fiber; Draw Ratio; Spandex Covered Yarns
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:32:26 CEST)
A new covered yarn system is proposed in this manuscript by controlling the tension of the spandex elastic yarn drawing.. By analyzing the relationship between the draw ratio and yarn tension, it has been verified that the new tension controlled drawing system is feasible and results in yarns with superior quality and process stability.
Sun, 12 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0185.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: paper core; impregnation; elastic properties; experiment; FEM
Online: 12 April 2020 (08:28:02 CEST)
The research hypothesis states that the impregnation of the honeycomb paper core of lightweight sandwich panels with modified starch, sodium silicate and LiquidWood® resin has a significant effect on the elastic properties of it. In the study, a recycled paper was used in three thicknesses, seven types of cell shapes, including two after numerical optimization and three types of impregnating agents. The method of digital image analysis determined the elastic constants of manufactured paper cores, which were subjected to axial compression in two directions. Based on the experimental results, elastic constants of the cores were calculated and compared with the results of numerical calculations. It has been shown that each of the impregnating solutions used improves the stiffness of the paper core. The best results were obtained for LiquidWood® epoxy resin and modified starch. An important parameter of cell geometry affecting their rigidity is the angle of the cell wall φ, as well as the arrangement of the common cell wall in relation to the direction of load. The numerical models developed were positively verified.
Thu, 14 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0155.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: cellulosic cotton residual; sanding textile process; fiber-cement composites; tensile strength
Online: 14 November 2019 (09:34:04 CET)
Fiber-cement composites were prepared from cellulosic cotton residue (CCR) arise from sanding process (emerizing). The effect of different concentrations: 0.5% and 1%, and granulometry: thick (retained in a14 mesh sieve) and thin (retained in a 48 mesh sieve) of this residue were evaluated on tensile strength of cement slurries with seven (07) curing days. To characterize the CCR, TGA, FT-IR, SEM and XRD analysis were performed and the residue resistance in an alkaline environment was also evaluated. Splitting tensile strength test, known as Brazilian Test, was used to assess effects of the fibers on the mechanical behavior of cement matrix. Analyzing the results, the CCR proved to be resistant in an alkaline environment, meaning that it can withstand the alkaline environment of cement matrix. The results showed an improvement superior to 17% in tensile strength for 1% of CCR. Therefore, the CCR presents a great application potential in cement pastes used for oil well cementing that requires to increase its tensile strength, once a significant improvement was achieved with a low-residue employee.
Fri, 25 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0288.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: diaminostilbene disulfonic acid; paper and paper mill; textile wastewater; fluorescent whitening agents; ozone oxidation
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:36:50 CEST)
In this study, ozone oxidation experiment was carried out for the removal of fluorescent whitening agent which is widely used in textile dyeing and paper industry. The stilbene fluorescent whitening agent has been industrialized since the earliest, and the amount of current production is the highest. Due to the characteristics of the fluorescent whitening agent that cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment methods, the fluorescent whitening agent in wastewater treatment has difficulty in using as recycled water in the process. Pre-treatment ozone oxidation experiment was conducted prior to the introduction of Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) treatment process by converting biodegradable materials into biodegradable materials. The removal efficiencies of fluorescent whitening agents, a diaminostilbene disulfonic acid derivative by ozone oxidation were evaluated by UV254 Scan, COD, T-N and color using a synthetic wastewater sample (COD=433.0 mg/ℓ) and paper and paper mill wastewater (COD=157.2 mg/ℓ).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0287.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: membrane bio-reactor (mbr); ozone oxidation; paper and papermill; fluorescent whitening agents; water reuse
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:34:11 CEST)
In this study, effluent water was produced through Submerged Membrane Bio-Reactor (SMBR) process, which is a simple system and decomposes organic matter contained in wastewater with biological treatment process and performs solid-liquid separation, Especially, ozone oxidation treatment process is applied to effluent water containing fluorescent whitening agent, which is a trace pollutant which is not removed by biological treatment, and influences the quality of reused water. The concentration of COD in the SMBR was 449.3 mg/ℓ-COD, and the concentration of permeate water was 100.3 mg/ℓ-COD. The removal efficiency was about 70.1%. The amount of ozone re- quired for the removal of the fluorescent whitening agent in the permeated water in SMBR was 6.67 g-O3/min, and the amount of ozone required to remove COD relative to the permeate water was calculated to remove 0.997 mg-COD for 1 mg of O3.
Thu, 27 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0283.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: TEM; thermal degradation; wall paper; blowing agent; foam
Online: 27 June 2019 (06:29:11 CEST)
This study was conducted to improve the white index (WI) by preparing thermally expandable microspheres (TEMs) for wallpaper. The thermal properties, foam expansion ratio and WI were studied depending on the particle size of colloidal silica in the preparation of TEMs. As a result, the TEMs with small particles of colloidal silica showed the best results for whiteness and yellowing. Additionally, TGA results indicated that it was highly possible that colloidal silica with small particle sizes was physically or chemically attached to the surface of the TEMs that led to an improvement in whiteness at high temperatures.
Fri, 10 May 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0129.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: Alkaline copper quat (ACQ); Boric acid (BA); Micronized copper quat (MCQ); Nano boron (NB); Corrosion test
Online: 10 May 2019 (14:36:07 CEST)
In this study, the corrosion performances of ammonium copper quat (ACQ) and boric acid (BA) wood preservatives were investigated, with micronized copper quat (MCQ) and nano boron (NB) used as reference materials. In the study, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood samples were impregnated according to the full-cell process method with ACQ at 2.4% concentration, BA at 4% and MCQ and NB at 1%. The ACQ- and BA-impregnated samples were then impregnated for a second time using five different water-repellent materials: tall oil, linseed oil, sodium silicate, methyl hydrogen silicone and N'-N- (1, 8-Naphthalyl) hydroxylamine. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 600 and aluminum sulfate were introduced as single impregnations in the form of homogeneous mixtures with the ACQ and BA. The corrosion properties of the impregnated and control samples, including metal weight loss (MWL) and corrosion depth, were examined. As a result, the MWL values of the ACQ-impregnated samples showed an increase compared to the control group. The MWL values of the MCQ-impregnated samples were lower than those of the samples impregnated with ACQ, whilst the MWL values of the BA-impregnated samples were higher than those of the samples impregnated with NB.
Thu, 22 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0545.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: cotton fabric; Cu2(OH)PO4; photocatalysis; self-cleaning
Online: 22 November 2018 (10:28:36 CET)
In the present work, we designed a mild strategy to make Cu2(OH)PO4 (CHP) nanoparticles on cotton fabrics (CFs) to achieve multi-functionalities. The phytic acid (IP6) assisted method was employed to synthesize nanoparticles (CHP-IP6). Under Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), we characterized the coated cotton fabrics. The CHP-IP6 treated fabrics showed prominent photocatalytic activity, excellent photocatalytic stability and thorough discoloration of methylene blue (MB) stain under sunlight irradiation.
Tue, 10 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0184.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: density; gas permeability; thermal conductivity; densification
Online: 10 July 2018 (14:44:48 CEST)
This study investigated the evolution of density, gas permeability and thermal conductivity of sugar maple wood during the thermo-hygro-mechanical densification process. The results suggested that the oven-dry average density of densified samples was significantly higher than that of the control samples. However, the oven-dry density did not show a linear increase with the decrease of wood samples thickness. The radial intrinsic gas permeability of the control samples was 5 to 40 times higher than that of densified samples, which indicated that the void volume of wood was reduced notably after the densification process. The thermal conductivity increased by 0.5 - 1.5% per percent increase of moisture content for densified samples. The thermal conductivity of densified wood was lower than that of the control samples. The densification time had significant effects on the oven-dry density and gas permeability. Both the densification time and the moisture content had significant effects on thermal conductivity, but their interaction effect was not significant.
Sun, 8 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0094.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: surface; textiles; flame retardant; plasma; ultraviolet; durability; phosphorus; nitrogen; polyurethane; thermal analysis; scanning electron microscopy
Online: 8 April 2018 (11:59:49 CEST)
Conventional flame retardant (FR) application processes for textiles involve aqueous processing which is resource intensive in terms of energy and water usage. Recent research using sol-gel and layer-by-layer chemistries, while claimed to be based on more environmentally-sustainable chemistry, still require aqueous media with the continuing problem of water management and drying processes being required. This paper outlines the initial forensic work to characterise commercially produced viscose/flax, cellulosic furnishing fabrics which have had conferred upon them durable flame retardant (FR) treatments using a novel, patented atmospheric plasma/UV excimer laser facility for processing textiles with the formal name - Multiplexed Laser Surface Enhancement (MLSE) system. This system (MTIX Ltd., UK), is claimed to offer the means of directly bonding of flame retardant precursor species to the component fibres introduced either before plasma/UV exposure or into the plasma/UV reaction zone itself, thereby eliminating a number of wet processing cycles. Nine commercial fabrics, pre-impregnated with a semi-durable, proprietary FR finish and subjected to the MLSE process have been analysed for their flame retardant properties before and after a 40 °C 30 min water soak. For one fabric, the pre-impregnated fabric was subjected to a normal heat cure treatment which conferred the same level of durability as the plasma/UV-treated analogue. TGA and LOI were used to further characterise their burning behaviour and the effect of the treatment on surface fibre morphologies were assessed. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that negligible changes had occurred to surface topography of the viscose fibres occurred during plasma/UV excimer processing.