ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0525.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: datasets; standards; standardization; guidelines; framework; interoperability.
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:49:34 CEST)
With the recent advances in science and technology, more processing capability and data have become available, allowing a more straightforward implementation of data analysis techniques. Fortunately, the available online data storage capacity follows this trend, and vast amounts of data can be stored online freely or at accessible costs. As happens with every evolution (or revolution) in any science field, organizing and sharing this data is essential to contribute to new studies or validate the obtained results quickly. To facilitate this, we must guarantee interoperability between the existing datasets and the developed software, whether commercial or open source. This article explores this issue, analyzing the current initiatives to establish data standards and comparing some of the existing dataset online storage platforms. Through a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, it is possible to understand better the strategy that should be taken to improve the efficiency in this field, which directly depends on the data characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Genotype; phenotype; sequencing; phenomics; data integration; metadata; standardization
Online: 14 June 2023 (08:30:52 CEST)
The Genotype-Phenotype Working Group was established in November 2021 as part of the AgBioData Consortium (https://www.agbiodata.org) with the goal of identifying current challenges in annotating and integrating large-scale genotype and phenotype data. Over the course of the year, the members of this working group identified different types of data sets, explored experimental platforms and methods for data generation, and examined how these data are annotated including the metadata requirements. We conducted a thorough review of publicly funded repositories for raw and processed data for each data type. We also examined several secondary databases and knowledgebases that enable the integration of heterogeneous data types in the context of the Genome Browser, Pathway Networks and tissue-specific gene expression. The review revealed a need for additional infrastructural support, standards, and tools to connect Genotype to Phenotype data and enhance data interoperability for knowledge synthesis and to foster translational research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: China; Electric vehicle; Development bottleneck; French Standardization; Enlightenment
Online: 8 November 2022 (09:18:21 CET)
The problems of operating range and costs are the two most critical bottlenecks restricting the extensive application of electric vehicles at home and abroad. There are also some prominent problems in China's electric vehicles, such as slow improvement of electric vehicle's operating range, difficulty in charging, slow charging, low utilization efficiency of charging resources, and high battery cost for electric vehicles, which lead to poor competitiveness of electric vehicles compared with traditional internal combustion engine (I.C.E.) vehicles. This paper analyzes the key factors restricting the development and popularization of electric vehicles in China from the aspects of strategic policy, sales situation and self problems. Through summarizing the experience and lessons of French standardization development strategy and electric vehicle development mode, this paper puts forward the hypothesis leading the development of electric vehicles through standardization to enhance their competitiveness, gives the specific suggestions, and briefly analyzes the feasibility from the aspects of product situation. The research content of this paper provides a certain basis and ideas for the future research work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Chinese architecture; standardization; environmental architecture; Beijing urban layout
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:20:50 CEST)
A correlation between Chinese traditional architecture and cultural concepts has been established to analyze the formalization of architectural and urban patterns in relation to environmental features. In this regard, we have discussed the process of standardization from architectural elements or modules related in different levels of composition and articulated around empty spaces following ancient cosmic concepts to achieve harmony with nature. The conclusions show that Chinese architectural patterns can only be understood in relation to nature, and in turn have profound environmental values from which lessons can be learned to advance towards a more sustainable architecture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1568.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: gender; modern thought; sex; capitalism; standardization; eugenics; postmodern thought; sexuality
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:42:07 CEST)
A presently ubiquitous idea, how gender is defined remains deeply indebted to modern thought, depending on the concept of sex as its reference point. Originating with practices arising with capitalism, modern thought’s concept of sex was enhanced with the search for the norm regarding standardization, then further refined through the research program of eugenics. Gender, in contrast to sex, has its roots in sexual practice changes from the second half of the twentieth century onward, developed in association with 1980s postmodern thought. The presuppositions of the two concepts differ radically. Understanding the difference between sex and gender matters because gender is now more than a critique of sex—it’s an idea accepted and understood in popular culture and affects how people interpret their sexuality. This review examines the foundations of modern and postmodern thought then focuses on sex and gender with respect to their history within these modes of thought. The conclusion, pointing to future research, is that a further reformulation of sexuality will be required for gender, as a postmodern idea, to truly separate itself from the presumptions of sex as a modern concept, permitting individuals to express their sexuality as they choose without negative social and psychological repercussions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0657.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: graphene; graphene oxide; particle size; stability; standardization; surface chemistry; nanomaterials
Online: 26 March 2021 (11:22:26 CET)
Nanographene oxide (GOn) constitutes a nanomaterial of high value in the biomedical field. However, large scale production of highly stable aqueous dispersions of GOn is yet to be achieved. In this work, we explored high-power ultrasonication as a method to reduce particle size of GO and characterized the impact of the process in the physico-chemical properties of the material. GOn was obtained with lateral dimensions of 99 ±43 nm and surface charge of −39.9 ± 2.2 mV. High-power ultrasonication enabled an improvement of stability features, particularly by resulting in a decrease of the average particle size, as well as zeta potential, in comparison to GO obtained by low-power exfoliation and centrifugation (287 ± 139 nm; −29.7 ± 1.2 mV). Re-markably, GOn aqueous dispersions were stable for up to 6 months of shelf-time, with a global process yield of 74%. This novel method enabled the production of large volumes of highly con-centrated (7.5 mg mL-1) GOn aqueous dispersions. Chemical characterization of GOn allowed the identification of characteristic oxygen functional groups, supporting high-power ultrasonication as a fast, efficient and productive process for reducing GO lateral size, while maintaining the material’s chemical features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0268.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Oenothera biennis; standardization; quercetin 3-glucuronide; ellagic acid; method validation
Online: 10 December 2020 (16:43:01 CET)
Toward the standardization of O. biennis sprout extract (OBS-E), we aimed to obtain indicator compounds, using a validated method. HPLC-UVD allowed simultaneous quantification of indicator compounds quercetin 3-glucuronide and ellagic acid. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOD/LOQ). High specificity and linearity was demonstrated, with correlation coefficients of 1.0000 for quercetin 3-glucuronide and 0.9998 for ellagic acid. The LOD/LOQ values were 0.486/1.472 μg/mL for quercetin 3-glucuronide and 1.003/3.039 μg/mL for ellagic acid. Intra-day and inter-day variability tests produced relative standard deviation for each compound of <2%, a generally accepted precision criterion. High recovery rate were also obtained, indicating accuracy validation. The OBS-E prepared using various concentrations of ethanol were then analyzed. The 50% ethanol extract had highest content of quercetin 3-glucuronide, whereas the 70% ethanol extract possessed the lowest. However, the ellagic acid content was highest in the 70% ethanol extract and lowest in the 90% ethanol extract. Thus, quercetin 3-glucuronide and ellagic acid can be used industrially as indicator compounds for O. biennis sprout products, and our validated method can be used to establish indicator compounds for other natural products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0689.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: agricultural utilization; biosolids; characterization; land application; sustainable management; sewage sludge; standardization.
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:20:35 CEST)
One of the issues facing modern society, whatever the socio-economic level of the communities involved, is the development of sustainable strategies in the management of sludge/biosolids. Today, it is imperative to replace solutions aimed at simply “disposing of” with those oriented towards “maximizing recovery benefits”. It is desirable that agricultural use remains the main option in sludge/biosolids management, but to ensure effective and safe agronomic benefits, correctly fulfill the legal requirements, and build stakeholder and public confidence, rigorous and sustainable procedures need to be estab-lished. The development of realistic and enforceable regulation is crucial as it represents the right bal-ance between the different aspects of a coordinated and effective management. Furthermore, it is to recognize that regulation needs to be supported by standardized character-ization procedures and guidelines of good practices, because well-defined procedures allow le-gal requirements to be correctly and uniformly met, thus ensuring reliable comparison of re-sults obtained under different conditions. In this article, main aspects to consider for a sustainable application of this management practice are discussed, together with the parameters that need to be evaluated for the characterization of sludge/biosolids, according to the various aspects related to the agricultural use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0200.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: organization; material-energy flows; economics & environment; cost accounting; quantity node; standardization
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:37:06 CEST)
Criticism has been directed towards the traditional methods of management accounting employed by organizations thus far, as they fail to adequately address the growing need for competitiveness and sustainable development in a globalized environment. This criticism stems from both economic factors, such as insufficient monitoring of material, energy, and escalating overhead costs, and environmental concerns, where inadequate attention is given to vital information regarding significant environmental aspects, impacts, risks, and damages arising from the organization's activities and processes. Additionally, these methods do not sufficiently support the implementation of a functional environmental management system (EMS). Drawing upon our research in EMS standardization following the international standards ISO 1400X, as well as our knowledge gained during the development of the Slovak Technical Standard (STN) for ISO 14051, this paper presents an innovative model of environmental management accounting. This model is based on the cost accounting of material and energy flows within organizations. It serves as an enhancement framework for organizations with an existing EMS built according to the EN ISO 14001 model, as well as for organizations lacking a formalized EMS based on this standard. Within this paper, we specify, decompose, and apply the new model, focusing on the cost accounting of material-energy flows in a hypothetical organization. We meticulously examine the ten key steps of the model's structure, particularly in terms of costing and the allocation of costs to material, energy, system, and waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0726.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Work safety standardization; Viable System Model; Chinese enterprise; Safety process control
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:09:42 CEST)
The work safety standardization of enterprises based on the traditional work safety theory has played a significant role in reducing the number of accidents and improving work safety to some extent in China. However, some problems are coming with the work safety standardization of enterprises developing constantly in China. On the one hand, it is not combined with the actual situation of the enterprise, lacking pertinence and specificity, these defects resulted that it is not integrated with original safety production management system of enterprise and make it difficult to carry out. On the other hand, there is a lack of systematic management methods for the work safety management system of enterprise, most of enterprises only pay attention to the inspection result rather than the process control. This means after the check of the government, many enterprises will relax to carry out the system. This paper puts forward a new method for optimizing the standardization management mode of work safety based on the Viable System Model(VSM), which can solve the defects of work safety standardization of enterprises management system. An optimization model of work safety standardization based on VSM was construct for explaining the process optimization and control of work safety standardization management. It can improve the connectivity between the enterprise and the government. The conclusion of this paper can provide reference for achieving the development and optimization of work safety standardization of enterprises in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0018.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic; EV; PHV; standardization; car-roof; flexible PV; performance modeling; rating
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:19:23 CET)
The energy yield of the Vehicle-integrated photovoltaic (VIPV) differs from that of the standard photovoltaics (PV). It is mainly by the difference of the solar irradiance onto the car-roof and car-bodies as well as its curved-shape. Both meaningful and practical modeling and measurement of the solar irradiance for VIPV are needed to be newly established, not the extension of the current technologies. The solar irradiance was modeled by a random distribution of the shading objects and car-orientation with the correction of the curved surface of the PV modules. The measurement of the solar irradiance onto the car-roof and car-body was done using five pyranometers in five local axes on the car for one year. The measured dynamic solar irradiance onto the car-body and car-roof was used for validation of the solar irradiance model in the car.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic; standardization; EV; PHV; car-roof; flexible PV; performance modeling; rating
Online: 15 May 2018 (13:20:26 CEST)
A car-roof photovoltaic has an enormous potential to change our society. With this technology, 70% of the personal car can run by the solar energy collected by the solar panel on its car-roof. Unfortunately, it is not a simple extension of the conventional photovoltaic technology. This paper list what we need to do for realizing the future that majority of the personal cars run by renewable solar energy, after clarification of the difference from the conventional photovoltaic technology. In addition to the technological development, the standardization of this innovative technology will be important, and the list was made highlighting the standardization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2106.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: carbon net zero city; climate neutral city; smart city; digital transformation; standardization
Online: 30 June 2023 (02:28:57 CEST)
Abstract: Establishing carbon neutrality (or Net Zero) in cities appears to be an ambitious challenge, which drives urban transformation efforts around the world to enhance people-centric living. Cities launch corresponding strategies focusing mainly on the United Nations 2030 goals to form their climate-neutral future. This paper provides practical guidance on city digital transformation to achieve carbon net zero. These guidelines illustrate actionable recommendations to reduce their carbon footprint using digital technologies. Following a multi-method research approach, findings from a bibliometric literature and a standards’ gap analysis were combined with practical evidence and circulated with focus group experts to conclude to these guidelines, which are the foundation for further standardization. The outcomes provide concrete guidelines to policymakers, planners, and other stakeholders for city digital transformation to establish carbon neutrality, via emphasizing the need for digital technologies to enhance efficiency in several areas and via leveraging green ICTs for city economic growth while also transforming citizen behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1929.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digital inclusive finance; imbalance and insufficiency; weighted Dagum Gini coefficient; quantile standardization
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:11:26 CEST)
In the paper, we measure the digital financial inclusion index of 31 provinces in China from 2011 to 2020 based on three dimensions: coverage breadth, depth of use and digitalization degree. By means of weighted Dagum Gini coefficient and quantile standardization, we explored the degree of imbalance and insufficiency of the development of digital inclusive finance in China and four major regions and its structural causes. Using Kernel density estimation method and Markov chain analysis method, we further investigates the evolution trend of imbalance and insufficiency. The study finds that (1) the Digital Inclusive Financial Index in China and the four major regions rise significantly, with the COVID-19 epidemic reducing its growth rate. Of these, the eastern region has the highest development level. (2) The imbalance level of digital inclusive finance development obviously has reduced. The level of imbalance is highest within the eastern region, and the development gap between the eastern and western regions is the widest. The imbalance of overall development is mainly due to the regional imbalance. The imbalance of coverage breadth and depth of use is the main structural cause of unbalanced development in the four major regions. There is a trend of bipolarization or multipolarization in China and the other three major regions, with the exception of the central region. (3) The western region is the least developed. The development shortcoming of digital inclusive finance in China and the four major regions is the breadth of coverage. There are "Club Convergence" and "Matthew Effect" in the eastern, central and western regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0480.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: causal statement; causal interaction; directed molecular interaction; minimum information; standardization, systems biology
Online: 27 April 2020 (05:07:57 CEST)
A large variety of molecular interactions occurs between biomolecular components in cells. When one or a cascade of molecular interactions results in a regulatory effect, by one component onto a downstream component, a so-called ‘causal interaction’ takes place. Causal interactions constitute the building blocks in our understanding of larger regulatory networks in cells. These causal interactions and the biological processes they enable (e.g., gene regulation) need to be described with a careful appreciation of molecular interactions that occur between entities. A proper description of this information enables archiving, sharing, and reuse by humans and for computational science. Various representations of causal relationships between biological components are currently used in a variety of resources. Here, we propose a checklist that accommodates current representations, and call it the Minimum Information about a Molecular Interaction CAusal STatement (MI2CAST). This checklist defines both the required core information, as well as a comprehensive set of other contextual details valuable to the end user and relevant for reusing and reproducing causal molecular interaction information. The MI2CAST checklist can be used as reporting guidelines when annotating and curating causal statements, while assuring uniformity and interoperability of the data across resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0165.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Multiparametric MRI; image preprocessing; intensity harmonization; intensity standardization; high-grade glioma; radiomics signatures
Online: 10 January 2023 (01:20:12 CET)
Purpose: This study investigates the impact of different intensity normalization (IN) methods on the overall survival (OS) radiomics models’ performance of MR sequences in primary (pHGG) and recurrent high-grade glioma (rHGG). Methods: MR scans acquired before radiotherapy were retrieved from two independent cohorts (rHGG C1: 197, pHGG C2: 141) from multiple scanners (15, 14). The sequences are T1 weighted (w), contrast-enhanced T1w (T1wce), T2w, and T2w-FLAIR. Sequence-specific significant features (SF) associated with OS, extracted from the tumour volume, were derived after applying 15 different IN methods. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard (CPH) and Poisson regression (POI) models. A ranking score was assigned based on the 10-fold cross-validated (CV) concordance index (C-I), mean square error (MSE), and the Akaike information criterion (AICs), to evaluate the methods’ performance. Results: Scatter plots of the 10-CV C-I and MSE against the AIC showed an impact on the survival predictions between the IN methods and MR sequences (C1/C2 C-I range: 0.62-0.71/0.61-0.72, MSE range: 0.20-0.42/0.13-0.22). White stripe showed stable results for T1wce (C1/C2 C-I: 0.71/0.65, MSE: 0.21/0.14). Combat (0.68/0.62, 0.22/0.15) and histogram matching (HM, 0.67/0.64, 0.22/0.15) showed consistent prediction results for T2w models. They were also the top-performing methods for T1w in C2 (Combat: 0.67, 0.13; HM: 0.67, 0.13), however, only HM achieved high predictions in C1 (0.66, 0.22). After eliminating IN impacted SF using Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient, a mean decrease in the C-I and MSE of 0.05 and 0.03 was observed in all four sequences. Conclusion: The IN method impacted the predictive power of survival models. Thus, performance is sequence-dependent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1068.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Indoor air quality; metal oxide semiconductor; volatile organic compounds; calibration transfer; deep learning; direct standardization
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:17:20 CEST)
With metal oxide semiconductors being a promising candidate for accurate indoor air quality assessments, multiple drawbacks of the gas sensors prevent their widespread use. Examples include poor selectivity, instability over time, and sensor poisoning. Complex calibration methods and advanced operation modes can solve some of those drawbacks. However, this leads to long calibration times, which are unsuitable for mass production. In recent years, multiple attempts to solve calibration transfer have been made with the help of direct standardization, orthogonal signal correction, and many more methods. Besides those, a new promising approach is transfer learning from deep learning. This article will compare different calibration transfer methods, including direct standardization, piecewise direct standardization, transfer learning for deep learning models, and global model building. The machine learning methods to calibrate the initial models for calibration transfer are feature extraction, selection, and regression (established methods) and a custom convolutional neural network TCOCNN. It is shown that transfer learning can outperform the other calibration transfer methods regarding the root mean squared error, especially if the initial model is built with multiple sensors. It was possible to reduce the number of calibration samples by up to 99.3 % (from 10 days to approximately 2 hours) and still achieve an RMSE for acetone of around 18 ppb (15 ppb with extended individual calibration) if six different sensors were used for building the initial model. Furthermore, it was shown that the other calibration transfer methods (direct standardization and piecewise direct standardization) also work reasonably well for both machine learning approaches, primarily when multiple sensors are used for the initial model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0957.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: electronic health record; European Union; health care data; health data space; review; semantic interoperability; standardization
Online: 26 April 2023 (04:41:03 CEST)
Semantic interoperability facilitates exchange and access of health data that is being documented in EHRs with various semantic features. In the EU, the regulation proposal of European health data space requires development of semantic interoperability. To achieve a fully integrated EHDS ecosystem leveraging the value of health data, stakeholders need to overcome challenges of implementing common standards and other semantic interoperability features. We aimed to research what scientific evidence is available on developing semantic interoperability. Our research questions focused specifically on key features and approaches for semantic interoperability and on possible benefits of these choices. For that purpose, we performed a systematic literature review by defining our study framework based on previous research. Our results consisted of 10 studies where data models, ontologies, terminologies, classifications, and standards were applied for building interoperability. Through increased access to interoperable patient information, a better quality and outcomes in care can be achieved. Better communication based on easily accessible data is facilitated between health professionals and between clinicians and the patients. When heading towards semantic harmonization as outlined in the EHDS proposal, more experiences and analyses are needed to assess how applicable the chosen solutions are for semantic interoperability of European health care data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0375.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Internet of things; blockchain; governance; European Union (EU) policy; policy makers; International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Online: 9 October 2023 (10:52:31 CEST)
The number of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is increasing at a fast-paced and so is the interest in blockchain-enabled IoT ecosystem. IoT applications make our day-to-day life more efficient, while integrating blockchain into the IoT ecosystem (blockchain-IoT) brings security, transparency, trust, and privacy to IoT applications. Perhaps, smart logistics, smart health, and smart city are some of the potential blockchain-enabled IoT application domains. One of the reasons that is hindering the mass adoption of blockchain-IoT into mainstream applications is the lack of a dedicated governance. Without proper governance and regulations, and because of the obfuscated and concealed cryptographic nature of blockchain, blockchain can be used for various illicit activities such as ransomware, money laundering, fraud and so on. Furthermore, blockchain and IoT are relatively contemporary technologies and paucity of exclusive governance can ultimately lead to lack of confidence in these technologies. Therefore, in order to fully avail from blockchain and IoT integration (blockchain-IoT) and as well as further prevail this integration, governance can play an important role. Proper regulations and standarization are required to benefit from the novel characteristics of blockchain-IoT and avoid blockchain being used for malicious purposes. In this research, we address the role of blockchain in governance mechanisms, governance for blockchain, and finally proposed a vigorous governance framework for blockchain-enabled IoT ecosystem. We also demonstrate the applications of our proposed governance framework through a smart logistics case study. We anticipate that our proposed governance framework can facilitate and encourage blockchain and IoT integration in various application domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0245.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: extract of humic substances; fulvic acid; standardization; nanoparticles of polyelectrolytes; antiviral activity; SARS-CoV-2; VERO-E6; Spirotox-method
Online: 9 June 2021 (07:42:16 CEST)
This work presents the results of a comprehensive physico-chemical and biological study of hu-mic substances samples – an extract of humic and fulvic acids. The performed loss on drying test showed a 22 times different dry matter content between EHS and FA. The morphology and dis-tribution of particles in the dry residue of the samples assessed using the methods of optical and digital microscopy demonstrated differences in the qualitative features of the microstructures of their surfaces and granulometries. Shimadzu X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed Si (8.1 and 1.7%), P (33.5 and 2.7%), S (4.3 and 59.5%), K (1.35 and 2.5%), Ca (10.9 and 3.2%), Mn (0.27 and 0.06%), Fe (11 and 0.05%), Cu (0.16 and 0.45%), Zn (0.06 and 0.02%) in the dry residues of the EHS and FA samples, respectively. A high intensity of the X-ray fluorescence signal for Fe atoms in the EHS sample was demonstrated. The FT-IR spectra for EHS and FA are characterized by simi-lar vibration frequencies that are characteristic of the chromone derivatives (1-benzopyran-4-one). The UV absorption spectrum is characterized by max = 281 nm for FA. The EHS solution showed a fluorescence maximum at em = 560 nm at ex = 280 nm. Using the DLS method, nanoparticles of 1 nm and 200 nm were detected in EHS and FA diluted solutions, which are likely to condition the biochemical and physical properties of humic acids. Using the Spiro-tox-test method, the absence of the toxic effect of humic acids on the cell model of ciliates Sp. am-bigua was established. When the cell model was incubated in a solution of a toxicant of the fluo-roquinolone group, a decrease in toxicity was demonstrated when diluted with the EHS solu-tion. The results of the study of the antiviral activity of EHS and FA showed that the study ob-jects in the culture of Vero-E6 cells, in doses non-toxic to cells, suppress the reproduction of the SARS-CoV-2 virus both in the study of the virucidal effect and in the study of the antiviral activ-ity according to the therapeutic and prophylactic model scheme of injection. The results obtained suggest that standardized drugs based on humic acids may open up new perspectives in their biomedical application as antiviral drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0182.v4
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: open access initiative; challenges of data sharing; data management; open government data; human-computer interaction; documentation; human factors; standardization; information policy
Online: 17 January 2018 (11:09:52 CET)
The Release of government dataset for public use can potentially strengthen the relationship between the government and its constituents. However, research shows that there are several challenges for open data effectiveness. This paper reviews current determinants and issues associated with the open government data (OGD) procedures. The review concentrates on two ends of the spectrum: First, from the perspective of the preparation by the government, focusing on the organization of traditional governmental datasets and how the recording of the data is administered. Second, from the perspective of the users, focusing on the way in which the data is released to the general public and on human-computer interaction (HCI) issues between end-user and data-consumption interfaces. Following a thorough analysis of these two opposing challenges, the paper proposes approaches to mitigate them. This review and subsequent recommendations contribute and expand current understanding of open government data effectiveness and can lead to public policy changes, development of new procedures and strategies, and ultimately improvements at both ends of the federal open data endeavor.