Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Emergency FMD Serotype O Vaccines Protect Cattle Against Heterologous Challenge with a Variant Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus from the O/ME-SA/Ind2001 Lineage

Version 1 : Received: 21 August 2021 / Approved: 23 August 2021 / Online: 23 August 2021 (14:17:25 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Singanallur, N.B.; Dekker, A.; Eblé, P.L.; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, F.; Weerdmeester, K.; Horsington, J.J.; Vosloo, W. Emergency FMD Serotype O Vaccines Protect Cattle against Heterologous Challenge with a Variant Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from the O/ME-SA/Ind2001 Lineage. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1110. Singanallur, N.B.; Dekker, A.; Eblé, P.L.; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, F.; Weerdmeester, K.; Horsington, J.J.; Vosloo, W. Emergency FMD Serotype O Vaccines Protect Cattle against Heterologous Challenge with a Variant Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from the O/ME-SA/Ind2001 Lineage. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1110.

Journal reference: Vaccines 2021, 9, 1110
DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9101110

Abstract

Vaccination is one of the best approaches to control and eradicate foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). To achieve this goal, vaccines with inactivated FMD virus antigen in suitable adjuvants are being used in addition with other control measures. However, only a limited number of vaccine strains are commercially available which often have a restricted spectrum of activity against the different FMD virus strains in circulation. As a result, when new strains emerge, it is important to measure the efficacy of the current vaccine strains against these new variants. This is important for countries where FMD is endemic but also for countries that hold an FMD vaccine bank to be prepared for emergency vaccination. The emergence and spread of the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage of viruses posed a serious threat to countries which had OIE-endorsed FMD control plans and had not reported FMD for many years. In vitro vaccine matching results showed a poor match (r1-value <0.3) to the more widely used vaccine strain O Manisa and less protection in a challenge test. This paper describes the use of O3039 vaccine strain as an alternative either alone or in combination with the O Manisa vaccine strain with virulent challenge by a O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d sub-lineage virus from Algeria (O/ALG/3/2014). The experiment included challenge at 7 days post vaccination (to study protection and emergency use) and 21 days post vaccination (as would be done in standard potency studies). The results indicated that the O3039 vaccine strain alone as well as the combination with O Manisa is effective against this strain of the O/ME-SA/Ind/2001d lineage offering protection from clinical disease even after 7 days post vaccination and with reduction in viraemia and virus excretion.

Keywords

foot-and-mouth disease virus; vaccine efficacy; serotype O/ME-SA/Ind2001 variant; heterologous challenge; cattle

Subject

LIFE SCIENCES, Virology

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