ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0062.v1
Online: 9 November 2017 (09:17:37 CET)
Introduction In sacubitril-valsartan (sacub/v), the effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) exerted by valsartan are strengthened by the addition of sacubitril, an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidases. PARADIGM - HF study proved this association to be superior to enalapril in reducing both all-cause death and cardiovascular mortality, as well as heart failure (HF) hospitalizations in patients with cardiac insufficiency and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction( HFREF) belonging to NYHA class II-IV. To test whether even in our experience sacub/v is associated with favorable outcomes concerning mortality and morbidity, an outpatient small population of HFREF patients was retrospectively studied, of whom one third was treated with sacub/v instead of conventional therapy with ACE -inhibitors or ARBs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out to assess the effects of sacub/v in addition to beta-blocker and mineral receptor antagonist (MRA) in a group of HFREF patients in NYHA classes II-III compared with conventional therapy (comprising ACE inhibitor or ARB added to beta-blocker plus a MRA) administered in a second group of HFREF patients with comparable clinical features retrospectively enrolled as controls. In the two groups, the therapeutic regimen was established in accordance with the preferences of the treating physician. Additionally, in both groups, evidence-based drug therapy was supplemented by the adjunct of a loop diuretic, usually furosemide, at variable doses. The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause death and HF hospitalizations. Safety outcomes were symptomatic hypotension, angioedema, hyperkalemia and worsening renal function. Results Mortality at six months was 6.8% in patients under therapy with sacub/v versus 34% in those treated with conventional therapy (odds ratio[OR] = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.04-0.49). Moreover, HF hospitalizations in the observation period considered were 4.5% in sacub/v group versus 59% in the conventional therapy group (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.14). Safety outcomes included in our study (angioedema, hyperkalemia, hypotension and worsening renal function) showed a comparable profile in the two groups, with evidence of good tolerability of sacub/v , except for the side - effect " hypotension" (PAS < 100 mm Hg) , found in 15.9% of patients under sacub/v versus 5.7% reported in controls (OR = 3.14; 95% CI: 0.94–10.55). Conclusions In our experience, sacub/v has yielded a strong protection against both all-cause death and HF hospitalizations at six months , in the absence of significant noxious side effects. Nevertheless, considering the retrospective character of the study and the relatively exiguous sample size, further post marketing observational studies would be desirable . In particular, studies aiming at exploring safety of the new pharmacologic principle, namely mainly focusing on hypotension and angioedema, are warranted, in order to validate further this very efficacious molecule for therapy of chronic HF, especially stable HFREF in NYHA classes II-III.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Angiotensin-II Type-I receptor; renin-angiotensin system; valsartan; colorectal cancer
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:49:51 CEST)
Dysregulation of the angiotensin-II Type-I receptor (AT1R) and its pathway was reported to associate with poor-prognosis in several malignancies, including colorectal-cancer (CRC). We have explored the therapeutic-potential of targeting AT1R using valsartan, and its pharmacological-interaction with Fluorouracil (5-FU) in CRC. Anti-proliferative function was evaluated in 2-/3-dimensional cells and in vivo models. Anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, apoptotic function and effect on cell-cycle was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), wound-healing test, and Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), respectively, while gene-expression was determined at mRNA/protein levels. By histogical analysis and measuring of oxidative/antioxidant markers, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of valsartan. Valsartan suppressed cell-growth and impacted the anti-tumor-activities of 5-FU by apoptosis-induction. Valsartan inhibited the cells migration by perturbation of Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP1). Furthermore, valsartan inhibited tumor-growth and metastasis, and this was more notable in valsartan/5-FU combination-treated-group. The mechanism was plausible to be via the induction of Reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) and down-regulation of Superoxide-dismutase (SOD), thiol/catalase (CAT) as well as Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Valsartan may protect cells against intestinal fibrosis by modulation of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory components include fibronectin, Interleukin) IL-1β (, Tumor necrosis factor alpha) TNF-α (, Interferon gamma) INF-γ (, and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP-1). Our findings demonstrated that targeting the AT1R receptor may inhibit tumor-growth and ameliorate fibrosis and inflammation associated with CRC via modulation of AT1 and TGF-β pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: heart failure; Sacubitril/valsartan; Neprilysin inhibition; reduced ejection fraction; echocardiography; Nt-Pro-BNP; hemodynamic; remodeling
Online: 4 November 2019 (11:20:22 CET)
Background: Sacubitril/valsartan has been shown to be superior to enalapril in reducing the risks of death and hospitalization for heart failure (HF). However the effect on cardiac performance remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on clinical, bioumoral and echocardiographic parameters in patients with HFrEF. Methods: Sacubitril/valsartan was administered to 205 HFrEF patients. Results: Among 230 patients (mean age 59 ± 10 years, 46% with ischemic heart disease) 205 (89%) completed the study. After a follow–up of 10.49 (2.93±18.44) months, the percentage of patients in NYHA class III changed from 40% to 17% (p<0.001). Median N–Type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) decreased from 1865 ± 2318 to 1514 ± 2205 pg/mL, (p=0.01). Furosemide dose reduced from 131.3 ± 154.5 to 120 ± 142.5 (p=0.047). Ejection fraction (from 27± 5.9% to 30 ± 7.7% (p<0.001) and E/A ratio (from 1.67 ± 1.21 to 1.42 ± 1.12 (p=0.002)) improved. Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (from 30.1% to 17.4%; p=0.002) and tricuspid velocity decreased from 2.8 ± 0.55 m/sec to 2.64 ± 0.59 m/sec (p<0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril/valsartan induce “hemodynamic reverse remodeling” and in association with Nt-proBNP concentrations lowering improve NYHA class despite a diuretic dose reduction.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; Real-life practice; Sacubitril/valsartan; Left ventricular ejection fraction recovery; Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
Online: 5 May 2021 (10:30:13 CEST)
Background: our purpose is to assess the effectiveness and safety of sacubitril/valsartan (SV) in “real-world” patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), including a broader spectrum of patients than those in clinical trials and evaluating variables not previously described in the literature. Methods: real-world study in HFrEF patients (N:204), both in and out-patients, who started SV between October 2017 and December 2018. We performed a prospective analysis with a 12-month follow-up. The study outcomes were effectiveness and safety, measured by individual parameters and combined endpoints, comparing the pre and post practice periods. Results: at the end of follow-up, an improvement of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF): 29.8% vs 33.7; p<0.0001, a decrease in NT-proBNP levels (3928 pg/mL vs 2902 pg/mL; p=0.012), number of hospital admissions (141 vs 35; p<0.0001) and percentage of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) indication (79.9% vs 49.5%; p<0.0001) were observed. Of our population, 81.3% met a combined efficacy endpoint (defined by increase of LVEF, reduction of hospital admission or improvement in functional class). No differences were observed in parameters regarding safety. Conclusions: Sacubitril/valsartan has brought about a revolution in the therapeutic management of HFrEF patients and its use may raise questions about what is considered "optimal medical therapy" prior to implantation of cardiac devices.