CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0618.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Dengue; Flavivirus; serotype-1; primary infection; dengue warning signs
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:21:00 CEST)
Dengue is an overlooked tropical disease for which billions of people are at risk. The disease, caused by a Flavivirus with four distinct serotypes, is transmitted primarily by urbanized Aedes mosquito species. The infection leads to a spectrum of clinical manifestations, with the majority being asymptomatic. Primary dengue and, to a greater extent, subsequent infection, mainly secondary dengue infection, are associated with increased severity. Increased global travel and recreational tourism expose naïve individuals to dengue, the most common arboviral infections in travelers. We describe a cluster of possible primary acute dengue infections in a group of 12 individuals who presented to Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases in 2017. Infection was confirmed by dengue NS1 antigen and multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Nine individuals required hospitalization, and four developed dengue warning signs. The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in the group with dengue warning signs. The period from the day of arrival in Thailand and the first day of symptoms was significantly shorter in adolescents with warning signs. Leukocytes, neutrophils, and platelets declined significantly at defervescence and were negatively correlated with day of illness. Six clinical isolates were identified as dengue serotype-1, with identical sequences suggesting that these patients were infected with the same virus.
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Salmonella enterica; food safety; genome; theory; single nucleotide polymorphisms; recombination; serotype
Online: 31 August 2021 (12:47:33 CEST)
Adenine and thymine homopolymer strings of at least 8 nucleotides (AT 8+mers) were characterized in Salmonella entericasubspecies I. The motif differed between cother taxonomic classes but not between Salmonella enterica serovars. The motif in plasmids was associated with serovar. Approximately 12.3% of the S. enterica motif loci had mutations. Mutability of AT 8+mers suggests that genomes undergo frequent repair to maintain optimal gene content, and that the motif facilitates self-recognition; in addition, serovar diversity is associated with plasmid content. A theory that genome regeneration accounts for both persistence of predominant Salmonella serovars and serovar diversity provides a new framework for investigating root causes of foodborne illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0463.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Artificially designed; chimeric peptides; expression; FMDV; serotype O and A; vaccine candidate
Online: 28 September 2021 (10:56:20 CEST)
Artificially designed, chimeric peptide-based recombinant vaccines are novel approaches to combat the phylogenetically diverse Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Virus (FMDV) strains. Among seven distinct serotypes, only serotype O and A are dominantly circulating in Bangladesh and neighbouring countries of Asia, where transboundary transmission, recurrent outbreaks and emergence of novel lineages FMDV are highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to develop multi-epitope recombinant peptides, procuring immunogenicity against circulating diverse subtypes of FMDV serotype O and A. Two chimeric peptides, named B1 (41.0 kDa) and B3 (39.3 kDa), have been designed to incorporate potential B-cell and T-cell epitopes selected from multiple FMDV strains, including previously reported and newly emerged sub-lineages. After expression, characterization and immunization of guineapigs with considerable antigen load of B1 and B3 followed by the serological assays revealed the significant protective immunogenicity, developed from the higher (100 µg) doses of both antigens, against most of the currently prevalent serotype O and A strains of FMDV. The efficient expression, antigenic stability, and multivalent immunogenic potency of the chimeric peptides strongly indicate their credibility as novel vaccine candidates for FMDV serotypes O and A circulating in Bangladesh and surrounding territories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0244.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Clostridium botulinum; botulinum neurotoxin; serotype F; subtype; VAMP-2; synaptobrevin; Zn2+ protease
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:32:49 CEST)
In the recent past about 40 botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) subtypes belonging to serotypes A, B, E, and F pathogenic to humans were identified among hundreds of independent isolates. BoNTs are the etiological factors of botulism and represent potential bioweapons, but are also recognized pharmaceuticals for efficient counteraction of hyperactive nerve terminals in a variety of human diseases. The detailed biochemical characterization of subtypes as the basis for development of suitable countermeasures and possible novel therapeutic applications is lagging behind the increase in new subtypes. Here we report the primary structure of a ninth subtype of BoNT/F. Its amino acid sequence diverges by at least 8.4% at the holotoxin and 13.4% on the enzymatic domain level from all other known BoNT/F subtypes. We found that BoNT/F9 shares the scissile Q58/K59 bond in its substrate vesicle associated membrane protein 2 with the prototype BoNT/F1. Comparative biochemical analyses of four BoNT/F enzymatic domains showed that the catalytic efficiencies decrease in the order F1 > F7 > F9 > F6 and vary by up to factor eight. KM values increase in the order F1 > F9 > F6 ≈ F7, whereas kcat decreases in the order F7 > F1 > F9 > F6. Comparative substrate scanning mutagenesis studies revealed a unique pattern of crucial substrate residues for each subtype. Based upon structural coordinates of F1 bound to an inhibitor polypeptide the mutational analyses suggest different substrate interactions in the substrate binding channel of each subtype.
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: foot-and-mouth disease virus; vaccine efficacy; serotype O/ME-SA/Ind2001 variant; heterologous challenge; cattle
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:17:25 CEST)
Vaccination is one of the best approaches to control and eradicate foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). To achieve this goal, vaccines with inactivated FMD virus antigen in suitable adjuvants are being used in addition with other control measures. However, only a limited number of vaccine strains are commercially available which often have a restricted spectrum of activity against the different FMD virus strains in circulation. As a result, when new strains emerge, it is important to measure the efficacy of the current vaccine strains against these new variants. This is important for countries where FMD is endemic but also for countries that hold an FMD vaccine bank to be prepared for emergency vaccination. The emergence and spread of the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage of viruses posed a serious threat to countries which had OIE-endorsed FMD control plans and had not reported FMD for many years. In vitro vaccine matching results showed a poor match (r1-value <0.3) to the more widely used vaccine strain O Manisa and less protection in a challenge test. This paper describes the use of O3039 vaccine strain as an alternative either alone or in combination with the O Manisa vaccine strain with virulent challenge by a O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d sub-lineage virus from Algeria (O/ALG/3/2014). The experiment included challenge at 7 days post vaccination (to study protection and emergency use) and 21 days post vaccination (as would be done in standard potency studies). The results indicated that the O3039 vaccine strain alone as well as the combination with O Manisa is effective against this strain of the O/ME-SA/Ind/2001d lineage offering protection from clinical disease even after 7 days post vaccination and with reduction in viraemia and virus excretion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0712.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Foot-and-mouth disease virus; serotype Asia-1; BHK suspension cells; mutagenesis; particle stability; neutralizing antibody response; recombinant virus; vaccine production
Online: 31 August 2020 (06:16:50 CEST)
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes the highly contagious foot-and-mouth disease, which is characterized by the appearance of vesicles in and around the mouth and feet of cloven-hoofed animals. BHK21 cells are the cell line of choice for the propagation of FMDV for vaccine production world-wide but vary in their susceptibility for different FMDV strains. Previous studies showed that the FMDV resistance of a certain BHK cell line can be overcome by using a closely related but permissive cell line for the pre-adaptation of the virus, but the adapted strains were found to harbor several capsid mutations. In this study, these adaptive mutations were introduced into the original Asia-1 Shamir isolate individually or in combination to create a panel of 17 Asia-1 mutants by reverse genetics and examine the effects of the mutations on receptor usage, viral growth, immunogenicity and stability. A single amino acid exchange from glutamic acid to lysine at position 202 in VP1 turned out to be of major importance for productive infection of the suspension cell line BHK-2P. In consequence, two traditionally passage-derived strains and two recombinant viruses with a minimum set of mutations were tested in vivo. While the passaged-derived viruses showed a reduced particle stability, the genetically modified viruses were more stable but did not confer a protective immune response against the original virus isolate.